In popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing. Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more
There are a number of cultural and philosophical traits which could be more useful in pinpointing what indie music is about than specific musical styles or commercial ownership. Indie artists are concerned more with self-expression than commercial considerations (though, again, this is a stance that is affected by many artists, including hugely commercially successful ones). A do-it-yourself sensibility, which originated with punk in the 1970s, is often associated with indie, with people in the scene being involved in bands, labels, nights and zines. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. A zine (an abbreviation of the word Fanzine, or magazine ziːn "zeen" is most commonly a small circulation non-commercial Publication Indie often has an internationalist outlook, which stems from a sense of solidarity with other fans, bands and labels in other countries who share one's particular sensibilities; small indie labels will often distribute records for similar labels from abroad, and indie bands will often go on self-funded tours of other cities and countries, where those in the local indie scenes will invariably help organize gigs and often provide accommodation and other support. In addition, there is also a strong sense of camaraderie that emerges from a selflessness among indie bands and often results in collaborations and joint tours.
Indie artists of any particular time often go against the prevailing trends (for example, the twee pop movement that started in the 1980s was a reaction against the testosterone-fueled swagger of rock). "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. A 'lo-fi' aesthetic (i. e. , an often deliberate lack of polish and a more "authentic" roughness and imperfection) has often been associated with indie, particularly when slick, polished recordings were the preserve of the commercial music industry; this line has since become blurred, in a world where high-quality recordings can be made increasingly easily with inexpensive computer-based recording systems and where commercial production teams often deliberately utilize a "lo-fi" sound.
Internet technology allows artists to introduce their music to a potentially enormous audience at low cost without necessarily affiliating with a major recording label.  The design of digital music software encourages the discovery of new music. Sites with larger libraries of songs are the most successful. This, in turn, creates many opportunities for independent bands. Royalties from digital services could prove to be an important source of income. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an If an artist has already paid to record, manufacture, and promote their album, there is little to no additional cost for independent artists to distribute their music online.  Digital services offer the opportunity of exposure to new fans and the possibility of increased sales through online retailers. Artists can also release music more frequently and quickly if it is made available online. Additionally, artists have the option of releasing limited edition, out-of-print, or live material that would be too costly to produce through traditional means. The term special edition ( deluxe edition and collector's edition are also used is a term generally used as a Marketing incentive for various kinds of products
With the arrival of newer and relatively inexpensive recording devices and instruments, more individuals are able to participate in the creation of music than ever before. Studio time is extremely expensive and difficult to obtain. A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. Ideally the space is specially designed by an acoustician to achieve the desired acoustic properties (sound The result of new technology is that anyone can produce studio-quality music from their own home. Additionally, the development of new technology allows for greater experimentation with sound. Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies  An artist is able to experiment without necessarily spending the money to do it in an expensive studio.
Most artists maintain their own Web sites as well as having a presence on sites such as Myspace.com. MySpace is a popular social networking Website offering an interactive user-submitted network of friends personal profiles blogs groups photos music and Technological advances such as message boards, music blogs, and social networks are also being used by independent music companies to make big advances in the business. An, or message board, is a Bulletin board system in the form of a discussion site A social network is a Social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency such as  Some sites rely on audience participation to rate a band, allowing listeners to have a significant impact on the success of a band. This eliminates new talent search and development, one of the most costly areas of the music business. Other sites, allow artists to upload their music and sell it at a price of their choosing. Visitors to the site can browse by genre, listen to free samples, view artist information, and purchase the tracks they want to buy.  Acts such as Wilco have chosen to make their new albums available for streaming before they are released. Wilco is an American rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. The band was formed in 1994 by the remaining members of Alternative country group 
However, the sale of digital music makes up only 5-10% of the total income generated from music sales. At this point, most people do not have broadband connections to the internet, making it relatively difficult for the general public to access music online. The term broadband can have different meanings in different contexts Many digital music services tend to focus overwhelmingly on major label acts. They don’t necessarily have the time or resources to give attention to independent artists. 
