Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor' Fjodorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th century music. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings  He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century. Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single Moral community. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and  In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premières of his works. Conducting is the act of directing a Musical performance by way of visible gestures
Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): L'Oiseau de feu ("The Firebird") (1910), Petrushka (1911/1947), and Le Sacre du printemps ("The Rite of Spring") (1913). In Art, a commission is the hiring and payment for the creation of a piece often on behalf of another Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev) also referred to as Serge, ( March 31, See also Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, The Ballets Russes ( French for The Russian Ballets) was a Ballet company established The Firebird ( French: L'Oiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky Petrouchka or Petrushka ( Pétrouchka; Петрушка) is a Ballet with music by the Russian Composer This article is about the ballet music For the emo/hardcore band see Rites of Spring The Rite of Spring, commonly referred The Rite, whose première provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure; to this day its vision of pagan rituals, enacted in an imaginary ancient Russia continues to dazzle and overwhelm audiences.
After this first Russian phase Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism in the 1920s. Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso, fugue, symphony), frequently concealed a vein of intense emotion beneath a surface appearance of detachment or austerity, and often paid tribute to the music of earlier masters, for example J.S. Bach, Verdi, and Tchaikovsky. The concerto grosso ( Italian for big concert(o, Plural concerti grossi) is a form of Baroque music in which the musical material In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
In the 1950s he adopted serial procedures, using the new techniques over the final twenty years of his life to write works that were briefer and of greater rhythmic, harmonic, and textural complexity than his earlier music. In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those Their intricacy notwithstanding, these pieces share traits with all of Stravinsky's earlier output; rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few cells comprising only two or three notes, and clarity of form, instrumentation, and of utterance.
He also published a number of books throughout his career, almost always with the aid of a collaborator, sometimes uncredited. In his 1936 autobiography, Chronicles of My Life, written with the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky included his infamous statement that "music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express anything at all. Alexis Roland-Manuel ( 22 March, 1891 – 2 November, 1966) was a French composer and critic though he is remembered mainly for his " With Roland-Manuel and Pierre Souvtchinsky he wrote his 1939–40 Harvard University Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, which were delivered in French and later collected under the title Poétique musicale in 1942 (translated in 1947 as Poetics of Music).  Several interviews in which the composer spoke to Robert Craft were published as Conversations with Igor Stravinsky They collaborated on five further volumes over the following decade. Robert Lawson Craft (born October 20, 1923) is an American conductor and writer
Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (renamed Lomonosov in 1948), Russia and brought up in Saint Petersburg. Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов before 1948 Oranienbaum, ru Ораниенба́ум is a town under the jurisdiction of St Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River His childhood, he recalled in his autobiography, was troubled: "I never came across anyone who had any real affection for me. " His father, Fyodor Stravinsky, was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in Saint Petersburg, and the young Stravinsky began piano lessons and later studied music theory and attempted some composition. Fyodor Ignatievich Stravinsky (Фёдор Игнатиевич Стравинский -) was a Russian Ukrainian bass Opera singer and The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in In 1890, Stravinsky saw a performance of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theater; the performance, his first exposure to an orchestra, mesmerized him. The Sleeping Beauty ( Спящая Красавица, Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a Ballet in a prologue and three acts Opus 66 by Pyotr  At fourteen, he had mastered Mendelssohn's Piano Concerto in G minor, and the next year, he finished a piano reduction of one of Alexander Glazunov's string quartets. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov (Александр Константинович Глазунов Aleksandr Konstantinovič Glazunov; Glazounov Glasunow &ndash 21 March 
Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to become a lawyer. Stravinsky enrolled to study law at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1901, but was ill-suited for it, attending fewer than fifty class sessions in four years. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Saint Petersburg State University ( Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is a Russian federal state-owned higher  After the death of his father in 1902, he had already begun spending more time on his musical studies. Because of the closure of the university in the spring of 1905, in the aftermath of Bloody Sunday, Stravinsky was prevented from taking his law finals, and received only a half-course diploma, in April 1906. For other incidents referred to by this name see Bloody Sunday.  Thereafter, he concentrated on music. On the advice of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time, he decided not to enter the Saint Petersburg Conservatoire; instead, in 1905, he began to take twice-weekly private tutelage from Rimsky-Korsakov, who became like a second father to him. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay 
In 1905 he was betrothed to his cousin Katerina Nossenko, whom he had known since early childhood. They were married on 23 January 1906, and their first two children, Fyodor and Ludmilla, were born in 1907 and 1908 respectively. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
In 1909, his Feu d'artifice (Fireworks), was performed in Saint Petersburg, where it was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. Feu d'artifice op 4 (Fireworks Russian Feyerverk) is an early composition by Igor Stravinsky, written in 1908 Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev) also referred to as Serge, ( March 31, See also Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, The Ballets Russes ( French for The Russian Ballets) was a Ballet company established Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed to commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations, and then to compose a full-length ballet score, L'Oiseau de feu (The Firebird). The Firebird ( French: L'Oiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky
Stravinsky travelled to Paris in 1910 to attend the premiere of The Firebird. His family soon joined him, and decided to remain in the West for a time. He moved to Switzerland, where he lived until 1920 in Clarens and Lausanne. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Clarens is a small village in the municipality of Montreux, in the canton of Vaud, in Switzerland. Lausanne ( pronounced, Losanna is a city in Romandy, the French -speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva During this time he composed three further works for the Ballets Russes—Petrushka (1911), written in Lausanne, and Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913) and Pulcinella, both written in Clarens. Petrouchka or Petrushka ( Pétrouchka; Петрушка) is a Ballet with music by the Russian Composer This article is about the ballet music For the emo/hardcore band see Rites of Spring The Rite of Spring, commonly referred Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Pulcinella is a Ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play — Pulcinella is a character originating from Commedia dell'arte
While the Stravinskys were in Switzerland, their second son, Soulima (who later became a minor composer), was born in 1910; and their second daughter, Maria Milena, was born in 1913. Soulima Igorevich Stravinsky ( - 28 November 1994 was a Russian - Swiss composer and musicologist. During this last pregnancy, Katerina was found to have tuberculosis, and she was placed in a Swiss sanatorium for her confinement. After a brief return to Russia in July 1914 to collect research materials for Les Noces, Stravinsky left his homeland and returned to Switzerland just before the outbreak of World War I brought about the closure of the borders. Les noces ( English: The Wedding; Russian: Свадебка ( Svadebka) by Igor Stravinsky World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He was not to return to Russia for nearly fifty years. Stravinsky was one of the few Eastern Orthodox or Russian Orthodox community representatives living in Switzerland at that time and is still remembered as such in Switzerland to date. 
He moved to France in 1920, where he formed a business and musical relationship with the French piano manufacturer Pleyel. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Essentially, Pleyel acted as his agent in collecting mechanical royalties for his works, and in return provided him with a monthly income and a studio space in which to work and to entertain friends and business acquaintances. He also arranged, one might say re-composed, many of his early works for the Pleyela, Pleyel's brand of player piano, in a way that makes full use of the piano's 88 notes, without regard for the number or span of human fingers and hands. The player piano is a self-playing Piano, containing a pneumatic mechanism that plays on the piano action pre-programmed Music via perforated paper rolls These were not recorded rolls, but were instead marked up from a combination of manuscript fragments and handwritten notes by the French musician, Jacques Larmanjat, who was the musical director of Pleyel's roll department. Stravinsky later claimed that his intention had been to give listeners a definitive version of the performances of his music, but since the rolls were not recordings, it is difficult to see how effective this intention could have been in practice. While many of these works are now part of the standard repertoire, at the time many orchestras found his music beyond their capabilities and unfathomable. Major compositions issued on Pleyela piano rolls include The Rite of Spring, Petrushka, Firebird, Les Noces and Song of the Nightingale. A piano roll is the music Storage medium used to operate the Player piano, pianola or a Reproducing piano. During the 1920s he also recorded Duo-Art rolls for the Aeolian Company in both London and New York, not all of which survive. 
