Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of units, first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. A system of measurment is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important regulated and defined because of Trade and A Weights and Measures Act is an Act of Parliament determining Trade law where the weight or size of the goods being traded are important The units were introduced in the United Kingdom and its colonies, including Commonwealth countries (most have since become officially metric, but continue to use both Metric and Imperial), but excluding the then already independent United States. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement. It exists in several variations with different choices of base units, though the choice of base units does The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Systems of imperial units are sometimes referred to as foot-pound-second, after the base units of length, mass and time.
The distinction between the imperial system and the U.S. customary units (also called standard or English units) or older British/English units/systems and newer additions is often not drawn precisely. Both the imperial and United States customary Systems of measurement derive from earlier English systems. US customary units, also known in the United States as English units or Imperial units (in reference to the British Empire) (but see English Most length units are shared between the imperial and U. S. systems, albeit partially and temporally defined differently. Capacity measures differ the most due to the introduction of the imperial gallon and the unification of wet and dry measures. A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries The avoirdupois system applies only to weights; it has a long designation and a short designation for the hundredweight and ton. The avoirdupois (ˌævərdəˈpɔɪz French avwaʀdypwɑ system is a system of weights (or properly Mass) based on a pound of sixteen Ounces The term imperial should not be applied to English units that were outlawed in Weights and Measures Act of 1824 or earlier, or which had fallen out of use by that time, nor to post-imperial inventions such as the slug or poundal. A Weights and Measures Act is an Act of Parliament determining Trade law where the weight or size of the goods being traded are important The slug is an English unit of Mass. It is a mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when a force of one Pound-force (lbf is exerted on it The poundal is a non- SI unit of Force. It is a part of the Foot-pound-second system of units a coherent subsystem of English units introduced
Although most of the units are defined in more than one system, some subsidiary units were used to a much greater extent, or for different purposes, in one area rather than the other.
After the 1 July 1959 deadline, agreed upon in 1958, the U. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. S. and the British yard were defined identically, at 0. 9144 m to match the international yard. Metric equivalents in this article usually assume this latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the imperial Standard Yard was 0. 914398416 m (Sears et al. 1928. Phil Trans A 227:281).
|Unit||Relative value to yard||Metric value||Notes|
|thou||1⁄36000||25. MilA thou, also known as a mil, is a unit of Length equal to 0 4 μm||Known as a mil in the United States|
|inch||1⁄36||2. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 54 cm|
|foot||1⁄3||30. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 48 cm|
|yard||1||91. A yard (abbreviation yd) is a unit of Length in several different systems including English units Imperial units and United 44 cm||Defined as exactly 0. 9144 metres since 1956.|
|furlong||220||201. A furlong is a measure of Distance in Imperial units and US customary units. 168 m|
|mile||1760||1609. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 344 m|
|league||5280||4828. A league is a unit of Length or Area long common in Europe and Latin America, although no longer an official unit in any nation 032 m||No longer an official unit in any nation.|
|fathom||2||~1. A fathom is a unit of Length in the Imperial system (and the derived U 853 m|
The British Admiralty in practice used a fathom as 6 feet. The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. This was despite it being 1⁄1000 of a nautical mile (i. e. 6. 08 feet) until 1970, when the international nautical mile of exactly 1852 metres was adopted. The commonly accepted definition of a fathom was always 6 feet. The conflict was inconsequential in determining depth as Admiralty nautical charts used feet as depths below 5 fathoms on older imperial charts. Today all charts worldwide are metric, except for USA Hydrographic Office charts, which use feet and fathoms for all depth ranges.
