Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined "Indo-European" group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from the Albanian and Montenegro border to southern Pannonia) and even possibly Messapia in southern Italy (if the Messapian language is to be considered an Illlyrian dialect). Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Messapia was the ancient name of a region of Italy largely corresponding to modern Salento. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of South-eastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. Illyrians were part of the Hallstatt culture . The Hallstatt culture was the predominant
In theory, Illyrians are defined as speakers of the Illyrian languages, but since the latter is practically unknown, this entails the danger of a circular definition. The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as A circular definition is one that assumes a prior understanding of the term being defined The existence of an "Illyrian" ethnic identity is therefore uncertain, and some argue that the ethnonym Illyrioi came to be applied to this large group of peoples by the ancient Greeks, Illyrioi having perhaps originally designated only a single people that came to be widely known to the Greeks due to proximity. An ethnonym ( Gk έθνος ethnos, 'tribe' + όνομα onoma, 'name' is the name applied to a given Ethnic group.  Indeed, such a people known as the Illyrioi are supposed to have occupied a small and well-defined part of the south Adriatic coast, around Skadar Lake astride the modern frontier between Albania and Montenegro. Lake Scutari, also called Lake Skadar ( Albanian: Liqeni i Shkodrës, Serbian: Скадарско језеро / Skadarsko jezero This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! The name may then have expanded and come to be applied to ethnically different peoples such as the Liburni, Delmatae, Iapodes, or the Pannonii. The Liburnians (or Liburni, Greek: Λιβυρνοί were an ancient people inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern The Dalmatae (or Greek language Delmatoi - Δελματοί) were an ancient people who inhabited the core of what would then become known as Dalmatia after The Iapydes (or Iapodes, Japodes) were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians, off the Adriatic coast and eastwards of the Illyrian tribes or possibly or partly Illyrian tribes or tribes inhabiting lands known as Illyria.
Little more can be said of the languages of Illyria than that they were probably centum dialects of Indo-European. The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of South-eastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the North- Italian Veneto and modern Slovenia, between The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in Ancient times. Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European. The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as They may have been linked with the adjacent Thracian language by an intermediate convergence area or dialect continuum. The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe A Sprachbund (ˈʃpraːxbʊnt in German plural Sprachbünde) from the German word for “language union” also known as a linguistic area, convergence A dialect continuum is a range of Dialects spoken across a large geographical area differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close and gradually decreasing The position of the equally fragmentarily attested Venetic language with relation to Illyrian is uncertain. Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the North- Italian Veneto and modern Slovenia, between Venetic also appears to be a centum dialect.
Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of South-eastern Italy, once spoken in Messapia (modern Salento). Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of South-eastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Messapia was the ancient name of a region of Italy largely corresponding to modern Salento. Salento (Salentu in local dialect is the south-eastern extremity of the Apulia region of Italy. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians, the Daunii and the Peucetii. The Iapyges or Iapygians were an Indo-European people who inhabited the heel of Italy (modern Apulia) before being absorbed by the The Peucetii (or Poedicli, according to Strabo) were a tribe who were living in Apulia in the country behind Barion (Latin Barium modern Bari If Messapian is considered an Illyrian dialect, the vast majority of our knowledge of Illyrian is based on Messapian. The non-Messapic testimonies of Illyrian are too fragmentary to be certain whether Messapian should be considered part of Illyrian proper, but it is widely thought that Messapian was in some way related to Illyrian.