After a short stay near Paris, he moved with his family to the south of France; he returned to Paris in 1934, to live at the rue Faubourg St. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city -Honoré. Stravinsky later remembered this as his last and unhappiest European address; his wife's tuberculosis infected his eldest daughter Ludmila, and Stravinsky himself. Ludmila died in 1938, Katerina in the following year. While Stravinsky was in hospital, where he was treated for five months, his mother also died. Stravinsky already had contacts in the United States; he was working on the Symphony in C for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and had agreed to lecture in Harvard during the academic year of 1939-40. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Symphony in C is a work by Russian expatriate composer Igor Stravinsky. When World War II broke out in September, he set out for the United States. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Although his marriage to Katerina endured for 33 years, the true love of his life, and later his partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). Vera de Bosset Soudeikine (1888 &ndash 1982 was a long-term mistress and ultimately second wife of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, who married her in 1940 after the death When Stravinsky met Vera in Paris in February 1921, she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. Sergey Yurievich Sudeikin, also known as Serge Soudeikine (1882-1946 was a Russian artist and set-designer associated with the Ballets Russes and From then until Katerina's death from cancer in 1939, Stravinsky led a double life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. Around this time both left France for the USA, to escape World War II (Stravinsky in 1939 after Katerina's death, Vera following in 1940). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Stravinsky and Vera were married in Bedford, MA, USA, on 9 March 1940. Bedford is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
At first Stravinsky took up residence in Hollywood, but he moved to New York in 1969. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971; he became a naturalized citizen in 1945. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Article I section 8 clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America at the age of 58 was a very different prospect. For a time, he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually found that this did not sustain his intellectual and professional life. Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has "migrated out" but often carries a connotation of politico-social self- Exile. He was drawn to the growing cultural life of Los Angeles, especially during World War II, when so many writers, musicians, composers, and conductors settled in the area; these included Otto Klemperer, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, George Balanchine and Arthur Rubinstein. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Otto Klemperer (born Breslau, May 14, 1885 Paul Thomas Mann ( June Franz Werfel ( September 10, 1890 &ndash August 26, 1945) was an Austrian - Bohemian Novelist Playwright See also List of ballets by George Balanchine, George Balanchine (January 22 1904 &ndash April 30 1983 born Giorgi Melitonis dze Balanchivadze Arthur Rubinstein KBE ( January 28 1887 &ndash December 20 1982) was a Polish - American pianist who is widely He lived fairly near to Arnold Schoenberg, though he did not have a close relationship with him. Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with Bernard Holland notes that he was especially fond of British writers who often visited him in Beverly Hills, "like W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Dylan Thomas (who shared the composer's taste for hard spirits) and, especially, Aldous Huxley, with whom Stravinsky spoke in French. Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973 ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən who signed his works W Christopher Isherwood ( August 26, 1904 &ndash January 4, 1986) was an Anglo-American Novelist. Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953 was a Welsh poet who wrote exclusively in English Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. " He settled into life in Los Angeles and sometimes conducted concerts with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the famous Hollywood Bowl as well as throughout the U. The Los Angeles Philharmonic (LA Phil LAP or LAPO is an American Orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, United States The Hollywood Bowl is a famous modern Amphitheatre in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles California, USA, that is used primarily for music Performances S. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973 ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən who signed his works W English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Musicology ( Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason" is the scholarly study of Music Robert Lawson Craft (born October 20, 1923) is an American conductor and writer Craft lived with Stravinsky until the composer's death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor, and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.
In 1962, Stravinsky accepted an invitation to return to Saint Petersburg (Leningrad) for a series of concerts. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River He spent more than two hours speaking with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, who urged him to return to the Soviet Union. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Despite the invitation, Stravinsky remained settled in the West. In the last few years of his life, Stravinsky lived at Essex House in New York City.
He died at the age of 88 in New York City and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the Cemetery island of Venice. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the Cemetery island of Venice. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's professional life had encompassed most of the 20th century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard and posthumously received the Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1987. The Hollywood Walk of Fame is a Sidewalk along Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street in Hollywood Los Angeles California, USA, that The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to "performers who during their lifetimes have made creative contributions of outstanding
Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to explore and learn about art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, but he also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon musagète, 1928). Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev) also referred to as Serge, ( March 31, Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Pulcinella is a Ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play — Pulcinella is a character originating from Commedia dell'arte Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing See also List of ballets by George Balanchine, George Balanchine (January 22 1904 &ndash April 30 1983 born Giorgi Melitonis dze Balanchivadze His taste in literature was wide, and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature, including Auden, T. S. Eliot and medieval English verse. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological The liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. At the end of his life, he set Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic
Patronage was never far away. In the early 1920s, Leopold Stokowski gave Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Leopold Stokowski (born Leopold Anthony Stokowski though on occasion The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and was paid for generously.
Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York City all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The City of New York Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Arnold Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Otto Klemperer (born Breslau, May 14, 1885 Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with At the same time, he had a marked disregard for those he perceived to be his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants. Robert Lawson Craft (born October 20, 1923) is an American conductor and writer
Although a notorious philanderer (who was rumoured to have affairs with high-profile partners such as Coco Chanel), Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel ( August 19, 1883 &ndash January 10, 1971) was a pioneering French Fashion designer
Stravinsky's career may be divided roughly into three stylistic periods.
The first period (excluding some early minor works) began with Feu d'artifice and achieved prominence with the three ballets composed for Diaghilev. Ballet as a Musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. These three works have several characteristics in common: they are scored for an extremely large orchestra; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they are influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous They also exhibit considerable stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, which emphasizes certain tendencies in Rimsky-Korsakov and features pandiatonicism conspicuously in the third movement, to the use of polytonality in Petrushka, and the intentionally brutal polyrhythms and dissonances of Le Sacre du printemps. The Musical use of more than one key simultaneously is polytonality.
The first of the ballets, L'Oiseau de feu, is noted for its imaginative orchestration, evident at the outset from the introduction in 12/8 time, which exploits the low register of the double bass. Orchestration is the study or practice of writing Music for Orchestra (or more loosely for any Musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed Petrushka, the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology, is also distinctively scored. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" In the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, the composer attempted to depict musically the brutality of pagan Russia, which inspired the violent motifs that recur throughout the work. Once again, Stravinsky's originality is evident: the opening theme, played on a bassoon at the very top of its register, has become one of the most famous passages in classical music, as has the pulsing syncopated eighth-note motif in the strings, its accents marked by horn.
If Stravinsky's stated intention was "to send them all to hell", then he may have rated the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps as a success: it is among the most famous classical music riots, and Stravinsky referred to it frequently as a "scandale" in his autobiography. A classical music riot is violent disorderly behavior that occurs upon (usually the premiere of a controversial piece of classical music.  There were reports of fistfights among the audience, and the need for a police presence during the second act. The real extent of the tumult, however, is open to debate, and these reports may be apocryphal. 
Stravinsky later commented about the première of The Rite: "As for the actual performance, I am not in a position to judge, as I left the auditorium at the first bars of the prelude, which had at once evoked derisive laughter. I was disgusted. These demonstrations, at first isolated, soon became general, provoking counter-demonstrations and very quickly developing into a terrific uproar. During the whole performance I was at Nijinsky's side in the wings. Nijinsky redirects here For other uses of the name see Nijinsky (disambiguation. He was standing on a chair, screaming 'Sixteen, seventeen, eighteen'--they had their own method of counting to keep time. Naturally the poor dancers could hear nothing by reason of the row in the auditorium and the sound of their own dance-steps. I had to hold Nijinsky by his clothes, for he was furious, and ready to dash on to the stage at any moment and create a scandal. Diaghilev kept ordering the electricians to turn the lights on or off, hoping in that way to put a stop to the noise. Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev) also referred to as Serge, ( March 31, That is all I can remember about that first performance. "
Other pieces from this period include: Le Rossignol (The Nightingale); Renard (1916); Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) (1918); and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). The Nightingale (Solovyei is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky. Histoire du soldat (sometimes written L'histoire du soldat; translated as The Soldier's Tale or A Soldier's Tale Les noces ( English: The Wedding; Russian: Свадебка ( Svadebka) by Igor Stravinsky
The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style extended from roughly 1920 to about 1950. Pulcinella (1920) and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments are Stravinsky's first compositions to feature his re-examination of the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. Pulcinella is a Ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play — Pulcinella is a character originating from Commedia dell'arte WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" For this "neo-classical" style Stravinsky abandoned the large orchestras demanded by the ballets, and turned instead largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century
Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon musagète (1928, for the Russian Ballet) and the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto (1937–38) continued this re-thinking of eighteenth-century musical styles. Other musical works on the same subject include the opera Oedipe by George Enescu, "Oedipus Rex" by Tom Lehrer, and Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks (1937-38 is a chamber concerto by Igor Stravinsky, named for the Dumbarton Oaks estate of Robert Woods Bliss
Works from this period include the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) exemplify not only Stravinsky's return to music of the Classical period, but also his exploration of themes from the ancient Classical world such as Greek mythology. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance
Stravinsky completed his last neo-classical work, the opera The Rake's Progress, in 1951, to a libretto by W. H. Auden based on the etchings of Hogarth. The Rake's Progress is an Opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky. Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973 ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən who signed his works W William Hogarth (10 November 1697 &ndash 26 October 1764 was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic It was almost ignored after it was staged by the Metropolitan Opera in 1953. The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. It was presented by the Santa Fe Opera in its first season in 1957 with Stravinsky in attendance, and this marked the beginning of his long association with the company. The Santa Fe Opera (SFO is an American Opera company located north of Santa Fe in the U Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harks back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. The opera was revived by the Metropolitan Opera in 1997.
Stravinsky began using dodecaphony, the twelve-tone technique originally devised by Arnold Schoenberg, in the early 1950s (after Schoenberg's death). Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with Robert Craft encouraged this undertaking. Robert Lawson Craft (born October 20, 1923) is an American conductor and writer 
He first experimented with non-twelve-tone serial technique in small-scale vocal and chamber works such as the Cantata (1952), Septet (1953), and Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953), and his first composition to be fully based on these non-twelve-tone serial techniques is In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954). Agon (1954–57) is his first work to include a twelve-tone series, and Canticum Sacrum (1955) is his first piece to contain a movement entirely based on a tone row ("Surge, aquilo"). See also List of New York City Ballet repertory,, NYCB 2008 Spring Repertory Agon ( 1957) is a ballet for a twelve dancers with music Canticum Sacrum ad Honorem Sancti Marci Nominis is a 17-minute choral - Orchestral piece composed in 1955 by Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971 In Music, a tone row or note row ( German: Reihe or Tonreihe) also series and set, refers to a non-repetitive  Stravinsky later expanded his use of dodecaphony in works including Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962), which are based on biblical texts. The Flood A musical play (1962 is a short biblical drama by Igor Stravinsky on the allegory of Noah, originally written as a television Opera
Agon, written from 1954 to 1957, is a ballet choreographed for twelve dancers. It is an important transitional composition between Stravinsky's neo-classical period and his serial style. Some numbers of Agon are reminiscent of the "white-note" tonality of the his neo-classic period, while others (for example Bransle Gay) display his re-interpretation of serial methods.
Stravinsky's work embraced several compositional styles, revolutionized orchestration, and practically reinvented ballet as a musical form. He was inspired by different cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.
Stravinsky's use of motivic development (the use of musical figures that are repeated in different guises throughout a composition or section of a composition) included additive motivic development. In Music, a motif or motive is a perceivable or salient recurring fragment or succession of notes that may be used to construct the entirety or parts This is where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to the consequent changes in meter. A similar technique may be found as early as the sixteenth century, for example in the music of Cipriano de Rore, Orlandus Lassus, Carlo Gesualdo, and Giovanni de Macque, music with which Stravinsky exhibited considerable familiarity. Cypriano de Rore or Cipriano de Rore (1515 or 1516 – between September 11 and September 20 1565 was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530 &ndash June This article is about the composer for the Italian town see Gesualdo (town. Giovanni de Macque ( Jean de Macque) (?1548-1550 – September 1614 was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque, 
The Rite of Spring is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati; for example in the eighth note ostinato on strings accented by eight horns in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). In Music, an Ostinato (derived from Italian: "stubborn" see also Oscillation) is a motif or phrase which is persistently The work also contains passages where several ostinati clash against one another.