Many bands have chosen to forego a record label and instead market and distribute their music through entirely web-based means. Digital marketing firms offer opportunities such as Podcast creation and promotion and video hosting to their clients. A podcast is a series of audio or Video digital-media files which is distributed over the Internet by syndicated Download In the case of digital distribution, an artist lends a company the right to distribute their music. The contract is non-exclusive, and the rights to the music continue to belong with the artist. For a small fee, the distributor is in charge of getting an artist’s album to a retailer. Online retailers include iTunes, CD Baby, Rhapsody, and Yahoo. iTunes is a proprietary digital media player application introduced by Apple Inc CD Baby is an Online music store specializing in the sale of physical Compact discs and digital music downloads from independent Musicians directly to consumers
A more recent trend is seen in artists who give their music away for free, such as Radiohead, with their new album In Rainbows , or indie artists and bands such as Happy Rhodes whose music is available for free on the indie music site Redfizz . Radiohead In Rainbows is the seventh album by the English Alternative rock band Radiohead. Happy Rhodes (born August 9, 1965) is an American Singer, Songwriter, instrumentalist and Electronic musician with
There are several subcategories which music from the overall indie scene are often grouped broadly into. Music ranging from alternative rock to punk rock to experimental music has long existed in indie scenes, often independent from one another. Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 Indie rock and indie pop are the most common groupings that conform to an "indie" sound. Indie rock is genre of Alternative rock that primarily exists in the independent Underground music scene "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. The difference between these is difficult to pick up from the instrumentation or sound, as both genres include distorted guitar-based music based on pop-song conventions. If anything, the key distinction comes not from instrumentation or structure but from how strictly they follow cultural constructions of rockist "authenticity". Rockism is an ideology of Popular music criticism coined by Pete Wylie and used extensively in the British music press from the early 1980s There is also indie dance, which comes from a fusion of indie pop and electronic/dance music. Alternative dance is a term used for the genre of music combining elements of Dance-pop (or other forms of electronic house or techno) and Alternative Crossover between electronica (mostly glitch) resulted in so-called indietronic, electronic indie or indie electronic, for example some artists on the German Morr Music label, The Firebird Band, The Postal Service, or Fever Marlene. Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary Electronic music designed for a wide range Glitch is a term used to describe a genre of experimental Electronic music that emerged in the mid to late 1990s Synonyms Since around the mid-1980s electronic dance music has enjoyed popularity in many Nightclubs and as of 2006 is the predominant type of music played in Morr Music is an Independent record label based in Berlin, Germany, founded in 1999 The Firebird Band is an Indie rock band hailing from Chicago Illinois. The Postal Service is an American electronic Indie pop band composed of vocalist Ben Gibbard of Death Cab for Cutie and producer Fever Marlene is a Rock band from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA Fever Marlene released their much buzzed about album titled Civil War on Rev Pop Records
Another type is post-rock, a music genre characterized by nontraditional use of instruments and high musical density. Post-rock is a genre of Alternative rock characterized by the use of Musical instruments commonly associated with Rock music, but using Rhythms A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Although firmly rooted in the indie scene, post-rock's elusive and complex style bears little resemblance musically to indie rock or other styles more commonly associated with the scene. In Popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous Indie rock is genre of Alternative rock that primarily exists in the independent Underground music scene However, as post-rock music is often recorded on independent labels, it therefore often shares the same level of obscurity as much of the indie scene. In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music Some post-rock artists include Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Explosions in the Sky, Animal Collective, Sigur Rós and Tortoise. Godspeed You! Black Emperor (formerly punctuated Godspeed You Black Emperor!; also referred to as GY!BE is an avant-garde Canadian Post-rock Explosions in the Sky is an American instrumental Post-rock band from Texas. Animal Collective is a New York City / Washington DC / Lisbon based group of Avant-garde musicians from Baltimore Maryland. Sigur Rós ( are an Icelandic Post-rock band with melodic classical and minimalist elements Tortoise is an Instrumental rock band formed in Chicago Illinois, USA in 1990. The term was coined by Simon Reynolds in issue 123 of The Wire (May 1994) to describe a sort of music "using rock instrumentation for non-rock purposes, using guitars as facilitators of timbres and textures rather than riffs and power chords. Simon Reynolds (born 1963 in London, England; raised in Hertfordshire) is an English Music critic who is well-known for his writings on The Wire is a British Avant garde music Magazine, founded in 1982 by jazz promoter Anthony Wood and journalist Chrissie Murray Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different In Music, a riff is an Ostinato figure a repeated Chord progression, pattern refrain or melodic figure, often played by the Rhythm In Music, a power chord (also fifth chord) is a note plus the note a fifth above usually played on Electric guitar. "