|cable||202 2⁄3||~185. A cable length or cable's length is a Nautical unit of measure equal to one tenth of a Nautical mile or 100 Fathoms, or sometimes 3 m||One tenth of a nautical mile. When in use it was approximated colloquially as 100 fathoms.|
|nautical mile||2026 2⁄3||~1853 m||Used to measure distances at sea. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. This value referred to the British nautical (Admiralty) mile of 6,080 ft; the modern international mile is slightly different.|
|Gunter's survey units (17th century onwards)|
|link||22⁄100||~20. The link (usually abbreviated as "l" "li" or "lnk 12 cm|
|pole||5 1⁄2||~5. The rod is a unit of Length equal to 55 Yards 11 Cubits 50292 Meters 16 029 m||The pole is also called rod or perch.|
|chain||22||~20. A chain is a unit of Length; it measures 66 feet or 22 yards (20 12 m|
Until the adoption of the international definition of 1852 metres in 1970, the British nautical mile was defined as 6080 feet. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. It was not readily expressible in terms of any of the intermediate units, because it was derived from the circumference of the Earth (like the original metre). The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International
|1 rood||= 1 furlong × 1 rod||= 40 square rods||= 1⁄2560 square mile||= 10,890 sq ft||= ~0. ROOD jong in de SP ( Dutch for RED young in the SP) is a Dutch youth wing linked to the Socialist Party. 1012 ha||= ~1012 m²|
|1 acre||= 1 furlong × 1 chain||= 160 square rods||= 1⁄640 square mile||= 43,560 sq ft||= ~0. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U 4047 ha||= ~4047 m²|
In 1824, Britain adopted a close approximation to the ale gallon known as the imperial gallon. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The imperial gallon was based on the volume of 10 lb of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at 30 in Hg at a temperature of 62 °F. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass Inches of mercury, inHg or "Hg is a measuring unit for Pressure. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 In 1963 this definition was refined as the space occupied by 10 lb of distilled water of density 0. 998 859 g/ml weighed in air of density 0. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. 001 217 g/ml against weights of density 8. 136 g/ml. This works out to 4. 545 964 591 L, or 277. 420 cu in. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 switched to a gallon of exactly 4. 546 09 L (approximately 277. 4 cu in) .
|Unit||Relative value to pint||Metric value||U. S. value||Notes|
|fluid ounce (fl oz)||1⁄20||~28. A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl oz or oz fl) is a unit of Volume in both the imperial and the US customary systems 41 ml||~0. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. 9608 fl oz|
|gill||1⁄4||~142. 1 ml||~4. 804 fl oz|
|pint (pt)||1||~568. The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. 2 ml||~1. 201 pt||Still the usual serving size for beer and cider, and the usual retail size for milk, in the UK.|
|quart (qt)||2||~1. The quart is an imperial and US customary unit of Volume equal to a quarter of a Gallon. 136 L||~1. 201 qt|
|gallon (gal)||8||~4. A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries 546 L||~1. 201 gal||Exactly 4. 546 09 litres. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume.|
For a comparison to the U. S. customary system see the article on Comparison of the imperial and US customary measurement systems. Both the imperial and United States customary Systems of measurement derive from earlier English systems.
Britain has used three different weight systems in the 19th and 20th centuries:, troy weight, used for precious metals; avoirdupois weight, used for most other purposes; and apothecaries' weight, now virtually unused since the metric system is used for all scientific purposes. Troy weight is a system of units of Mass customarily used for Precious metals Black powder, and Gemstones Named after Troyes The avoirdupois (ˌævərdəˈpɔɪz French avwaʀdypwɑ system is a system of weights (or properly Mass) based on a pound of sixteen Ounces The 1824 Act made the Troy pound the primary unit of weight.
The use of the troy pound (373. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass 241 721 6 g) was abolished in Britain on January 6, 1879, making the Avoirdupois pound the primary unit of weight. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common with only the troy ounce (31. 103 476 8 g) and its decimal subdivisions retained. The decimal ( base ten or occasionally denary) Numeral system has ten as its base. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, and all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass
|Unit||Relative value to pound||Metric value||U. S. value||Notes|
|grain||1⁄7000||~64. In many cultures a grain is a unit of measurement of Mass that is based upon the mass of a single seed of a typical Cereal. 8 mg|
|drachm||1⁄256||~1. The dram (archaic spelling drachm; Apothecary symbol ℨ) was historically both a Coin and a Weight. 771 g||Known as a 'teenth' in some UK subcultures, short for a sixteenth of an ounce.|
|ounce (oz)||1⁄16||~28. This article is about the unit of mass For the unit of force see Pound-force. 35 g|
|pound (lb)||1||~453. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass 6 g||Exactly 453. 592 37 grammes.|
|stone (st)||14||~6. The stone is a unit of Weight. It is part of the Imperial system of weights and measures used in the British Isles, and formerly used in most 35 kg||A person's weight is often quoted in stone and pounds in English-speaking countries, with the exception of the United States and Canada, where it is usually quoted in pounds.|
|quarter||28||~12. 7 kg||A "quarter" was also commonly used to refer to a quarter of a pound in a retail context.|
|hundredweight (cwt)||112||~50. Hundred weight or hundredweight is a Unit of measurement for Mass in U 8 kg||100 lb|
|ton (t)||2240||~1016 kg||2000 lb||20 hundredweights in both systems, US hundredweight being lighter. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United|
The British ton (the long ton), is 2240 pounds, which is very close to a metric tonne, whereas the ton generally used in the United States is the "short ton" of 2000 pounds (907. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. 184 74 kg). Each is divided into 20 hundredweights (cwt), the British hundredweight of 112 pounds being 12% heavier than the American hundredweight.
