|The Liberalism series,|
part of the Politics series
Individual rights refer to the rights of the individual, distinct from civil rights, legal rights, and group rights (or privileges) granted by government and varying with the organization and administration of the government. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics As commonly used, individual refers to a Person or to any specific object in a collection Group rights are the Rights held by a Group rather than by its members severally or rights held only by individuals within the specified group contrast with A privilege &mdashetymologically "private law" or law relating to a specific individual&mdashis a special Entitlement or immunity granted by a government For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Individual rights identify a boundary of just social interactions, in the presence or absence of government.
Individual rights are sometimes held to be distinct from human rights, because human rights often references a basket of civil and individual rights. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The former class of rights is often considered to include human goods and benefits (positive rights) rather than rights proper (negative rights. Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between ) Individual rights are an individual's moral claim to freedom of action. Such rights may be respected or recognized by others for reasons of reciprocity, contract, pragmatism, or as a moral imperative. Also some theorists believe an individual can forfeit their rights if that individual does not exercise reciprocal respect and restraint.
"Individual rights" are the rights of individuals by virtue of their humanness, i. e. their nature as rational beings. Individual rights provide principles to delimit the interaction of individuals in society with respect to personal interactions and the distribution of goods and services. Individual rights are sometimes held to be distinct from human rights, because the latter class is often considered to include human goods and benefits (positive rights) rather than rights proper (negative rights. ) Individual rights are an individual's moral claim to freedom of action. Such rights may be respected or recognized by others for reasons of reciprocity, contract, pragmatism, or as a moral imperitive.
Some individual rights may be forfeited if an individual does not exercise reciprocal respect and restraint. Individual rights are distinct from civil rights; civil rights are rights granted by government and individual rights are assumed prior to government. Individual rights are often codified into law so that they may be protected by impartial third parties such as the government. Governments that respect individual rights often provide for systemic controls that protect individual rights such as a system of "due process" in criminal justice. Police states are generally considered to be oppressive because they do not respect individual rights. With respect to individual rights the role of the government is as a third party protecting, identifying and enforcing the rights of the individual while attempting to assure just remedies for transgressions.
In Western discourse, individual rights are commonly assumed to be inversely related to social control. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior leading to conformity and compliances to the rules of a given Society or By contrast, much of the recent political discourse on individual rights in the People's Republic of China, particularly with respect to due process rights and rule of law, has focused on how protection of individual rights actually makes social control by the government more effective. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law For example, it has been argued that the people are less likely to violate the law if they believe that the legal system is likely to punish them if they actually violated the law and not punish them if they did not violate the law. By contrast, if the legal system is arbitrary then an individual has no incentive to actually follow the law.
People who argue that individual rights are more important than social control are called "individual rights advocates". Advocates tend to argue for increased civil rights. This is traditionally associated with liberalism. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal
Rights are often coded into law so that they may be protected by impartial third parties such as the government. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Governments that respect individual rights often provide for systemic controls that protect individual rights such as a system of "due process" in criminal justice. Due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that a person has a right to receive notice and be heard in an orderly proceeding in order to protect his or her Criminal justice is the system of practices and organizations used by national and local governments directed at maintaining Social control, deterring These systems give rise to such civil rights as are necessary for the government to administer justice. With respect to individual rights the role of the government is as a third party protecting, identifying and enforcing the rights of the individual while attempting to assure just remedies for transgressions. Police states are generally considered to be oppressive because they do not respect individual rights. The term police state describes a State in which the government exercises rigid and repressive controls over the social economic and political Oppression is the act of using power to empower and/or privilege a group at the expense of disempowering marginalizing silencing and subordinating another group A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics
Rights are significant only where corresponding duties and responsibilities exist and people have the ability to enforce them - because society and individual survival depend on people relying on their ability to enforce rights people must be able to enforce those obligations where there is an absence or a betrayal of trust. Obligations are enforced by individuals and societal expectations and norms, but ultimately may require the ability or the actual enforcement by a government. The absence of a firm ability to enforce rights increases the risks associated with entering agreements and relying on rights, which limits individuals and societies ability to operate co-operatively.
The definition and upholding of individual rights is the core responsibility of any modern government.
In the United States, the Constitution outlines individual rights within the Bill of Rights. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. In the United States the Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known In Canada, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms serves the same function. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (also known as The Charter of Rights and Freedoms or simply the Charter) is a Bill of rights entrenched in the One of the key differences between the two documents is that some rights in the Canadian Charter can be overridden by governments if they deliberately do so and "the resulting balance of individual rights and social rights remains appropriate to a free and democratic society" after the change. In practice, no Canadian government has ever chosen to face the political consequences of actually overriding the Charter. In contrast, in the United States, no such override exists (not even in theory, as is the case in Canada), and judicial activism has been the norm in the interpretation of the Bill of Rights; even a constitutional amendment could not remove these rights entirely, as they are considered inalienable under the natural rights principles the Constitution is founded upon. Judicial activism is a pejorative term for the misuse of judicial power and is a neologism for the older classical term " board judicial review.