The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illegal drugs. A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body While some drugs are legal to possess and sell, in most jurisdictions laws prohibit the trade of certain types of drug. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the
The illegal drug trade operates similarly to other underground markets. Various drug cartels specialize in the separate processes along the supply chain, often localized to maximize production efficiency. Drug cartels are Criminal organizations developed with the primary purpose of promoting and controlling drug trafficking operations A supply chain or logistics network is the system of organizations people technology activities information and resources involved in moving a product or service from Depending on the profitability of each layer, cartels usually vary in size, consistency, and organization. The chain ranges from low-level street dealers who may be individual drug users themselves, through street gangs and contractor-like middlemen, up to multinational empires that rival governments in size. Drug subcultures are examples of Countercultures primarily defined by Recreational drug use. Gangsters redirects here For the computer game see Gangsters (video game. Middle Man is an Album by Boz Scaggs released on Columbia Records in 1980
Illegal drugs may be grown in wilderness areas, on farms, produced in indoor or outdoor residential gardens or indoor hydroponic grow-ops, or manufactured in drug labs located anywhere from a residential basement to an abandoned facility. Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature. Hydroponics (from the Greek words hydro (water and ponos (labour is a method of growing Plants using mineral Nutrient solutions without Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Clandestine chemistry generally refers to Chemistry carried out in illegal drug Laboratories (known colloquially as labs) but can include any A basement is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the Ground floor. The common characteristic binding these production locations is that they are discreet to avoid detection, and thus they may be located in any ordinary setting without raising notice. Much illegal drug cultivation and manufacture takes place in developing nations, although production also occurs in the developed world. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties
In locales where the drug trade is illegal, police departments as well as courts and prisons may expend significant resources in pursuing drug-related crime. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways Most directly it is a crime to use possess manufacture or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse Additionally, through the influence of a number of black market players, corruption is a problem, especially in poorer societies.
Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally. While consumers avoid taxation by buying on the black market, the high costs involved in protecting trade routes from law enforcement lead to vastly inflated prices. A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo
Additionally, various laws criminalize certain kinds of trade of drugs that are otherwise legal (for example, untaxed cigarettes). In these cases, the drugs are often manufactured and partially distributed by the normal legal channels, and diverted at some point into illegal channels.
Finally, many governments restrict the production and sale of large classes of drugs through prescription systems. A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained
In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the possession or sale of drugs, most commonly psychoactive drugs, potential drug buyers and sellers are unable to transact in the open. Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Only illegal drug trade remains an option, and when such trade occurs a black market is born.
Since the drug transaction itself is illegal, any participants in the trade are by definition criminal. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment With no significant additional cost to being convicted of drug charges, previous convicts hold a competitive advantage in providing illegal drug products. Competitive advantage is a position a firm occupies against its competitors
The trade of drugs has existed for as long as the drugs themselves have existed. The Opium Wars ( also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing However, the trade of drugs was fully legal until the introduction of drug prohibition. The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the The history of the illegal drug trade is thus closely tied to the history of drug prohibition.
In the First Opium War, Great Britain attempted to force China to allow British merchants to trade in opium with the general population of China. The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Although illegal by imperial decree, smoking opium was common in the 1800s and was believed to cure many health problems. In the United States, a 1791 tax led to the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the
Legal drugs can be the subject of smuggling and illegal trading if the price difference between the origin and the destination are high enough to make it profitable, due to high taxes or other restrictions in the destination locale. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Smuggling, also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point where prohibited such as out of a building into a Prison If a large price difference exists without legal restrictions, then legal trade of drugs can take place between the two markets.