Imperial units are not used in the United States. US customary units, also known in the United States as English units or Imperial units (in reference to the British Empire) (but see English The customary units in use there are historically derived from units which were in use in England at the time of settlement. The measurements of most of these units in England itself were subsequently changed.
British law now defines each imperial unit in terms of the metric equivalent. Metrication is the process of introduction of metric units for measurement
The Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 require that all measuring devices used in trade or retail be capable of measuring and displaying metric quantities. This has now been proved in court against the so-called "Metric Martyrs", a small group of market traders who insisted on trading in imperial units only. The Metric Martyrs are a group of British food sellers and Anti-metrication campaigners in the United Kingdom Contrary to the impression given by some press reports, these regulations have never placed any obstacle in the way of using imperial units alongside metric units. Almost all traders in the UK will accept requests from customers specified in imperial units, and scales which display in both unit systems are commonplace in the retail trade. Metric price signs may currently be accompanied by imperial price signs (known as supplementary indicators) provided that the imperial signs are no larger and no more prominent than the official metric ones. The EU's deadline of December 31, 2009 to enforce metric-only labels and ban any supplementary indicators (imperial measurements) on goods after the deadline has been abolished. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. This article is about the year For the film see 2009 Lost Memories. On May 9, 2007 the European Commission agreed to allow supplementary indications alongside the statutory metric indications beyond 2009. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
The United Kingdom completed its legal transition to SI units in 1995, but a few imperial units are still in official use: draught beer must be sold in pints, road-sign distances must be in yards and miles, clearance heights must be in feet and inches (although an equivalent in metres may be shown as well) and speed limits must be in miles per hour, therefore instruments in British-registered vehicles must be capable of displaying miles per hour. The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. (Foreign vehicles, such as all post-2005 Irish vehicles, may legally have instruments displayed only in kilometres per hour. ) Even though the troy pound was outlawed in Great Britain in the Weights and Measures Act of 1878, the troy ounce still may be used for the weight of precious stones and metals. Troy weight is a system of units of Mass customarily used for Precious metals Black powder, and Gemstones Named after Troyes The railways are also a big user of imperial units, with distances officially measured in miles and yards or miles and chains, and also feet and inches, and speeds are in miles per hour, although many modern metro and tram systems are entirely metric, and London Underground uses both metric (for distances) and imperial (for speeds). The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire Metric is also used for the Channel Tunnel and on High Speed 1. The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with Adjacent to Ashford International railway station and Dollands Moor International Freight Terminal, speeds are given in both metric and imperial units.
The use of SI units is mandated by law for the retail sale of food and other commodities, but most British people still use imperial units in colloquial discussion of distance (miles) and speed (miles per hour). Milk is available in both half-litre and pint containers. Most people still measure their weight in stones and pounds, and height in feet and inches—but these must be converted to metric if recorded officially, for example on passports. The stone is a unit of Weight. It is part of the Imperial system of weights and measures used in the British Isles, and formerly used in most Petrol is sometimes quoted as being so much per gallon, despite having been sold exclusively in litres for two decades. Likewise, fuel consumption for cars is still usually in miles per gallon, though official figures always include litres per 100 km equivalents. Fahrenheit equivalents are occasionally given after Celsius in weather forecasts, especially for high temperatures.
