An individual time trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French: contre la montre - literally "against the watch"). Road bicycle racing is a popular Bicycle racing Sport held on roads (following the Geography of the area using Racing bicycles The Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials (TTT). In the track time trial, a Track cycling event Cyclists compete individually against the clock to record the fastest time over the specified distance from a standing A velodrome is an arena for Track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights A team time trial (TTT is a road-based Bicycle race in which teams of Cyclists race against the clock (see Individual time trial for a more detailed ITT's are also referred to as "the race of truth", as winning depends only on each rider's strength, endurance and determination against the clock.
Starting times are at equal intervals, usually one or two minutes apart. The starting sequence is usually based on the finishing times in preceding races (or preceding stages in the case of a multi-stage race) with the highest ranked cyclist starting last. Starting later gives the racer the advantage of knowing what time they need to beat (and also makes the event more interesting to spectators). Competitors are not permitted to draft (ride in the slipstream) behind each other. A slipstream is a region of reduced Pressure produced behind an object as it moves through a fluid medium (usually air or as that medium moves around an object Any help between riders is forbidden. The rider with the fastest time is declared the winner.
An ITT event is typically held on a fairly flat course. The World Cycling Championship ITT event is always held in this type of course. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI organises World Championships to determine world champion cyclists However, there are also Uphill or Mountain ITT events, such as a stage of the 2004 Tour de France featuring the Alpe d'Huez climb. History See also:CategoryTour de France by year The dominant sports newspaper in France Alpe d'Huez is a famous Ski resort 1860 metres / 3330 metres (6102 ft / 10924 ft high
At the professional level, time trials (TTs) are frequently accompanied by motorcycles, some carrying video equipment or race officials, and riders may be followed by a team car carrying coaches and spare parts, but the cyclists are not permitted to draft behind the vehicles. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. Race regulations typically dictate a minimum distance behind the cyclist which the car must maintain and a minimum gap that must exist between two cyclists before the car may enter that gap.
Individual time trials are often used as stages in stage races such as the Grand Tours; these vary from short prologue time trials over just a few kilometres, to longer distance events over flat or rolling courses, to timed climbs up mountain roads. In Road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races Tour de France In the 1989 edition of the Tour de France eventual winner Greg LeMond made up a 50-second deficit to runner-up Laurent Fignon in the final stage individual time trial to win the race by 8 seconds, the smallest margin ever. History See also:CategoryTour de France by year The dominant sports newspaper in France Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood California) is a former professional Road bicycle racer from the Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Tournan-en-Brie France) is a French former professional Road bicycle racer, who won the The Vuelta a España often features a final individual time trial in Madrid in which the winner is often decided, providing much drama and excitement at the end of the stage race. The Vuelta a España ( English: Tour of Spain) is a three-week Road bicycle racing Stage race that is one of the three " Grand Tours In recent years, Óscar Sevilla and Roberto Heras have seen their lead evaporate in the time trial in Madrid. Óscar Miguel Sevilla Ribera (born 29 September 1976, in Ossa de Montiel, Spain) nicknamed el niño, is a Spanish professional Roberto Heras Hernández (born 1 February 1974 in Béjar, Spain) is a Spanish former professional Road bicycle racer
The Grand Prix des Nations was a semi-Classic event; professionals may also compete in the annual World time trial championship. The Grand Prix des Nations was an Individual time trial (a race against the clock or contre la montre) for Europe's leading professional racing Cyclists The classic cycle races are the most prestigious one-day professional cycling road races in the international calendar. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI organises World Championships to determine world champion cyclists The individual time trial is also an Olympic event in which professionals are allowed to participate. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games
Many of the top stage racers are also top performers in the individual time trial, such as Jacques Anquetil, Bernard Hinault, Laurent Fignon, Greg LeMond, Miguel Indurain, Jan Ullrich, and Lance Armstrong. Jacques Anquetil ( 8 January 1934 &ndash 18 November 1987) was a French Road racing cyclist and the first cyclist to Bernard Hinault (born 14 November, 1954 in Yffiniac, Brittany) is a French cyclist known for five victories in the Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Tournan-en-Brie France) is a French former professional Road bicycle racer, who won the Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood California) is a former professional Road bicycle racer from the Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish Road racing cyclist. Jan Ullrich (born December 2 1973 in Rostock, East Germany) is a German former professional Road bicycle racer. Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson September 18 1971 is an American professional road racing cyclist for UCI ProTeam Team Astana Almost all recent winners of the Tour de France have been good time-trialists, with the notable exception of Marco Pantani, winner of the 1998 Tour de France, who specialized only in climbing. History See also:CategoryTour de France by year The dominant sports newspaper in France Marco Pantani ( January 13, 1970 &ndash February 14, 2004) was an Italian Road racing cyclist widely regarded as being one The 1998 Tour de France, also called the Tour de Dopage (Tour of Doping) was marred by doping scandals throughout known
If a racer catches up to a competitor, the overtaken rider is required to fall back to a specified distance (about 50 metres) behind the other or maintain wide horizontal separation so that he receives no aerodynamic shelter or help from the other.
