Since the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1922 there has been substantial immigration from other parts of the world. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place In particular, migrants have arrived from Ireland and the former colonies of the British Empire - such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Kenya and Hong Kong - under British nationality law. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning Citizenship and other categories of British Nationality. Others have come as asylum seekers, seeking protection as refugees under the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention, or from European Union (EU) member states, exercising one of the EU's Four Freedoms. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an International convention that defines who is a Refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto In European Union law, the Four Freedoms is a common term for a set of treaty provisions secondary legislation and court decisions protecting the ability of Goods
About half the population increase between the 1991 and 2001 censuses was due to foreign-born immigration. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 1991, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 21 April 1991. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population In 2005 the Institute for Public Policy Research published an analysis of data from the 2001 UK Census, revealing the number of people included in the census who were born outside 4. 9 million people (8. 3 percent of the population at the time) were born abroad, although the census gives no indication of their immigration status or intended length of stay.
In 2006, there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32 percent fewer than in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship during 2006 was 154,095, 5 per cent fewer than in 2005. The largest groups of people granted British citizenship were from India, Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines.  In 2006, 134,430 people were granted settlement in the UK, a drop of 25 per cent on 2005.  Meanwhile, migration from Central and Eastern Europe has increased since 2004 with the accession to the European Union of eight Central and Eastern European states, since there is free movement of labour within the EU. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Enlargement of the European Union is the process of expanding the European Union (EU through the accession of new member states. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union. The UK government is currently phasing in a new points-based immigration system for people from outside of the European Economic Area. The points-based immigration system is currently being phased in as the means of regulating Immigration to the United Kingdom from outside the European Economic The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe
During the period 1814-1910 the British Empire covered a large proportion of the globe, at its peak over a third of the world's people lived under British rule. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Both during this time, and following the granting of independence to most colonies after World War II, the vast majority of immigrants to the UK were from either current or former colonies, most notably those in the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. These people filled a gap in the UK labour market for unskilled jobs and many people were specifically brought to the UK on ships such as the Empire Windrush. Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the Market and dynamics for labour. The Empire Windrush was a Ship that is an important part of the history of Multiracialism in the United Kingdom.
In 1962, the Commonwealth Immigrants Act was passed by the British government, restricting the freedom of passage into the UK from other parts of the Commonwealth. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. By 1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry - effectively stemming primary immigration from Commonwealth countries. Work permit is a generic term for a legal authorization which allows a person to take employment Primary immigration is a term which describes the movement of the earner of a Family, or a young unattached single Man, from one Country to another
The Ireland Act 1949 has the unusual status of recognising the Republic of Ireland, but affirming that its citizens are not citizens of a foreign country. The Ireland Act 1949 is a British Act of Parliament which was intended to deal with the consequences of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. This was at a time when a republic was not allowed to be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its
See also: British Germans
In the lead up to the World War II, many Germans, particularly those belonging to minorities which were persecuted under Nazi rule, such as Jews, sought to emigrate to the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that as many as 50,000 may have been successful. German migration to the United Kingdom has been taking place for hundreds of years Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ There were immigration caps on the number who could enter and, subsequently, some applicants were turned away. When the UK was forced to declare war on Germany, however, migration between the countries ceased. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Until the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could enter and stay in the United Kingdom without any restriction. The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 made Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs) whose passports were not directly issued by the United Kingdom Government (i. In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder e. passports issued by the Governor of a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate) subject to immigration control. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect
Indians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in 1947. The Demographics of India are overall remarkably diverse India's population of approximately 1 More than 60,000 arrived before 1955, many of whom drove buses, or worked in foundries or textile factories. A foundry is a Factory which produces Metal Castings from either Ferrous or non-ferrous alloys A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Later arrivals opened corner shops or ran post offices. "Corner shop" redirects here For the British band see Cornershop. A post office is a facility authorized by a Postal system for the posting receipt sorting handling transmission or delivery of Mail. The flow of Indian immigrants peaked between 1965 and 1972, boosted in particular by Idi Amin's sudden decision to expel all 50,000 Gujarati Indians from Uganda. Idi Amin Dada (mid 1920s &ndash 16 August 2003 commonly known as Idi Amin, was a Ugandan military dictator and the President of Uganda On 4 August 1972, Idi Amin, President of Uganda, gave Uganda's 50000 Asians (mostly Gujaratis of Indian origin 90 days Gujarati people ( Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો Gujǎrātī loko ? The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Around 30,000 Ugandan Asians migrated to the UK. 