Some bands choose to never go to a major label even if they are given the opportunity to do so. In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music Similarly, others may choose to be an independent artist after having already experienced recording on a major label, such as pianist Bradley Joseph. Bradley Joseph (born 1965 is an American Composer, arranger, and producer of contemporary instrumental music. As an independent, business is a prime concern and can take over if not controlled, Joseph said.  "A lot of musicians don’t learn the business. You just have to be well-rounded in both areas. You have to understand publishing. You have to understand how you make money, what’s in demand, what helps you make the most out of your talent. " But some artists just want to be involved in the music and don't like the added problems or have the personality to work with both. Joseph suggests newer artists read and study both courses and pick one that best suits their needs and wants. 
If a band moves to a major label, it does not necessarily guarantee the band's success. Only about 1 in 10 CDs released by major labels make any profit for the label.  It is possible for an artist to make more money producing and promoting their own CDs than signing with a major label. However, an independent label that is creatively productive is not necessarily financially lucrative. An independent record label (or indie record label) is a Record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the Major record labels Independent labels are often one-or two-person operations with almost no outside assistance and run out of tiny offices.  This lack of resources can make it extremely difficult for a band to make revenue from sales.
One thing an artist can consider doing if they want to be noticed by a major label is starting their own independent label. A successful independent label with a strong musical reputation can be very appealing to a major label. Major labels rely on independent labels to stay current within the ever-changing music scene.  Independent labels are often very good at discovering local talent and promoting specialized genres.
The difference among various independent labels lies with distribution, probably the most important aspect of running a label. A major-label distributed independent label allows the independent label to find, sign, and record their own artists. The independent label has a contract with a major label for promotion and distribution. In some cases, the major label also manufactures and releases the album. Independent labels that are owned by a major label distribute their records through independent distributors but are not purely independent. A purely independent label is not affiliated with a major label in any way. Their records are distributed through independent distributors. 
It can be very difficult for indie bands to sign on a record label that may not be familiar with their specific style. It can take years of dedicated effort, self-promotion, and rejections before landing a contract with either an independent or major record label. Bands that are ready to go this route need to be sure they are prepared both in terms of the music they offer as well as their realistic expectations for success
The three main ways for an artist to make money are record deals, touring, and publishing rights. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view
Most major label artists earn a 10-15% royalty rate. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an However, before a band is able to receive any of their royalties, they must clear their label for all of their debts, known as recoupable expenses. These expenses arise from the cost of such things as album packaging and artwork, tour support, and video production. An additional part of the recoupable expenses are the artist’s advance. An advance payment, or simply an advance, is the part of a contractually due sum that is paid in advance while the balance will only follow after receipt on the counterpart An advance is like a loan. A loan is a type of Debt. This article focuses exclusively on monetary loans although in practice any material object might be lent It allows the artist to have money to live and record with until their record is released. However, before they can gain any royalties, the advance must be paid back in full to the record label. Since only the most successful artists recoup production and marketing costs, an unsuccessful artist’s debt carries over to their next album, meaning that they see little to no royalties.
Major label advances are generally much larger than independent labels can offer. If an independent label is able to offer an advance, it will most like be somewhere in the range of $5,000-$125,000. On the other hand, major labels are able to offer artists advances in the range of $150,000-$300,000. Instead of offering an advance, some independent labels agree to pay for a certain amount of the artist’s recording costs. This money is recoupable. There are advantages and disadvantages of an advance. If an artist gets no advance, that means they owe their record company less money, thus allowing them to earn royalties more quickly. However, since the label recoups so many costs, an artist’s advance might be the only money they are able to make for quite some time. 