To do well in an ITT, a cyclist must
Beginners are often criticized for putting in a J profile effort, meaning that they often go out too hard in the beginning, compensate by reducing their efforts in the middle, and then realize towards the end that they have not put out enough effort during the race. Measuring heart rate The Pulse rate (which in most people is identical to the heart rate can be measured at any point on the body where an Artery 's pulsation Anaerobic exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. The aerobic threshold ( AeT) is a term sometimes used by sports coaches and trainers to describe a level of Exercise somewhat below the Anaerobic threshold
Specialized light-weight and aerodynamic time trial bicycles, clothing, helmets, aerobars and other equipment are often used in ITT events. A time trial bicycle is a Racing bicycle designed for use in an individual or Team time trials raced on roads. Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for Bicycles the equivalent of a Steering wheel.
The first UK individual time trial on public roads is reputed to have been held on 5 October 1895 over a 50-miles course just north of London, organised by Frederick Thomas Bidlake. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Frederick Thomas Bidlake (1867 – 17 September 1933) was an English Racing cyclist of the late 19th century who became one of the most notable For many years in the UK, time trials were the main road-based cycling competitions ('massed start' road racing only gained grudging approval after the Second World War), and remain popular today. Road bicycle racing is a popular Bicycle racing Sport held on roads (following the Geography of the area using Racing bicycles The World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Organised by Cycling Time Trials (formerly the Road Time Trials Council), the main season is from March to September. Cycling Time Trials is the British bicycle racing organisation which supervises individual and Team time trials in England and Wales
ITTs are usually held over a specified course of fixed distance, 10, 25, 50 and 100 miles being common. ITTs can also be held over a fixed time (12 and 24 hours being most common). Many events are held on courses consisting of fast flat roads to assist riders in achieving personal bests; events are normally timed to avoid periods when roads will be busy with cars and lorries, etc - so most take place early in the morning on Saturdays or Sundays.
Most time trials are run over 'straight-out' courses or circuits. In both cases, the locations of start and finish points are required to be within a short distance of each other to reduce the impact of gradients and weather. An exception is obviously made for hill-climb events.
In UK time trials, the starting sequences are calculated to minimise the chances of riders taking pace from each other. For example, the fastest riders are 'seeded' and would normally start at 10-minute intervals (in a 120-person event, say, they will be numbered 10, 20, 30, etc, with the event's fastest rider being the final rider to start, number 120); the next fastest riders will start with numbers 5, 15, etc. In some championship events, however, the ten fastest riders are the last to start, setting off at two-minute intervals (previous racers having started at one-minute intervals).
National and regional 'Best All-rounder' (BAR) competitions are also held. The British Best All-Rounder (BBAR) competition, organised by Cycling Time Trials, involves senior male riders recording their best times over 50 and 100 miles, plus their best distance in 12 hours (senior women BAR competitions are based on 25, 50 and 100 miles performances; there are also similar competitions for juniors and veterans). The British Best All-Rounder (BBAR competition organised by Cycling Time Trials, is an annual British cycle-racing competition The winner is the rider with the highest average speed over all three events.
In addition to the set distances (10, 25, etc), riders can also compete in 'sporting' events held over more challenging courses of more variable lengths, often with significant climbs, along more twisting routes. These are popular as early season events, as are team time trials. Towards the end of the main season, hill climb events are also held.
Time trials may also include competitions for riders on tandem bicycles, tricycles and tandem tricycles. The tandem bicycle or twin is a form of Bicycle (occasionally a Tricycle) designed to be ridden by more than one person A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle The aggregate fastest times by three riders from the same cycling club may also win the team competition.
Leading male British exponents at the shorter distances include Alf Engers, Chris Boardman, Graeme Obree, Stuart Dangerfield, Bradley Wiggins, David Millar and Michael Hutchinson. Alfred 'Alf' Robert Engers (born about April-June 1940 was an English racing cyclist who set national records and won national Individual time trial Chris Boardman (born 26 August 1968 in Hoylake) is a former English racing Cyclist who won an Individual pursuit Gold Graeme Obree (born 11 September 1965 in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, UK is a Scottish Racing cyclist. Stuart Dangerfield (born 17 September 1971, and from Willenhall in the West Midlands) is a leading English racing Cyclist Bradley Wiggins, OBE (born 28 April 1980 is a Belgian-born British professional track and Road bicycle racer currently riding for Team David Millar (born 4 January, 1977 in Mtarfa, Malta) is a Scottish Road racing cyclist racing for UCI Professional Michael Hutchinson (or "Hutch" (born 20 November 1973 in Northern Ireland) is a British racing Cyclist and writer who has represented Great For many years, women's time trialling was dominated by Beryl Burton. Beryl Burton, OBE ( 12 May 1937 &ndash 8 May 1996) was an English racing Cyclist and one of Britain