By 1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry - effectively stemming primary immigration from Commonwealth countries. Work permit is a generic term for a legal authorization which allows a person to take employment Primary immigration is a term which describes the movement of the earner of a Family, or a young unattached single Man, from one Country to another
Following the end of World War II, substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled territories settled in Britain, particularly Poles and Ukrainians. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Polish British People or Polish Britons are people of Polish origin who were born in or emigrated to the United Kingdom over the course of history or descendants of such Ukrainian migration to United Kingdom has been occurring since the eighteenth century The UK recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to industries that were required in order to aim economic recovery after the war.  In the 1951 census, the Polish-born population of the UK numbered some 162,339, up from 44,642 in 1931. 
There was also an influx of refugees from Hungary, following the crushing of the 1956 Hungarian revolution, numbering 20,990. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 ( Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom) was a spontaneous nationwide Revolt against the Stalinist government of 
The British Nationality Act 1981, which was enacted in 1983, distinguishes between British citizen or British Overseas Territories citizen. The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom The former hold nationality by descent and the latter hold nationality other than by descent. Citizens by descent cannot automatically pass on British nationality to a child born outside the United Kingdom or its Overseas Territories (though in some situations the child can be registered as a citizen).
Immigration officers have to be satisfied about a person's nationality and identity and entry could be refused if they were not satisfied. 
One of the Four Freedoms of the European Union, of which the United Kingdom is a member, is the right to the free movement of people. The Office for National Statistics (ONS is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly In European Union law, the Four Freedoms is a common term for a set of treaty provisions secondary legislation and court decisions protecting the ability of Goods The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Since the expansion of the EU on 1 May 2004, the UK has accepted immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, Malta and Cyprus, although the substantial Maltese and Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot communities were established earlier through their Commonwealth connection. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Greek Cypriots ( Greek: Ελληνοκύπριοι Turkish: Kıbrıslı Rumlar are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the There are restrictions on the benefits that members of eight of these accession countries can claim, which are covered by the Worker Registration Scheme. The Worker Registration Scheme was set up in 2004 to allow workers from the "A8 Countries" to work in the UK.  Most of the other European Union member states have exercised their right for temporary immigration control (which must end by 2011) over entrants from these accession states, although some are now removing these restrictions. 
The Home Office publishes quarterly statistics on the number of applications to the Worker Registration Scheme. Figures published in August 2007 indicate that 682,940 people applied to the scheme between 1 May 2004 and 31 June 2007, of whom 656,395 were accepted. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events in June Madaraka Day June 1 to commemorate when Kenya gained internal self-rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  Self-employed workers and people who are not working (including students) are not required to register under the scheme so this figure represents a lower limit on immigration inflow. These figures do not indicate the number of immigrants who have since returned home, but 56 per cent of applicants in the 12 months ending 30 June 2007 reported planning to stay for a maximum of three months. Figures for total immigration show that there was a net inflow of 64,000 people from the eight Central and Eastern European accession states in 2005.  An investigation by more4 found that Poles (who make up the majority of those registered with the WRS) currently represent a substantial proportion of the population of some UK cities. More4 is a Digital television channel produced by United Kingdom broadcaster Channel 4, that launched on 10 October 2005. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland.  Research suggests that a total of around 1 million people had moved from the new EU member states to the UK by April 2008, but that half this number have since returned home or moved on to a third country. 
The Government announced that the same rules would not apply to nationals of Romania and Bulgaria when those countries acceded to the EU in 2007. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Instead, restrictions were put in place to limit migration to students, the self-employed, highly skilled migrants and food and agricultural workers.  Statistics released by the Home Office indicate that in the first three months of Romania and Bulgaria's EU membership, 7,120 people (including family members) from the two countries successfully registered on the various schemes.  Between April and June 2007, a further 9,335 Bulgarian and Romanian nationals had their applications granted. This includes those registering as self-employed and self-sufficient. An additional 3,980 were issued cards for the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS). 