Twentieth-century American composer Frank Zappa openly credited Stravinsky as a major influence. Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21 1940 – December 4 1993 was an American Composer, Electric guitarist Record producer and Film director  While Zappa composed mainly avant-garde rock, jazz and blues, he also composed orchestral pieces. Stravinsky's name is mentioned on several of his albums, including a song called Igor's Boogie included in the album Burnt Weeny Sandwich. Burnt Weeny Sandwich is an Album by Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, released in 1970 (see 1970 in music)
Stravinsky was noted for his distinctive use of rhythm, especially in The Rite of Spring. Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός - rhythmos, "any measured flow or movement symmetry" is the variation of the length and accentuation of 
the idea of pushing the rhythms across the bar lines [. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 . . ] led the way [. . . ] the rhythmic structure of music became much more fluid and in a certain way spontaneous
Glass also praises Stravinsky's "primitive, offbeat rhythmic drive". 
According to Andrew J. Browne, "Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art. "
Stravinsky's rhythm and vitality greatly influenced composer Aaron Copland. Aaron Copland (November 14 1900 &ndash December 2 1990 was an American Composer of concert and film music as well as an accomplished Pianist. 
Stravinsky's first neo-classical works were the ballet Pulcinella of 1920, and the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds of 1923. Stravinsky may have been preceded in his use of neoclassical devices by earlier composers (such as Erik Satie). Alfred Éric Leslie Satie ( Honfleur, 17 May 1866 – Paris, 1 July 1925) was a French Composer and
By the late 1920s and 1930s, the use by composers of neoclassicism had become widespread.
Stravinsky continued a long tradition, stretching back at least to the fifteenth century in the form of the quodlibet and parody mass, by composing pieces which elaborate on individual works by earlier composers. A quodlibet is a piece of Music combining several different melodies, usually popular tunes in Counterpoint and often a light-hearted humorous manner A parody mass is a musical setting of the mass, typically from the 16th century that uses multiple voices of another pre-existing piece of music such as a fragment of a An early example of this is his Pulcinella of 1920, in which he used music which at the time was attributed to Giovanni Pergolesi as source material, at times quoting it directly and at other times reinventing it. Pulcinella is a Ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play — Pulcinella is a character originating from Commedia dell'arte Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (January 4 1710 &ndash 16 or March 17 1736 was an Italian Composer, Violinist and organist. He developed the technique further in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928, based on the music—mostly piano pieces—of Tchaikovsky. Later examples of comparable musical transformations include Stravinsky's use of Schubert in Circus Polka (1942) and Happy Birthday to You in Greeting Prelude (1955). See also List of New York City Ballet repertory, NYCB 2008 Spring Repertory Circus Polka For a Young Elephant is an Instrumental " Happy Birthday to You " also known more simply as " Happy Birthday " is a traditional song that is sung to celebrate the anniversary of a person's
In Le Sacre du Printemps Stravinsky stripped folk themes to their most basic melodic outlines, and often contorted them beyond recognition with added notes, and other techniques including inversion and diminution. Diminution, from Italian diminuimento, is a musical term used to mean different things in the context of melodies and intervals or chords. Only in recent scholarship, such as described in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions, have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite.
Like many of the late romantic composers, Stravinsky often called for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910 His first breakthrough The Firebird proved him the equal of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and lit the "fuse under the instrumental make up of the 19th century orchestra". The Firebird ( French: L'Oiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay In The Firebird he took the orchestra apart and analyzed it.  The Rite of Spring on the other hand has been characterized by Aaron Copland as the foremost orchestral achievement in 20th century. Aaron Copland (November 14 1900 &ndash December 2 1990 was an American Composer of concert and film music as well as an accomplished Pianist. 
Stravinsky also wrote for unique combinations of instruments in smaller ensembles, chosen for their precise tone colours. For example, Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) is scored for clarinet, bassoon, cornet, trombone, violin, double bass and percussion, a strikingly unusual combination for 1918. Histoire du soldat (sometimes written L'histoire du soldat; translated as The Soldier's Tale or A Soldier's Tale The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally The cornet is a Brass instrument very similar to the Trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape and mellower tone quality The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra.
Stravinsky occasionally exploited the extreme ranges of instruments, most famously at the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravinsky uses the extreme upper reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.