All these languages were likely extinct by the 6th century, though the Albanian language may represent a remote descendant of Thraco-Illyrian dialects that survived in remote areas of the Balkans during the Middle Ages. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - This would have happened along the boundary of Latin and Greek linguistic influence (the Jireček Line). The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Jireček Line is an imaginary line through the ancient Balkans that divided the influences of the Latin (in the north and Greek (in the south languages Not enough is known of the ancient language to either prove or disprove this hypothesis (see Origin of Albanians). The origin of the Albanians has been for some time a matter of dispute among historians
In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who eventually ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Illyrius (Ιλλυριός is a name known in different stories found in ancient Greek mythology. Cadmus, or Kadmos (Κάδμος in Greek mythology, was a Phoenician prince son of Agenor and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the immortal Goddess of harmony and concord 
Pliny, in his work Natural History, applies a stricter usage of the term Illyrii, when speaking of Illyrii proprie dicti ("Illyrians properly so-called") among the native communities in the south of Roman Dalmatia. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author This article is a detailed account of the history of the Croatian region of Dalmatia.  A passage within Appian's Illyrike (stating that the Illyrians lived beyond Macedonia and Thrace, from Chaonia and Thesprotia to the Danube River) is also representative of the broader usage of the term. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Chaonia or Chaon ( Greek Χαονία or Χάων was the name of the northwestern part of Epirus, the homeland of the Epirot tribe of the Chaonians This article is about a place in Greece; For the taxonomic classification, see Thesprotia (genus Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj 
The ethnogenesis of the Illyrians remains a problem for modern prehistorians. Ethnogenesis (From Greek: ethnos ( group of people nation and genesis ( a coming into being is the process by which a group of human beings comes Among those who take the meaningfulness of the terms people or tribe for granted, the consensus of the primordialists (those who take ethnicity for a basic organizing principle since ancient times) is that the ethnic ancestors of the Illyrians, labelled Proto-Illyrians, branched off from the main linguistic Proto-Indo-European trunk before the Iron Age. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Current theories of Illyrian origin are based on ancient remnants of material culture found in the area, but archaeological remains alone have so far proven insufficient for a definite answer to the question of the Illyrian ethnogenesis. In addition to its usual meaning in Social science, in Archaeology, the term culture is also used in reference to several related concepts unique to
When the Proto-Illyrians became a distinct group remains unclear. The process may have begun as early as the Eneolithic (the latest phase of the Stone Age). The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking It is hypothesized that in the Eneolithic period invading Indo-European groups mingled with indigenous pre-Indo-European groups, resulting in the formation of the principal tribal groups, based upon their uses of the Paleo-Balkan languages (Illyrians, Thracians, and others). Neolithic Europe is the time between roughly from 7000 BC (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) to ca The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in Ancient times. "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity  Many Illyrian tribes are not considered Illyrian anymore but Venetic.
A. Benac and B. Čović, archaeologists from Sarajevo, hypothesize that during the Bronze Age there took place a progressive Illyrianization of peoples dwelling in the lands between the Adriatic and the Sava river. TemplateInfobox City for more fields--> Sarajevo is the Capital city and largest urban center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with The Sava ( Bosnian, Croatian, Slovene: Sava; Serbian: Сава, Sava) is a river in In contrast to an ethnogenesis in the Balkans, another (older) school of scholars maintains the theory of an Illyrian invasion, which involves a great movement of Illyrian tribes from the lowlands of central Europe (modern Hungary), towards southeastern Europe and the Balkan peninsula. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Illyrian invasion is estimated to have occurred around the 13th century BC. The numerous Thracian names in Illyria have led many scholars to believe that the region was originally inhabited by Thracians, who were either displaced or submitted to the Illyrian invaders. "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the The Illyrians were most likely in turn pushed eastwards by Celtic or Germanic tribes from the northwest. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic According to this theory, the Illyrian invasion most likely caused the Thracian expansion to the east, the movement of the Greeks to the south and the Phrygian migration from Thrace into central Asia Minor. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The last event may have created the conditions for the Achaean Greeks to colonize the coast of Asia Minor and the Dorians to start their invasion. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece to explain the replacement of pre-classical dialects and traditions in southern Greece by
In the western Balkans, there are few remains to connect with the bronze-using Proto-Illyrians in Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo, Croatia, western Serbia, and eastern Bosnia. The Bronze Age in Europe succeeds the Neolithic in the late 3rd millennium BC (late Beaker culture) and spans the entire Prehistoric Balkans is the period of human presence (including early hominins) before the appearance of Indo-European people, which extended Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging Moreover, with the notable exception of Pod near Bugojno in the upper valley of the Vrbas River, nothing is known of their settlements. Bugojno (Cyrillic Бугојно is a town and municipality of the same name in central Bosnia and Herzegovina on the river Vrbas. The Vrbas is a major River in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some hill settlements have been identified in western Serbia, but the main evidence comes from cemeteries, consisting usually of a small number of burial mounds (tumuli). A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves In eastern Bosnia in the cemeteries of Belotić and Bela Crkva, the rites of exhumation and cremation are attested, with skeletons in stone cists and cremations in urns. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire A cist (ˈkɪst or /ˈsɪst/ or kist (/ˈkɪst/ is a small stone-built coffin-like box or Ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead. An urn is a Vase, ordinarily covered and without handles that usually has a narrowed neck above a footed Pedestal. Metal implements appear here side-by-side with stone implements. Most of the remains belong to the fully developed Middle Bronze Age.