"Managed migration" is the term used for all legal work permits and visas and this accounts for a substantial percentage of overall immigration figures for the UK. Many of the immigrants who arrive under these schemes bring skills which are in short supply in the UK. This area of immigration is managed by Work Permits (UK), a department within the Home Office. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order Applications are made at UK Embassies or Consulates or directly to Work Permits (UK), depending upon the type of visa or permit required.
Employer Sponsored Work Permits allow employers to sponsor an employee's entrance into the UK by demonstrating that they possess skills that cannot be found elsewhere. Immigrants who have education or experience in occupations which are listed on the Skills Shortage List may apply for a work permit. This includes engineers, doctors, nurses, actuaries and teachers. An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health A nurse is responsible—along with other Health care Professionals —for the treatment safety and recovery of acutely or chronically An actuary is a business professional who deals with the financial impact of risk and uncertainty Employers can also obtain work permits for occupations not on the Skills Shortage List by advertising the position and demonstrating that no suitable UK resident or EU worker can be found. Approvals for a work permit are usually based upon the suitability of the applicant to the role, by education and/or experience.
In addition there is a points-based system called the Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP) which allows a highly skilled migrant to enter the UK with the right to work without first having to find an offer of employment and without an employer needing to sponsor the visa. The Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP was a scheme which has now been phased out that was designed to allow highly skilled people to Immigrate into the United Kingdom Points are awarded for education, work experience, past earnings, achievements in the field and achievements of the applicant's partner. There are also points for being aged under 28 and for doctors currently working in the UK.
Some people work in the UK under a Working holiday visa which allows 12 months of work within a 24 month period for those aged 17 to 30. A working holiday visa is a travel permit which allows travellers to undertake employment in the country issuing the visa for the purpose of supplementing their travel funds UK Ancestry Entry Clearance allows a person to work in the UK for five years if they have a grandparent who was born in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man at any time; or a grandparent born in what is now the Republic of Ireland on or before March 31, 1922. A UK Ancestry Entry Clearance often referred to as an "Ancestry Visa" is a United Kingdom Entry Clearance for Commonwealth citizens with a grandparent born The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. After that they may apply for Indefinite leave to remain. Indefinite leave to remain ( ILR) is an immigration status granted to a person who does not hold right of abode in the United Kingdom, but who has been admitted
In April 2006 changes to the current Managed Migration system were proposed that would primarily create one points-based immigration system for the UK. The points-based immigration system is currently being phased in as the means of regulating Immigration to the United Kingdom from outside the European Economic The replacement for HSMP (Tier 1 in the new system) gives points for age and none for work experience. This points based system is being phased in over the course of 2008. 
For family relatives of European Economic Area nationals living in the UK, there is the EEA family permit which enables those family members to join their relatives already living and working in the UK. The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe A European Economic Area Family Permit (short EEA family permit is an immigration document that permits the holder to enter the United Kingdom as the dependant of a citizen of the
The UK is a signatory to the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which means that it has a responsibility under international law not to return (or refoule) refugees to the place where they would face persecution. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an International convention that defines who is a Refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals
Nonetheless the issue of immigration has been a controversial political issue since the late 1990s. Both the ruling Labour Party and the opposition Conservatives have suggested policies perceived as being "tough on asylum" (although the Conservatives have dropped a previous pledge to limit the number of people who could claim asylum in the UK, which would likely have breached the UN Refugee Convention) and the tabloid media frequently print headlines about an "immigration crisis". The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest 
This is denounced by those seeking to ensure that the UK upholds its international obligations as disproportionate. Critics suggest that much of the opposition to high levels of immigration by refugees is based on racism. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Concern is also raised about the treatment of those held in detention and the practice of dawn raiding families, and holding young children in immigration detention centres for long periods of time. A dawn raid is a visit by the Police, Immigration officers or other officials in the early morning hoping to use the element of Surprise to arrest targets Immigration detention is the policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations Illegal entry or Unauthorised arrival in detention until a decision
However, critics of the UK's asylum policy often point out the "safe third country rule" - the international agreement that asylum seekers must apply in the first free nation they reach, not go "asylum shopping" for the nation they prefer. EU courts have upheld this policy. Since the UK is geographically much further removed from any third world nation than most other European countries, many assume that asylum seekers in the UK choose it out of preference rather than absolute necessity.