Erik Satie wrote an article about Igor Stravinsky that was published in Vanity Fair (1922). Alfred Éric Leslie Satie ( Honfleur, 17 May 1866 – Paris, 1 July 1925) was a French Composer and Vanity Fair is an American magazine of Culture, Fashion, and Politics published by Condé Nast Publications. Satie had met Stravinsky for the first time in 1910. Satie's attitude towards the Russian composer is marked by deference, as can be seen from the letters he wrote him in 1922, preparing for the Vanity Fair article. With a touch of irony, he concluded one of these letters "I admire you: are you not the Great Stravinsky? I am but little Erik Satie. " In the published article, Satie argued that measuring the "greatness" of an artist by comparing him to other artists, as if speaking about some "truth", is illusory: every piece of music should be judged on its own merits, not by comparing it to the standards of other composers. That was exactly what Jean Cocteau had done, when commenting deprecatingly on Stravinsky in his 1918 book Le Coq et l'Arlequin. Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing 
All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war. . . . What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind. 
In 1935, American composer Marc Blitzstein compared Stravinsky to Jacopo Peri and C. P. E. Bach, conceding that "There is no denying the greatness of Stravinsky. Marc Blitzstein ( March 2, 1905 &ndash January 22, 1964) was an American Composer. Jacopo Peri ( August 20 1561 &ndash August 12 1633) was an Italian Composer and singer of the transitional period between Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach ( March 8, 1714 &ndash December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer the second of five sons It is just that he is not great enough".  Blitzstein's Marxist position is that Stravinsky's wish was to "divorce music from other streams of life," which is "symptomatic of an escape from reality", resulting in a "loss of stamina his new works show", naming specifically Apollo, the Capriccio, and Le Baiser de la fée. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. 
Composer Constant Lambert described pieces such as Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) as containing "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Leonard Constant Lambert ( August 23, 1905 &ndash August 21, 1951) was a British composer and conductor.  Lambert continued, "melodic fragments in Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and he described the cadenza for solo drums as "musical purity. . . achieved by a species of musical castration". He compared Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest and least significant phrases" to Gertrude Stein's: "Everyday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever". Gertrude Stein ( February 3, 1874 &ndash July 27, 1946) was an American Writer who spent most of her life in France 
In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1949), Theodor Adorno called Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno ( September 11, 1903 &ndash August 6, 1969) was a German -born international sociologist Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting," playing off le temps espace (time-space) rather than le temps durée (time-duration) of Henri Bergson.  "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself. " His "rhythmic procedures closely resemble the schema of catatonic conditions. In certain schizophrenics, the process by which the motor apparatus becomes independent leads to infinite repetition of gestures or words, following the decay of the ego. "
Igor Stravinsky found recordings to be a practical and useful tool in preserving his own thoughts on the interpretation of his music. The Léonie Sonning Music Prize, or Sonning Award, which is recognized as Denmark 's highest musical honor is given annually to an international Musician The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe As a conductor of his own music, he recorded primarily for Columbia Records, beginning in 1928 with a performance of the original suite from The Firebird and concluding in 1967 with the 1945 suite from the same ballet. Columbia Records is an American Record label founded in 1888 Columbia is the oldest surviving Brand name in pre-recorded sound being the first record company In the late 1940s, he made several recordings for RCA Victor at the Republic Studios in Los Angeles. RCA Records (originally The Victor Talking Machine Company, then RCA Victor is one of the flagship labels of Sony Music Entertainment. Republic Pictures (also known as Republic Entertainment Inc) is an independent film television and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution Although most of his recordings were made with studio musicians, he also worked with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the CBC Symphony Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO) is an American orchestra based in Chicago Illinois. The Cleveland Orchestra, located in Cleveland, Ohio is one of the major symphony Orchestras in the United States. The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra ( RPO) is a British Orchestra based in London.
|3 Pieces for Clarinet Alone|
Although Stravinsky is best known for his stage works, in particular his ballets, his compositions cover a diverse range of musical forms. List of compositions by Igor Stravinsky. Opera/Theatre ''Le rossignol'' ( The Nightingale) (1914 ''Renard'', a
|NAME||Stavinsky, Igor Fyodorovich|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Stravinskij, Igor Fëdorovič|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian composer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||Spring June 17, 1882|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lomonosov, Russia, Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 6, 1971|
|PLACE OF DEATH||New York City, New York, United States|
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