In the 1970s the metric system and SI units were introduced in Canada to replace the imperial system. Canadian units are the traditional weights and measures used in Canada. Canada has converted to the Metric system for many purposes However there is still significant use of non-metric units and standards in some sectors of the Canadian economy Within the government, efforts to implement the metric system were extensive; almost any agency, institution, or function provided by the government uses SI units exclusively. Imperial units were eliminated from all road signs, although both systems of measurement will still be found on privately-owned signs, such as the height warnings at the entrance of a multi-storey parking facility. In the 1980s, momentum to fully convert to the metric system stalled when the government of Brian Mulroney was elected. Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth There was heavy opposition to metrication and as a compromise the government maintains legal definitions for and allows use of imperial units as long as metric units are shown as well.  The law requires that measured products (such as fuel and meat) be priced in metric units, although an imperial price can be shown if a metric price is present.  However, there tends to be leniency in regards to fruits and vegetables being priced in imperial units only.  Environment Canada still offers an imperial unit option beside metric units, even though weather is typically measured and reported in metric units in the Canadian media. Environment Canada (EC, legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act ( R However, some radio stations near the United States border (such as CIMX and CIDR) primarily use imperial units to report the weather. CIMX is the call sign of a Radio station based in Windsor Ontario, Canada. CIDR is the callsign for a radio station broadcasting at 939 FM in Windsor Ontario.
Imperial units are still used in ordinary conversation. Few Canadians would exclusively use SI units to describe their weight and height. Although drivers' licences in some provinces like Ontario and Quebec use SI units, other provinces like Saskatchewan use imperial units.  In livestock auction markets, cattle are sold in dollars per hundredweight (short), whereas hogs are sold in dollars per hundred kilograms. Hundred weight or hundredweight is a Unit of measurement for Mass in U Imperial units still dominate in recipes, construction, house renovation and gardening, although often informally. Land is now surveyed and registered in metric units, although initial surveys used imperial units. For example, partitioning of farm land on the prairies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was done in imperial units; this accounts for imperial units of distance and area retaining wide use in the prairie provinces.
Imperial units also retain common use in firearms and ammunition. Imperial measures are still used in the description of cartridge types, even when the cartridge is of relatively recent invention (e. g. 0. 204 Ruger, 0. Sturm Ruger & Company Incorporated is a Fairfield Connecticut -based firearm manufacturing company better known as just 'Ruger' 17 HMR, where the caliber is expressed in decimal fractions of an inch). However, ammunition which is classified in metric already is still kept metric (e. g. 9 mm, 7.62 mm). The 9x19mm Parabellum is a pistol cartridge introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM for their There are many cartridges which use 762 mm caliber bullets The measurement equals 0 In the manufacture of ammunition, bullet and powder weights are expressed in terms of grains for both metric and imperial cartridges. In many cultures a grain is a unit of measurement of Mass that is based upon the mass of a single seed of a typical Cereal.
Some imperial measurements remain in limited use in Australia, India, Malaysia and New Zealand. From the early 1960s until 1988 Australia ran a Metrication programme withdrawing Imperial units of measurement from general legal use Metrication or metrification is the process of converting to the Metric system based on the International System of Units (SI. New Zealand started Metrication in 1969 with the establishment of the Metric Advisory Board (MAB and completed metrication on 14 December 1976. Real estate agents continue to use acres and square feet to describe area in conjunction with hectares and square metres. Measurements in feet and inches, especially for a person's height, are frequently met in conversation and non-governmental publications.
The Republic of Ireland has officially changed over to the metric system since entering the European Union, with distances on new road signs being metric since 1977 and speed limits being metric since 2005. The Republic of Ireland completed Metrication in 2005 after the metrication process began in the 1970s The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However the imperial system remains in limited use, particularly for sales of beer in pubs (traditionally sold by the pint) and some other commodities (such as milk, which is sold in both pints and litres). Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. A minority of old road signs with distances in miles still remain, and the majority of cars sold pre-2005 feature speedometres with miles per hour. The imperial system is still often used in everyday conversation, particularly by older people.
Petrol/gasoline is still sold by the imperial gallon in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Burma, Grenada, Guyana, Sierra Leone and the United Arab Emirates. Antigua and Barbuda ( Spanish for "Ancient" and "Bearded" is an Island nation located on the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea Belize (bəˈliːz formerly British Honduras, is a country in Central America. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.