During the 7th century BC, when bronze was replaced by iron, the Illyrians became an ethnic group with a distinct culture and art form, and only jewelry and art objects were still made out of bronze. The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Different Illyrian tribes appeared, under the influence of the Halstat cultures from the north, and they organized their regional centers. Hallstatt, Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. The cult of the dead played an important role in the lives of the Illyrians, which is seen in their carefully made burials and burial ceremonies, as well as the richness of the burial sites. In the northern parts of the Balkans, there existed a long tradition of cremation and burial in shallow graves, while in the southern parts, the dead were buried in large stone, or earth tumuli (natively called gromile) that in Herzegovina were reaching monumental sizes, more than 50 meters wide and 5 meters high. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian: Hercegovina, Serbian: Херцеговина) is a traditionally The Japodian tribe (found from Istria in Croatia to Bihać in Bosnia) have had an affinity for decoration with heavy, oversized necklaces out of yellow, blue or white glass paste, and large bronze fibulas, as well as spiral bracelets, diadems and helmets out of bronze. This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bihać is a town and municipality on the Una River in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging Small sculptures out of jade in form of archaic Ionian plastic are also characteristically Japodian. Numerous monumental sculptures are preserved, as well as walls of citadel Nezakcij near Pula, one of numerous Istrian cities from Iron Age. A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. Pula (Pietas Iulia Pulj Istriot Pula; Pola is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man.
The Illyrians formed several kingdoms in the central Balkans, and the first known Illyrian king was Bardyllis. Bardyllis of the Illyrians (also attested as Bardylis in Ancient Greek: Βάρδυλις Βάρδυλιν Βάρδυλλις and Latin language Illyrian kingdoms were often at war with ancient Macedonia, and the Illyrian pirates were also a significant danger to neighbouring peoples. At the delta of Neretva, there was a strong Hellenistic influence on the Illyrian tribe of Daors. Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The total length is 225 km of which 203 km are in Herzegovina, while the final 22 km are in the This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Illyrian tribes or possibly or partly Illyrian tribes or tribes inhabiting lands known as Illyria. Their capital was Daorson located in Ošanići near Stolac in Herzegovina, which became the main center of classical Illyrian culture. Daorson ( Greek language; Δαορσών)was a Hellenistic city of the Illyrian Daorsi,Daorson located in Ošanići near Stolac Stolac is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the southern part of Herzegovina. Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian: Hercegovina, Serbian: Херцеговина) is a traditionally Daorson, during the 4th century BC, was surrounded by megalithic, 5 meter high stonewalls (large as those of Mycenae in Greece), composed out of large trapeze stones blocks. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. "Lion Gate" redirects here For other uses see Lions' Gate (disambiguation. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Daors also made unique bronze coins and sculptures. main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review The Illyrians even conquered Greek colonies on the Dalmatian islands. Colonies in antiquity were City-states founded from a mother- City Queen Teuta of Issa (today the Vis (island)) was famous for having waged wars against the Romans. Vis ( Greek: Issa) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest inhabited island Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Ultimately, the Romans subdued the Illyrians during the 1st century BC. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. Illyrian territories would later become provinces of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
After the Roman conquest, the Illyrians were granted civil rights by the Constitutio Antoniniana issued in 212. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Constitutio Antoniniana ( Latin: "Constitution Edict of Antoninus" (aka Edict of Caracalla was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Moreover, Rome recruited Illyrian soldiers to guard its borders from barbarian tribes. Their squads grew in number to such an extent that the Illyrian military began to play an important part in Roman political life, even ascending the imperial throne at certain points. In the course of over a century, seven Illyrian-born emperors ruled in succession. The province of Illyricum stretched from the Drilon River in modern Albania to Istria (Croatia) in the west and the Sava River (Croatia) in the north. The Sava ( Bosnian, Croatian, Slovene: Sava; Serbian: Сава, Sava) is a river in Its capital was located at Salonae near modern Split in Croatia. Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest After a revolt of Pannonians and Dalmatians (i. e. the rebellion of Bato) was crushed in 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern In 297 CE, Emperor Diocletian, carried out administrative reforms in the Roman Empire by constituting prefectures, dioceses and provinces. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate In conformity with this reorganisation, the territory was additionally divided. The southern part of Dalmatia was cut off and became the province of Praevalitana, with Shkodra (Shkodër) as its administrative centre. Other provinces entailed Epirus Nova, with Dyrrachium as its capital, and Epirus Vetus, with its central city at Nikopolis. Epirus nova (also known as Illyria Graeca) was a province of the Roman Empire established by Diocletian during his restructuring of provincial boundaries Epirus vetus was a Province in the Roman Empire. Between 146 BC and 395 AD, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Macedonia Nicopolis (Νικόπολις city of victory) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory The latter two were part of the Macedonian diocese. The dioceses Pannonia, Noricum, Moesia Superior and Macedonia with the rest of Greece were constituent parts of the prefecture of Illyricum, which comprised part of the Balkans from 318 to 379 AD. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Noricum, in ancient Geography, was a Celtic kingdom (perhaps better described as a federation of by tradition twelve tribes stretching over the area of Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum ( Latin: praefectura praetorio per Illyricum, ἔπαρχότητα/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τοῦ Liburnia was also one of the provincia Dalmatiarum located north from the river Krka including Skradin. KRKA (1079 FM, "HOT 1079" is a Rhythmic Top 40 serving the Lafayette area Skradin ( Latin: Scardona) is a small town in the Šibenik-Knin county of Croatia, population about 3986 (2001 census However, Liburnia had sometimes possessed a status of being in a separate administrative-territorial unit. Analysis of the archaeological material from antiquity has shown that the process of Romanization was selective. In Linguistics, romanization (or latinization, also spelled romanisation or latinisation) is the representation of a Word or Urban centres, both coastal and inland, were almost totally Romanised. Although the Illyrians were subject to a strong process of aculturisation, they continued to speak their own native language, respect their own gods, preserve their traditions and adhere to their own socio-political tribal organization, which was only in some necessities adapted to Roman administration and political structures. 
The Illyrians were mentioned for the last time in the Miracula Sancti Demetri during the 7th century. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  With the disintegration of the Roman Empire, Gothic and Hunnic tribes raided the Balkan peninsula, making many Illyrians seek refuge in the highlands. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy With the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th century, most Illyrians were Slavicized. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  A few of the Romanised Illyrians from the Adriatic coast did manage to preserve their blended culture. Many fled to the mountains, surviving as shepherds, and kept speaking their Romance language. They are referred to as Morlachs. Morlachs (in Serbian Morlaci or Морлаци in Greek Μαυροβλάχοι Mavrovlachi or Mauro-Vlachs, meaning "Black Vlachs " in  Others took refuge inside the defended cities of the coast, where they kept Roman culture alive for many centuries, but were also eventually assimilated by the expanding Slavic population of the mainland.
During the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the term "Illyrian" was used to describe Croats living within the territories of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Austria, Hungary and Serbia (and in other countries abroad). The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest However, on the territory of Venetian Albania (possessions of the Republic of Venice on the territory of Montenegro) and further southward, that term has been used to designate Albanians. Albania Veneta ( English: Venetian Albania) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice in southern Dalmatia that existed from 1420 
The term Illyrians was utilized in late medieval texts such as in Mazaris' Journey to Hades (a work written by Byzantine author Mazaris between January 1414 and October 1415). Mazaris (Μάζαρις (fl c 1415 was a late Byzantine Greek writer In Mazaris' case, the term was used to designate "Albanians" (i. e. Arvanites). 
The term was revived again during the Habsburg Monarchy, but it was designated towards South Slavs. Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of This association was based on the opinion that the South Slavs were descendants of Slavicized Illyrians. When Napoleon conquered part of the South Slavic lands in the beginning of the 19th century, these areas were named after ancient Illyrian provinces. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were Under the influence of Romantic nationalism, a self-identified "Illyrian movement" (Croatian: Ilirski pokret) in the form of a Croatian national revival, opened a literary and journalistic campaign that was initiated by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the years of 1835-1849. Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret also Croatian national revival ( Hrvatski narodni preporod) was a cultural and political campaign initiated by a group of Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring  This movement, under the banner of Illlyrism, aimed to create a Croatian national establishment under Austro-Hungarian rule, through linguistic and ethnic unity among South Slavs. It was repressed by the Habsburg authorities after the failed Revolutions of 1848. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European