With taxes on tobacco much higher in the United Kingdom than on mainland Europe there exists a sizable untaxed cigarette market in the UK. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Likewise in other regions where high-tax and low- or no-tax societies exist nearby, such as Canada and parts of the United States as well as various Indian reservations. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau It is also illegal to sell or give tobacco or alcohol to minors in some of these areas, which is considered smuggling throughout most developed countries. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Alcohol is also produced privately (and sometimes illegally) as moonshine. Production Uses Usually large scale distillation is practiced for the purpose of making ethanol for drinking, yet it may also practiced for creating Biofuel
Some prescription drugs are also available by illegal means, eliminating the need to manufacture and process the drugs. A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained For example, a few prescription opioids, such as the group of the fentanyl analogues, are much stronger than heroin found on the street. An opioid is a chemical Substance that has a Morphine -like action in the body Fentanyl is one of the most powerful Opioid Analgesics with a potency approximately 81 times that of Morphine. They are sourced either from stolen or partly divided prescriptions sold by medical practices and occasionally from Internet sale. Benzodiazepines, in particular temazepam and flunitrazepam, are also frequently diverted to the black market through forged prescriptions, pharmacy robberies and doctor shopping. The benzodiazepines (pronounced, often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of Psychoactive drugs with varying Hypnotic Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril, Euhypnos, Normison, Remestan, Tenox and Norkotral) is an intermediate-acting Flunitrazepam (ˌfluːnaɪˈtræzəpæm is a highly potent Hypnotic drug with powerful Sedative, Anxiolytic, Amnestic, and Skeletal Forgery is the process of making adapting or imitating objects statistics or documents (see False document) with the intent to deceive. Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Doctor shopping refers to the practice of a patient requesting care from multiple physicians often simultaneously without making efforts to coordinate care or informing the physicians  In Malaysia and Singapore, there occurs similar diversion of nimetazepam. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Singapore Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin) is a powerful Hypnotic drug which is a Benzodiazepine derivative which was first synthesized in Japan In the United States, similar diversion of alprazolam and clonazepam is also common. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug of the Benzodiazepine class used to treat moderate Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril, Ravotril or Rivatril in Europe South However, it is much easier to control traffic in prescription drugs than in banned drugs because the manufacturer is usually an originally legal enterprise and thus the leak can often be readily found and countered. There might also be an advantage in reduced risk of contaminated or poor to outright toxic produce common with illegal clandestine laboratory production. Clandestine chemistry generally refers to Chemistry carried out in illegal drug Laboratories (known colloquially as labs) but can include any
"No Prescription Websites" (NPWs) offer to sell controlled substances without a valid prescription. NPWs were first recognized by the U.S. Justice Department in 1999, indicating that such sites had been operating at least through the late 1990s. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department NPWs enable dealers and users to complete transactions without direct contact, meanwhile many NPWs accept credit cards, others only accept cash thereby further reducing any paper trail. Many NPWs are hosted in countries in which specific categories of controlled substances are locally legal (e. g. prescription opioids in Mexico), but because of the global nature of the internet, NPWs are able to do (mostly illegal) business with customers around the globe. In addition to prescription opioids, stimulants, and sedatives, steroids are often widely distributed. To date, no websites have been found selling illegal drugs like heroin, or illegal amphetamine derivatives. Some police have uncovered several instances of drug vendors or drug rings using Craigslist personal ads to solicit drug business using code words and phrases. Craigslist is a central network of online communities featuring free online classified advertisements – with jobs internships housing personals, erotic All other categories of drugs are available online.
2004 saw the conclusion of Operation Web Tryp, focusing on companies selling so-called research chemicals, legal psychedelic phenethylamines and tryptamines on the Internet. Operation Web Tryp was a United States Drug Enforcement Administration operation that ended on July 21, 2004 with the arrests of 10 persons Designer drug is a term used to describe Psychoactive drugs which are created (or marketed if they had already existed to get around existing Drug laws Phenethylamine, or β -phenylethylamine or 2-phenylethylamine is an Alkaloid and Monoamine. Tryptamine is a Monoamine Alkaloid found in Plants and Animals.
Some governments that criminalize drug trade have a policy of interfering heavily with foreign states. In 1989, the United States intervened in Panama with the goal of disrupting the drug trade coming from Panama. Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. The Indian government has several covert operations in the Middle East and Indian subcontinent to keep a track of various drug dealers. A covert operation is a Military or political activity carried out in such a way that the parties responsible for the action can be an Open secret, but The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. Opium production in Afghanistan is a current problem in the development of a licit economy for that country. Afghanistan is as of March 2008 the greatest illicit (in Western World standards Opium producer in the world before Burma ( Myanmar) part of the so-called "
There may be a link between drugs and terrorism, though this remains unconfirmed so far. The United Nations (UN) reports that the illegal drug trade is worth $400 Billion a year—more than the U. S. Department of Defense budget. The mass traffic in illegal drugs has greatly contributed to violence across the globe. Before drug trafficking was blamed for international terrorism, it was financing the arms race on America's streets. Similarly, any terrorist group with a militant agenda can tap into the huge resource. Yet it is the drug war itself that creates the drug-terror link, not vice-versa  Many terrorist organisation are active in drug trade.  The PKK for instance has allegedly controlled a big part of the European drug market. 
