Inauguration Day is the day on which the President of the United States is sworn in and takes office. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by An oath of office is an Oath or Affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an Office, usually a position in government or within a religious It was originally held every four years on March 4 except the first inauguration for George Washington, which was held on April 30, 1789. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The ratification of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution changed the beginning of the President and Vice President's terms to noon on January 20, beginning with Franklin Roosevelt's second term in 1937. The Twentieth Amendment ( Amendment XX) of the United States Constitution establishes some of the details dealing with the beginning and ending of the terms of The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. The next Inauguration Day will occur on January 20, 2009. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. This article is about the year For the film see 2009 Lost Memories.
Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the U.S. Capitol have been organized by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.  The U.S. Armed Forces have participated in inaugural day ceremonies since George Washington, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee). Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (AFIC coordinates the United States Armed Forces participation in the ten-day period of U
The oath of office is traditionally administered on the steps of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. The Vice President takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the President. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D This tradition began in 1937. Before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The vice president takes the oath first:
|“||I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same: that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, and I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. The doctrine of mental reservation or the doctrine of mental equivocation was a special branch of Casuistry developed in the late Middle Ages and the So help me God.||”|
This is followed by four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail, Columbia". Ruffles and flourishes are preceding fanfare for ceremonial music for distinguished people " Hail Columbia " was the unofficial National anthem of the United States until its replacement in 1931 by the officially mandated
At exactly noon, the President takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution:
|“||I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the U The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. "||”|
According to tradition, in the first inaugural, President Washington added the words "so help me God" when reciting the oath, although there is no contemporary evidence of this. The words have been repeated by some Presidents thereafter, including all since Franklin D Roosevelt.  Theodore Roosevelt, for example, chose to conclude his oath with the phrase "And thus I swear. " Only Franklin Pierce has chosen to affirm rather than swear. Franklin Pierce (November 23 1804 &ndash October 8 1869 was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to  It is often asserted that Herbert Hoover also affirmed, because he was a Quaker, but newspaper reports prior to his inauguration state his intention to swear rather than affirm. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 
Immediately following the oath, the bands play four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail to the Chief", followed by a 21-gun salute from howitzers of the Military District of Washington. Ruffles and flourishes are preceding fanfare for ceremonial music for distinguished people "Hail to the Chief" is the official anthem of the President of the United States. Gun salutes are the firing of cannons or arms as a (military or naval honour A howitzer is a type of Artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles The President delivers an inaugural address, setting the tone for the new administration. Should January 20 be a Sunday, the President is usually administered the oath of office in a private ceremony on that day, followed by a public ceremony the following day.
Since 1953 the President and Vice President have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Other than at State of the Union addresses, Red Mass, and state funerals, it is the only time the President, Vice President, and both houses of Congress congregate in the same location. Red Mass refers to a Mass celebrated annually in the Roman Catholic Church for judges prosecutors attorneys law school professors students and government A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses
Since Thomas Jefferson's second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Pennsylvania Avenue is a street in Washington DC joining the White House and the United States Capitol. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan. He paraded down Pennsylvania Ave. during his first inauguration, in 1981, amidst the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 Reagan did not do so in 1985 due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. In 1977, Jimmy Carter started a new tradition by walking from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have only walked a part of the way. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002
The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon's second inauguration were marred by the passing of former president Lyndon Johnson two days after the inauguration. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance The caisson was pulled by seven white geldings down Constitution Avenue. In Washington DC, Constitution Avenue is a major east-west street running just north of the United States Capitol in the city's Northwest and Northeast In addition, there was construction work on the center steps of the East Front. This resulted in Johnson's casket being taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state. When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol. 
Inauguration Day is a Federal holiday observed only by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia; Montgomery or Prince George's Counties in Maryland; Arlington or Fairfax Counties in Virginia, or the cities of Alexandria or Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. In the United States, a federal holiday is a Holiday recognized by the United States Government. Montgomery County of the US state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington D Prince George's County is located in the US state of Maryland located immediately north east and south of Washington D Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. Alexandria is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This article refers to the independent city of Fairfax Va For the surrounding unincorporated area of Fairfax County with a Fairfax postal address please see Fairfax County Virginia There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees who are not regularly scheduled to work on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event.
The security for the inaugural celebrations is a complex matter, involving not only the Secret Service, but other Federal law enforcement agencies, all five branches of the Armed Forces, the Capitol Police, and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC). The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States The United States Capitol Police ( USCP) is a Police force charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia The Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, also known as the DC Police, MPD, and MPDC is the municipal Police One issue is the ability of protesters to express their Constitutionally protected rights while providing protection for the government officials at risk for assassination or bodily harm. In 2005, protesters believed the area selected by the MPDC was too far from the parade route. The January 20, 2005 counter-inaugural protest was a large number of demonstrations held in Washington D
Also, in 2005, a small group of commandos from the Joint Special Operations Command allegedly deployed to support security at the Presidential inauguration under a secret counterterrorism program named Power Geyser. The Joint Special Operations Command ( JSOC) is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM and is charged to study special operations Power Geyser is a purported Clandestine United States Counterterrorism program to operate a group of Commandos with state of the art weaponry created to 
The Presidential Inaugural Committee is the legal entity which raises and disburses funds for events surrounding the presidential inaugural.