In a contract, options are agreed upon. In Corporate finance, real options analysis or ROA applies Put option and Call option valuation techniques to Capital budgeting decisions Options allow the label to renew their contract with the artist and release more of their albums. Options lie with the label, and the label has the choice whether or not to record more with the artist. Some artists consider this unfair because the label has the right to not distribute an artist’s project and extend their contract by one more album if they deem the music as commercially or artistically unacceptable. Record labels effectively own the artist’s product for the duration of their contract. 
Many times, a deal from an independent label is quite similar to that of a major label. An independent record label (or indie record label) is a Record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the Major record labels In cases where an independent label is distributed by a major label, the independent label itself will have to have a major-label deal. In this case, the independent label would want to be sure that their contract with their artists covers the same issues as the independent’s own contract with the major label. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law In other cases, independent labels offer similar contracts to major labels because they want to look more professional. An independent label that thinks it will eventually be dealing frequently with major labels will have a similar contract in order to avoid having to redraft contracts in the future. There are also plenty of cases in which independent labels have contracts that do not resemble major label contracts in any way. In general, independent labels that are not affiliated with a major label are more willing to take chances and are able to be more flexible in their deals.
Though some independent labels offer a royalty rate of 10-15% like the major labels, it is becoming increasingly more common for independent labels to offer a profit-sharing deal in which as much as 40-75% of the net profits go to the artist. Profit sharing, when used as a special term refers to various Incentive plans introduced by Businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to Employees In this type of contract, the net gain after all expenses have been taken out are split between the label and artist by a negotiated percentage. However, deals in this form can take longer for an artist to gain any profits since all expenses – such as manufacturing, publicity, and marketing – are also taken into account. Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject As an independent artist becomes more popular, deals of this type are more advantageous.
Independent labels often rely heavily on free goods, or the records that are given away in promotion of an album. Artists do not receive royalties on merchandise that is given away for free. Additionally, since compilations made by independent labels are often given away, the artist receives no royalties. A compilation album is an Album ( Music or Spoken-word) featuring tracks from one or multiple Recording artists, often culled from a variety of Major label compilations are more often sold than given away, and the artist does receive royalties.
When a band goes on tour, it may or may not have the financial backing of its label. An artist receives a fixed fee or a percentage of the tickets sold by the venue owner or promoter. A music venue is any location regularly used for a Concert or Musical performance Touring is an expensive process. A moderate estimate of touring costs with a bus and small crew can easily reach $15,000 a week. If an artist tours with the support of their label, the expenses are all recoupable, thus potentially increasing a band’s debt. Many successful bands tour without the support of their label so that they can keep all of their touring revenue. An independent band would have more difficulty than a highly successful one in being self-sufficient on tour.
If a band or artist writes their own material, publishing can be one of the best ways to earn a profit. It is one of the few guaranteed ways to earn revenue for artists. Even touring is not a sure way to make money because it is possible that no one will attend the shows. Basic copyright law protects songwriters by giving them exclusive rights to grant or deny the reproduction, distribution, or performance of their work. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for The majority of a band’s publishing income comes from its mechanical and performance rights. Mechanical rights cover the reproduction of a song on a record. In the standard contract between a band and a label, the label is required by law to pay the composer a fixed rate per song simply for the right to use the composition on commercially sold recordings. The mechanical licensing rate in 2006 for the U. S. and Canada is 9. 1 cents per song.  With the performance rights, a song’s copyright covers every time it appears on radio and television.
If an artist prefers to receive up-front money for their songs instead of waiting for the money to come in over time, it can choose to assign its copyright to a music publisher. This article deals with contemporary Popular music publishing The music publisher pays a cash advance for what they decide is the value of the copyright. It is common for a band to sign a copublishing deal. This means that the publisher offers the artist an advance in exchange for half the publishing income. When the advance is paid back, the music publisher retains 25% of the income. Since an artist has no guarantees whether or not their song will be popular, some may prefer to have a cash advance that guarantees them money regardless of how well the song does.