Some estimates placed the value of the global trade in illegal drugs at around US$400 billion in the year 2000; that, added to the global trade value of legal drugs at the same time, totals to an amount higher than the amount of money spent for food in the same period of time. Illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways Most directly it is a crime to use possess manufacture or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been In the 2005 United Nations World Drug Report, the value of the global illicit drug market for the year 2003 was estimated at US$13 billion at the production level, at US$94 billion at the wholesale level, and US$322–$400 billion based on retail prices and taking seizures and other losses into account. A recently published account of the mechanics of the drug trade The Illicit Drug Trade in the United Kingdom sized the UK Market at £8bn and estimated the amount spent on drugs each year was equal to 33% of the tobacco market and 41% of that for alcohol. The report included a detailed analysis of the illicit drug trade based upon over 220 interviews with high level drug traffickers in the UK.
In the late 1990s in the United States, the FBI estimates that 5% of murders were drug-related.  In addition, drug smuggling can lead to harsh penalties, including the death penalty, in certain countries (for example, Singapore). Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in Singapore.
Many have argued that the arbitrariness of drug prohibition laws from the medical point of view, especially the theory of harm reduction, worsens the problems around these substances. Harm reduction is a Philosophy of Public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous
The U. S. government's most recent 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reported that nationwide over 800,000 adolescents ages 12-17 sold illegal drugs during the 12 months preceding the survey.  The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey by the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that nationwide 25. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated 4% of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property. The prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property ranged from 15. 5% to 38. 7% across state CDC surveys (median: 26. 1%) and from 20. 3% to 40. 0% across local surveys (median: 29. 4%). 
Despite over $7 billion spent annually towards arresting  and prosecuting nearly 800,000 people across the country for marijuana offenses in 2005 (FBI Uniform Crime Reports), the federally-funded Monitoring the Future Survey reports about 85% of high school seniors find marijuana “easy to obtain. ” That figure has remained virtually unchanged since 1975, never dropping below 82. 7% in three decades of national surveys. 
The price per gram of heroin is typically 8 to 10 times that of cocaine on US streets.  Generally in Europe (except the transit countries Portugal and the Netherlands), a purported gram of street Heroin, which is usually between 0. 7 and 0. 8 grams light to dark brown powder consisting of 5-10%, less commonly up to 20%, heroin base, is between 30 and 70 euros, which makes for an effective price of pure heroin per gram of between 300 and 2000 euros.
The purity of street cocaine in Europe is usually in the same range as it is for heroin, the price being between 50 and 100 euros per between 0. 7 and 1. 0 grams. This totals to a cocaine price range between 500 and 2000 euros.
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, anabolic steroids are relatively easy to smuggle into the United States. Anabolic steroids, or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS) are a class of Steroid hormones related to the hormone Testosterone. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP, a Cabinet level component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 Once there, they are often sold at gyms and competitions as well as through mail operations.
In World Drug report 2006 UNODC focused on The New cannabis, distribution of stronger marijuana with more THC and its health effects. Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention 
Most of the dank cannabis (headies) sold in the U. S. is grown in hidden grow operations indoors. The number 1 producer is California with an annual revenue of nearly 14 billion dollars in production, Tennessee is second with nearly 5 billion in production, Kentucky is third with around 4. 5 billion, Hawaii is fourth with close to 4 billion, and Washington is fifth with a little over a billion (http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/bcr2/MJCropReport_2006.pdf). Much of the commercial cannabis (middies) in the United States is imported from Mexico. The cannabis imported from British Columbia in Canada, known as BC bud, is sometimes of higher quality than cannabis grown in the United States (professionally grown herb from California medicinal dispensaries has a reputation as well). Cannabis that is old or has been dried and cured improperly frequently is tainted with a strong smell of grass, hay or alfalfa (beaster smell). Locally grown produce does not ordinarily smell this way, although outdoor-grown marijuana often smells of other plant material due to its mingled upbringing in nature. The beaster bud usually comes from an outdoor grow op within one of the top 5 producing states. Around 40% of US marijuana is grown inside of the country.