In February 2003, Prime Minister Tony Blair promised on television to reduce the number of asylum seekers by half within 7 months, apparently catching unawares the members of his own government with responsibility for immigration policy. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to David Blunkett, the then Home Secretary, called the promise an objective rather than a target. David Blunkett (born 6 June 1947 is a British Labour Party Politician and has been Member of Parliament for Sheffield Brightside The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office  It was met according to official figures, despite increase world instability caused by the Iraq War. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign There is also a Public Performance Target to remove more asylum seekers who have been judged not to be refugees under the internation definition than new anticipated unfounded applications. This target was met early in 2006. 
Official figures for numbers of people claiming asylum in the UK were at a 13 year low by March 2006.  Opponents of the government's policies on asylum seekers and refugees, such as Migration Watch UK and some newspapers are critical of the way official figures are calculated. MigrationWatch UK is an independent think-tank often referred to as a pressure group and described in some sections of the press as "right-wing"
Human rights organisations such as Amnesty International have argued that the government's new policies, particularly those concerning detention centres, have detrimental effects on asylum applicants and those facilities have seen a number of hunger strikes and suicides. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Immigration detention is the policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations Illegal entry or Unauthorised arrival in detention until a decision A hunger strike is a method of Non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political Protest, or to provoke feelings of Others have argued that recent government policies aimed at reducing 'bogus' asylum claims have had detrimental impacts on those genuinely in need of protection. 
Illegal (sometimes termed irregular) immigrants in the UK include those who have:
Although it is difficult to know how many people reside in the UK illegally, a Home Office study released in March 2005 estimated a population of between 310,000 and 570,000.  Migration Watch UK has criticised the Home Office figures for not including the UK-born dependent children of unauthorised migrants. MigrationWatch UK is an independent think-tank often referred to as a pressure group and described in some sections of the press as "right-wing" They suggest the Home Office has underestimated the numbers of unauthorised migrants by between 15,000 and 85,000.  In the past the UK government has stated that the figures Migration Watch produces should be treated with considerable caution. 
A recent study into irregular immigration states that "most irregular migrants have committed administrative offences rather than a serious crime". 
Jack Dromey, Deputy General of the Transport and General Workers Union and Labour Party treasurer, suggested in May 2006 that there could be around 500,000 illegal workers. Jack Dromey (born 21 September 1948) is a British trade unionist Deputy General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the He called for a public debate on whether an amnesty should be considered.  David Blunkett has suggested that this might be done once the identity card scheme is rolled out. David Blunkett (born 6 June 1947 is a British Labour Party Politician and has been Member of Parliament for Sheffield Brightside Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006  London Citizens, a coalition of community organisations, is running a regularisation campaign called Strangers into Citizens, backed by figures including the leader of the Catholic church in England and Wales, the Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor. London Citizens is an alliance of community organisations in London in the United Kingdom. Cormac Cardinal Murphy-O'Connor, (born August 24, 1932) is a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, the Archbishop of Westminster .
In February 2008, the government introduced new £10,000 fines for employers found to be employing illegal immigrants where there is negligence on the part of the employer, with unlimited fines or jail sentences for employers acting knowingly
Although the guidance notes and numerous online resources are available to help out people applying for immigration to United Kingdom, one can also seek legal advice for this matter. Overview February was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 in the 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The guidelines to the immigration programmes states that immigration advisers should fulfil the requirements of good practice. An independent public body set up under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 named The Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner (OISC) maintains and publishes the register of advisers. The Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner (OISC is the United Kingdom regulator of the Immigration advice industry whose powers stem from the Immigration Legal advisers for these applications are required to provide their full details along with the OISC number with each application. A complete list of OISC immigration advisers can be found on their website.