Psilocybe mushrooms grow naturally in tropical and sub-tropical climates, thus this drug market is financially less lucrative, even though there is no doubt a certain kind of commercial growing of the Psilocybe mushrooms, from different stages of maturity/manufacture of chewable dried mushroom tissue. Psilocybe is a Genus of small Mushrooms growing worldwide This genus is best known for its species with hallucinogenic properties widely Psychonauts will often grow these mushrooms or pick them for themselves as they are common to find in many places of the world. A psychonaut (from the Greek ψυχοναύτης meaning literally a sailor of the mind/soul is a person who uses Altered states of consciousness, intentionally This type of mushroom is commonly picked from cow pastures after rainfall, where the mushrooms sprout out of the cow manure when it is moist. People who trespass on cow pastures and are caught, often are suspected of illicit drug activity.
In some areas of the world, particularly in and around the Arabian peninsula, the trade of alcohol is strictly prohibited. For example, Pakistan bans the trade because of its large Muslim population. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Similarly, Saudi Arabia forbids the importation of alcohol into its kingdom, however, alcohol is smuggled in very high quantities. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Fugitive Cassandra Dickerson was a noted criminal smuggler responsible for 90% of the alcohol being smuggled into Saudi Arabia in 2003.  In other areas it is considered like any other beverage, and is legal. In still other areas, there is an age limit for consumers, and a license is necessary to sell alcohol.
Pure alcohol or liquids with high alcohol content over a certain percentage or proof, calculated by volume or weight, are also banned in many countries. In Russia, for example, rubbing alcohol is a scheduled drug on par with heroin, and theoretically has the same legal penalties. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The illegal trade of tobacco is motivated primarily by increasingly heavy taxation. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. When tobacco products such as name-brand cigarettes are traded illegally, the cost is as little as one third that of retail price due to the lack of taxes being applied as the product is sold from manufacturer to buyer to retailer. It has been reported that smuggling one truckload of cigarettes within the United States leads to a profit of 2 million U. S. dollars. 
The source of the illegally-traded tobacco is often the proceeds from other crimes, such as store and transportation robberies.
Sometimes, the illegal trade of tobacco is motivated by differences in taxes in two jurisdictions, including smuggling across international borders. Smuggling of tobacco from the US into Canada has been problematic, and sometimes political where trans-national native communities are involved in the illegal trade.
The kingdom of Bhutan made the sale of tobacco illegal in December 2004,  and since this time a flourishing black market in tobacco products has sprung up. The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia. In 2006, tobacco and betel nut were the most commonly seized illicit drugs in Bhutan. 
Temazepam, which is a strong hypnotic benzodiazepine is being illicitly manufactured in clandestine laboratories (called jellie labs) to supply the increasingly high demand for the hypnotic drug internationally. Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril, Euhypnos, Normison, Remestan, Tenox and Norkotral) is an intermediate-acting The benzodiazepines (pronounced, often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of Psychoactive drugs with varying Hypnotic  Most clandestine temazepam labs are in Eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The way in which they manufacture the temazepam is through chemical alteration of diazepam, oxazepam or lorazepam.  Clandestine "jellie labs" have been identified and shutdown in Russia, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Latvia and Belarus. 
In the United Kingdom, temazepam is the most widely-abused legal, prescription drug. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located About one in five people abuse temazepam in the country. It's also the most commonly abused benzodiazepine in Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Russia, China, New Zealand, Australia and some parts of Southeast Asia. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In Sweden it has been banned due to a problem with drug abuse issues and a high rate of death caused by temazepam alone relative to other drugs of its group. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a Psychoactive drug or Performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect Surveys in many countries showed that temazepam, heroin, cocaine, MDMA, cannabis, nimetazepam, and amphetamines rank among the top drugs most frequently abused. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin) is a powerful Hypnotic drug which is a Benzodiazepine derivative which was first synthesized in Japan Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine 
International illicit trade in opium is relatively rare. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Major smuggling organizations prefer to further refine opium into heroin before shipping to the consumer countries, since a given quantity of heroin is worth much more than an equivalent amount of opium. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative As such, heroin is more profitable, and much stronger, because heroin metabolizes directly into the main naturally-occurring psychoactive substance in opium—morphine.
Heroin is smuggled into the United States and Europe. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Medical uses Morphine can be used as an analgesic in hospital settings to relieve pain in Myocardial infarction pain in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Purity levels vary greatly by region with, for the most part, Northeastern cities having the most pure heroin in the United States (according to a recently released report by the DEA, Elizabeth and Newark, New Jersey, have the purest street grade A heroin in the country). Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Heroin is a very easily smuggled drug because a small, quarter-sized vial can contain hundreds of doses. Heroin is also widely (and usually illegally) used as a powerful and addictive drug that produces intense euphoria, which often disappears with increasing tolerance. This 'rush' comes from its high lipid solubility provided by the two acetyl groups, resulting in a very rapid penetration of the blood-brain barrier after use. Once in the blood stream, heroin is rapidly converted to morphine. The morphine then binds to the opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, causing the subjective effects. Heroin and morphine can be taken or administered in a number of ways, including snorting and injection. They may also be smoked by inhaling the vapors produced when heated from below (known as "chasing the dragon"). Penalties for smuggling heroin and/or morphine are often harsh in most countries. Some countries will readily hand down a death sentence or a few days in prison for the illegal smuggling of heroin or morphine, which are both, internationally, Schedule I drugs under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international Treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally Narcotic) Drugs and of drugs
In some areas of the United States, the trade of methamphetamine is rampant. Because of the ease in production and its addiction rate, methamphetamine is a favorite amongst many drug distributors. During the Vietnam war, drug lords used to bring hundreds of kilos of heroin at a time to the U. S. in coffins of dead American soldiers. Since that time it has become more difficult for drugs to be imported into the United States than it had been in previous decades, but that doesn’t stop the drug industry from getting their drugs onto U. S. soil.
According to the Community Epidemiology Work Group, the numbers of clandestine methamphetamine laboratory incidents reported to the National Clandestine Laboratory Database decreased from 1999 to 2004. During this same period, methamphetamine lab incidents increased in midwestern States (Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio), and in Pennsylvania. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern In 2004, more lab incidents were reported in Illinois (926) than in California (673). In 2003, methamphetamine lab incidents reached new highs in Georgia (250), Minnesota (309), and Texas (677). There were only seven methamphetamine lab incidents reported in Hawaii in 2004, though nearly 59 percent of substance abuse treatment admissions (excluding alcohol) were for primary methamphetamine abuse during the first six months of 2004
Methamphetamine is sometimes used in an injectable form, placing users and their partners at risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Hepatitis C is a blood-borne infectious disease that is caused by the Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) affecting the Liver. "Meth" can also be inhaled which is said to give "an unnatural high" to its users". Methamphetamine is not phsyically addictive but the user will continue to seek this "high" which he or she achieved.
In South Africa the abuse of metamphetamine has reached epidemic proportions in especially the “Cape flats" where it is called "tik" or "tik-tik". Youngsters ranging in age from as young as eight are abusing the substance where it is smoked in crude glass vials constructed from light bulbs. Since Methamphetamine is easy to produce the substance is manufactured in staggering quantities in "backyard" factories. After the new South African government came into power, the South African Narcotics Bureau (SANAB) was disbanded, allowing dealers an unprecedented freedom of operation and causing a simultaneous drop in prices and rise in availability. 
The U. The War on Drugs is a prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries intended to reduce the Illegal S. federal government is a vocal opponent of the drug industry and it has set the fact of international standards regarding the legality and illegality of different drugs. State laws vary greatly and in some cases defy federal laws. Despite the US government's official position against the drug trade, US government agents and assets have been implicated in the drug trade. 
Oliver North and Barry Seal were caught and investigated during the Iran-Contra scandal, implicated in the use of the drug trade as a secret source of funding for the USA's support of the Contras. Oliver Laurence North (born October 7 1943 in San Antonio Texas) is an American best known for his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. Adler Berriman Seal, or "Barry Seal" ( July 16, 1939 – February 19, 1986) was a pilot with the Central Intelligence The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National Page 41 of the December 1988 Kerry report to the US Senate  states that "indeed senior US policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contra's funding problem".
Highly decorated US military Special Forces veteran Colonel Bo Gritz (retired) has accused the USA of collaborating with and supporting Manuel Noriega in his drug trafficking operations. In most countries special forces (SF is a generic term for highly-trained Military teams/units that conduct specialized operations such as Reconnaissance James Gordon "Bo" Gritz (born May 18, 1939 in Enid Oklahoma) was a United States Army Special Forces officer during the Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" In his book Called To Serve, Gritz details his role as a key US Government employee tasked with protecting the USA's relationship with Noriega.
Contrary to its official goals, the US has suppressed research on drug usage. For example, in 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute – commonly known as UNICRI - is one of the 5 global Research and Training Institutes of the United However, a decision in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study. The World Health Assembly is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO is governed by its 193 member states In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that "If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programmes should be curtailed". This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study has been released. 
Drug smuggling was the topic of: