|Created by:||A group of reformist Esperanto speakers||1907|
|Setting and usage:||International auxiliary language|
|Total speakers:||See community section|
|Category (purpose):||constructed language|
International auxiliary language
|Category (sources):||based on Esperanto|
|Regulated by:||Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world This is a list of bodies that regulate Standard languages Natural languages Auxiliary languages Interlingua The auxiliary language Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido ( ULI) the Union for the International Language Ido is the official union of the Ido -language movement ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Ido (pronounced /ˈiːdoʊ/) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar This intended usage parallels the current use of English as a lingua franca, and of French, Latin, and Greek in earlier eras. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Koine Greek (Κοινὴ Ἑλληνική, "common Greek" or, ciˈni ðiˈale̞kto̞s "the common dialect" is the popular form of Greek which emerged in Unlike English, which is a natural and frequently irregular language, Ido was specifically designed for grammatical, orthographic, and lexicographical regularity, and to favor no one who might otherwise be advantaged in a situation due to native fluency in a widespread language. In the Philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a Language that is spoken or written in phonemic-alphabetic or phonemically-related Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language The pursuit of lexicography is divided into two related disciplines Practical lexicography is the art or Craft of compiling writing and editing dictionaries In this sense, Ido is classified as a consciously created International Auxiliary Language (conIAL). An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from Of the most widely used conIALs, the first one is Esperanto, Ido's predecessor; it is disputable whether the second place in usage goes to Ido or Interlingua. is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world Interlingua is an International auxiliary language (IAL developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA
Ido was developed in the early 1900s, and retains a sizable following today, primarily in Europe. It is largely based on Esperanto, created by L. L. Zamenhof. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist Ido first appeared in 1907 as a result of a desire to reform perceived flaws in Esperanto that some of its supporters believed to be a hindrance in its propagation as an easy-to-learn second language. Many other reform projects appeared after Ido: examples such as Occidental and Novial appeared afterwards but have since faded into obscurity. The Language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl Novial ("new" + ''IAL International Auxiliary Language'' is a constructed International auxiliary language (IAL intended to facilitate international At present, Ido along with Esperanto and Interlingua are the only auxiliary languages with a large body of literature and a relatively large speaker base. Interlingua is an International auxiliary language (IAL developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA The name of the language likely traces its origin to the Ido pronunciation of "I. D. " (from "International Delegation", see below) or the word esperantido, "descendant (of Esperanto)". Esperantido is the term used within the Esperanto and Constructed language communities to describe a language project based on or inspired by Esperanto Or, as with the case of "Esperanto", it could simply be adopted from the pseudonym its designer (Louis Couturat) used in presenting the language to the Delegation Committee. Louis Couturat ( January 17, 1868 - August 3, 1914) was a French Logician mathematician, philosopher In IDO, it is simply an abbreviation of Idiomo Di Omni (language for all).
Ido uses the 26 Latin letters used in the English alphabet with no diacritics. The modern English alphabet consists of 26 letters derived from the Latin alphabet: History See also History of the A diacritic ( also called a diacritic or diacritical mark, point, or sign, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation While still being completely morphologically regular, Ido resembles the Romance languages in appearance and is sometimes mistaken for Italian or Spanish at first glance. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Ido is largely intelligible to those who have studied Esperanto, though there are certain differences in word formation, grammar and grammatical-function words that make it more than a simple reform project. Ido is a stand-alone language.
After its inception, Ido gained support (estimates generally range around 20%) from some in the Esperanto community at the time, but following the sudden death in 1914 of one of its most influential proponents, Louis Couturat, it declined in popularity. Louis Couturat ( January 17, 1868 - August 3, 1914) was a French Logician mathematician, philosopher There were two reasons for this: first, the emergence of further schisms arising from competing reform projects; and second, a general lack of awareness of Ido as a candidate for an international language. These obstacles weakened the movement and it was not until the rise of the Internet that it began to regain its former momentum.
The idea of a universal second language is not new, and constructed languages are not a recent phenomenon. The first known constructed language was created in the 12th century by St Hildegard of Bingen under the name Lingua Ignota. Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen Hildegardis Bingensis 1098 – 17 September 1179) also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard A Lingua Ignota (Latin for "unknown language" was described by the 12th century abbess of Rupertsberg Hildegard of Bingen. But the idea did not catch on in large numbers until the 19th century with the language Volapük, created in 1879 by German Catholic priest Johann Martin Schleyer. Volapük (volaˈpyk or ˈvɒləpʊk in English is a Constructed language, created in 1879-1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Johann Martin Schleyer ( July 18, 1831 &ndash August 16, 1912) German Catholic priest who invented the Constructed Volapük was popular for some time and apparently had a few thousand users, but was later eclipsed by the popularity of Esperanto, which arose from L. L. Zamenhof's book Unua Libro in 1887. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist The Unua Libro ( First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, "international The simpler grammar and less changed vocabulary of Esperanto appealed to many, and its popularity quickly rose. The first World Congress of Esperanto was held in 1905. The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions with However, some within the Esperanto community itself felt that the language should undergo further reform before being officially selected as a universal second language. It was at this time that Couturat formed the Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language. The Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language (French Délégation pour l'Adoption d'une Langue Auxiliaire Internationale) was a body of academics convened
This delegation made a formal request to the International Association of Academies in Vienna to select an international language; the request was rejected in May 1907. The International Association of Academies (1899 - 1913 was an academy designed for the purpose of linking the various Academies around the world of which the first meeting was held Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The Delegation then decided to meet as a Committee in Paris in October 1907 to discuss the adoption of a standard international language among the various competitors that had been devised till then. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city According to the minutes of the Committee, it was decided that no language was completely acceptable, but that Esperanto could be accepted "on condition of several modifications to be realized by the permanent Commission in the direction defined by the conclusions of the Report of the Secretaries (Couturat and Leopold Leau) and by the Ido project. Minutes also known as protocols are the instant written record of a Meeting or hearing. is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world Léopold Leau (1868-?1940 was a French Mathematician, primarily known for his many well-documented ties to International auxiliary languages The " This (anonymous) "Ido project" was later suggested to have been primarily devised by Couturat with some help from Esperanto's representative before the Committee, Louis de Beaufront. Marquis Louis de Beaufront ( 3 October 1855 – 8 January 1935) was a major influence in the development of Ido, an International Beaufront had himself argued for reforming Esperanto before he was selected to the Delegation. His eventual "conversion" to the Ido camp, upon the presentation of that language, was thus consistent with his earlier positions.
Early supporters of Esperanto tended to resist reforms, and its inventor, Zamenhof, deferred to their judgment. Several of the reforms adopted by Ido were themselves proposed at various times by Zamenhof, especially in 1894 when he proposed eliminating the accented letters and the accusative case (referring to it as "superfluous ballast" ), changing the plural to an Italianesque -i, and replacing the table of correlatives with more Latinate words (see History of Esperanto and Reformed Esperanto). The constructed International auxiliary language Esperanto was developed in the 1870s and 80s by L Reformed Esperanto was a reformed version of Esperanto created in 1894 The custom of keeping the basic rules of Esperanto fixed remains today.
Couturat, who was the leading proponent of Ido, was killed in an automobile accident in 1914, which, along with World War I, dealt a serious blow to the Ido movement. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Although that movement recovered to some degree in the immediate postwar period, the whole movement of international languages became balkanized. Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often With the publication of an even more Europeanized planned language, Occidental, in 1922, Ido went into decline. The Language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl The Ido movement lost a majority of its published periodicals in the subsequent year or so, and the defection of its major intellectual supporter, the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen, in 1928 on the occasion of the publication of his own planned language Novial, seemed at the time to provide a quietus. Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen ʌtˢo ˈjɛsb̥ɐsn̩ ( July 16, 1860 - April 30, 1943) was a Danish linguist Novial ("new" + ''IAL International Auxiliary Language'' is a constructed International auxiliary language (IAL intended to facilitate international
Some observers trace the eclipse of Ido to its hybrid character – part Esperanto reform project, part Standard Average European (see Sapir–Whorf hypothesis). Standard Average European ( SAE) is a concept introduced by Benjamin Whorf to distinguish Indo-European and especially Western Indo-European languages from In Linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ( SWH) (also known as the " Linguistic relativity hypothesis " postulates a systematic relationship In this view, once it was clear that Ido would neither displace Esperanto nor be adopted by the Esperanto community, many viewed its Esperanto-like features as unnecessary baggage and moved on to more naturalistic projects. Those who approved of them tended to return to the larger Esperanto community.
Ido's decline had slowed by the 1930s, and the movement was still a significant force in interlinguistics during the long gestation of the International Auxiliary Language Association's project. Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of international Communication. The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA was founded in 1924 to " promote widespread study discussion and publicity of all questions involved in the establishment Like the Occidentalists, many Idists hoped that IALA would produce a language relatively close to their own preferences. The Language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl In the end, the radically naturalistic Interlingua was even farther from Ido than Occidental, and (in contrast to Occidental) there was no major migration of Ido supporters to the new language. Interlingua is an International auxiliary language (IAL developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA
Ido's survival during this period was assisted by financial resources accumulated during its heyday (e. g. , the chemist Wilhelm Ostwald had donated the proceeds of his 1909 Nobel Prize to an Ido foundation). Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald ( Latvian: Vilhelms Ostvalds; September 2, 1853 &ndash April 4, 1932) was a Baltic The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature
The language still has active speakers today, and the Internet has sparked a renewal of interest in the language in recent years. The estimates of the number of speakers range from 2000 to 5000. In comparison, Esperanto has at least 100,000 (Sidney S. Culbert's widely cited estimate of 1.6 million speakers is controversial). is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world Sidney Spence Culbert ( 1913 - October 28, 2003) was a linguist psychologist and Esperantist. is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world
Jespersen, who was present during the ten days of Committee deliberations in Paris and later served as part of the permanent Commission, wrote a history of Ido. 
A number of Esperanto supporters have attacked Ido over the years. The Esperantist Don Harlow has characterized Ido's founders as underhanded and conspiratorial; see also Emile Boirac's report in the list of external links; also Gaston Waringhien's “Kulisaj manovroj” (Maneuvers in the Wings) in his 1887 kaj la sekvo, Antwerp: Stafeto, 1980. Donald Harlow ( July 8, 1942 &ndash January 27, 2008) was an active Esperantist and former president of Esperanto-USA (E-USA However, most Ido partisans argue that Harlow's history is polemical and is not consistent with all the eyewitness accounts, such as those reported by Jespersen. Harlow bases his account on material from some other eyewitnesses such as Emile Boirac and Gaston Moch and with other source documentation (such as Zamenhof's correspondence with Couturat and others during the period, as published in the two-volume Leteroj de Zamenhof, Paris: SAT, 1948), to which Jespersen, according to Harlow, would not have had access. Émile Boirac (born in Guelma, Algeria, 26 August 1851; died in Dijon, 20 September 1917) was a French Gaston Moch (born 1859 in Paris, France) was the secretary of the Esperantist Centra Oficejo and a member of the Lingva Komitato.
Ido inherits many features of the grammar of Esperanto, and in many cases, the vocabulary is similar. This article attempts to highlight the main differences between Esperanto and Ido, two Constructed languages that have a related past but have since parted Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. A highly regular grammar makes Esperanto much easier to learn than most other languages of the world though Ido shares with Esperanto the goals of grammatical simplicity and consistency, ease of learning, and the use of loanwords from various European languages. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation The two languages, to a great extent, are mutually intelligible. However, certain changes were introduced to address some of the concerns that had arisen about Esperanto. These include:
Nevertheless, modern Esperanto has received some influence from Ido in areas such as a clarification of the rules for word derivation and suffixes like -oz- ("abundant in") and -end- ("required to").
Ido has the same typical five-vowel system (a, e, i, o, u have their IPA values) as Esperanto, and most of the same consonants, omitting two consonant phonemes used by Esperanto, IPA /x/ and /ʤ/. The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU (The distinctions between /x/ : /h/ and between /ʤ/ : /ʒ/ carry a very low functional load in Esperanto, and so were deemed to be unnecessary in Ido. ) Without those two consonant phonemes, the consonants in the language are as follows:
The accent rule in Ido is regular, but slightly more complex than that of Esperanto: all polysyllables are stressed on the penultimate (second from last) syllable except for verb infinitives, which are stressed on the ultimate syllable—skolo, kafeo and lernas for "school", "coffee" and "learn", but irar, savar and drinkar for "to go", "to know" and "to drink". In Phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a Consonant articulated with both Lips The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet In Phonetics, labiodentals are Consonants articulated with the lower Lip and the upper Teeth. Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior Alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets Postalveolar consonants are Consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the Alveolar ridge, placing them a bit further back in the Palatal consonants are Consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the Hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth Glottal consonants are Consonants articulated with the Glottis. A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a Consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the Vocal tract. A nasal consonant (also called nasal stop or nasal continuant) is produced with a lowered velum in the mouth allowing air to escape freely through the In Phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of Consonantal sound which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the Fricatives are Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together Affricate Consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or) but release as a fricative (such as or or occasionally into Laterals are "L"-like Consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both Approximants are speech sounds ( Phonemes) that could be regarded as intermediate between Vowels and typical Consonants In the articulation of approximants In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages If an i or u precedes another vowel, the pair is considered part of the same syllable when applying the accent rule—thus radio, familio and manuo for "radio", "family" and "hand".
Each word in the Ido vocabulary is built from a root word. A word consists of a root and a grammatical ending. Other words can be formed from that word by removing the grammatical ending and adding a new one, or by inserting certain affixes between the root and the grammatical ending. An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word As with Esperanto, Ido is grammatically invariable; there are no exceptions in Ido, unlike in natural languages.
Some of the grammatical endings are defined as follows:
|Singular noun||-o (libro)||-o (libro)||book|
|Plural noun||-i (libri)||-oj (libroj)||books|
|Adjective||-a (varma)||-a (varma)||warm|
|Adverb||-e (varme)||-e (varme)||warmly|
|Present tense infinitive||-ar (irar)||-anti (iranti)||-i (iri)||to be going||to go|
|Past tense infinitive||-ir (irir)||-inti (irinti)||to have gone|
|Future tense infinitive||-or (iror)||-onti (ironti)||to be going to go|
|Present||-as (iras)||-as (iras)||go, goes|
|Past||-is (iris)||-is (iris)||went|
|Future||-os (iros)||-os (iros)||will go|
|Imperative||-ez (irez)||-u (iru)||go!|
|Conditional||-us (irus)||-us (irus)||would go|
These are the same as in Esperanto except for -i, -ir, -ar, -or and -ez. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records. The past tense is a Verb tense expressing action activity state or being in the past of the current moment (in an Absolute tense system or prior In Grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet but expected to happen in the future (in an Absolute tense The conditional mood is the form of the verb used in Conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set Esperanto marks noun plurals by an agglutinative ending -j (so plural nouns end in -oj), uses -i for verb infinitives (Esperanto infinitives are tenseless), and uses -u for the imperative. Verbs in Ido do not conjugate depending on person, number or gender; the -as, -is, and -os endings suffice whether the subject is I, you, he, she, they, or anything else.
Ido word order is generally the same as English (subject verb object), so the sentence Me havas la blua libro is the same as the English "I have the blue book", both in meaning and word order. In Linguistic typology, subject-verb-object ( SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first the Verb second and the object There are a few differences, however:
Negation occurs in Ido by simply affixing ne to the front of a verb: Me ne havas libro means, "I do not have a book". This as well does not vary, and thus the "I do not", "He does not", "They do not" before a verb are simply Me ne, Il ne, and Li ne. In the same way, past tense and future tense negatives are formed by ne in front of the conjugated verb. "I will not go" and "I did not go" become Me ne iros and Me ne iris respectively.
Yes/no questions are formed by the particle ka in front of the question. "I have a book" (me havas libro) becomes Ka me havas libro? (do I have a book?). Ka can also be placed in front of a noun without a verb to make a simple question, corresponding to the English "is it?" Ka Mark? can mean, "Are you Mark?", "Is it Mark?", "Do you mean Mark?" depending on the context.
The pronouns of Ido were revised to make them more acoustically distinct than those of Esperanto, which all end in i. In Linguistics and Grammar, a pronoun is a Pro-form that substitutes for a (including a noun phrase consisting of a single Noun) with or Especially the singular and plural first-person pronouns mi and ni may be difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment, so Ido has me and ni instead. Ido also distinguishes between intimate (tu) and formal (vu) second-person singular pronouns as well as plural second-person pronouns (vi) not marked for intimacy. In Sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a Language has second-person Pronouns that distinguish varying levels of Furthermore, Ido has a pan-gender third-person pronoun lu (it can mean "he", "she", or "it", depending on the context) in addition to its masculine (il), feminine (el), and neuter (ol) third-person pronouns.
It should be noted that ol, like English it and Esperanto ĝi, is not limited to inanimate objects, but can be used "for entities whose sex is indeterminate: babies, children, humans, youths, elders, people, individuals, horses, cows, cats, etc. "
Lu is often mistakenly labeled an epicene pronoun, that is, one that refers to both masculine and feminine beings, but in fact, lu is more properly a "pan-gender" pronoun, as it is also used for referring to inanimate objects. Epicene is an Adjective (sometimes substantive) for loss of Gender distinction often specific loss of Masculinity. From Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di la Linguo Internaciona Ido by Beaufront:
Lu (like li) is used for all three genders. That lu does duty for the three genders at will in the singular is not in itself any more astonishing than seeing li serve the three genders at will in the plural . . . By a decision (1558) the Idist Academy rejected every restriction concerning the use of lu. One may thus use that pronoun in exactly the same way for a thing and a person of obvious sex as for animals of unknown sex and a person that has a genderless name, like baby, child, human, etc. , these being as truly masculine as feminine.
The motives for this decision were given in "Mondo", XI, 68: Lu for the singular is exactly the same as li for the plural. Logic, symmetry and ease demand this. Consequently, just as li may be used for people, animals, and things whenever nothing obliges one to express the gender, so lu may be used for people, animals, and things under the same condition. The proposed distinction would be a bothersome subtlety. . .
Vocabulary in Ido is based on words intended to give the greatest facility to the most speakers. Early on, the first 5000+ roots were analyzed compared to the vocabulary of English, French, Spanish, German, Russian and Italian, and the following result was found:
In addition, a comparison of Ido vocabulary to the six shows the following for the similarities of Ido to the six languages above:
This is consistent with the fact that Ido is sometimes mistaken for French, Italian or Spanish at first sight.
Comparison of vocabulary with the six languages:
|bona||good ("bonus")||buono||bon||gut ("Bonus")||khoroshiy (хорощий)||bueno|
|donar||give ("donate")||dare ("donare")||donner||geben||darit (дарить)||dar, donar|
|kavalo||horse ("cavalry")||cavallo||cheval||Pferd ("Kavallerie")||loshad, kobyla (лошадь, кобыла)||caballo|
|maro||sea ("marine")||mare||mer||Meer||more (море)||mar|
|yuna||young ("juvenile")||giovane||jeune||jung||yunyi (юный)||joven|
Vocabulary in Ido is often created through a number of official prefixes and suffixes that alter the meaning of the word. This allows a user to take existing words and modify them to create neologisms when necessary, and allows for a wide range of expression without the need to learn new vocabulary each time. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Though their number is too large to be included in one article, some examples include:
New vocabulary is generally created through an analysis of the word, its etymology, and reference to the six source languages. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time If a word can be created through vocabulary already existing in the language then it will usually be adopted without need for a new radical (such as wikipedio for Wikipedia, which consists of wiki + enciklopedio for encyclopedia), and if not an entirely new word will be created. The word alternatoro for example was adopted in 1926, likely because five of the six source languages used largely the same orthography for the word, and because it was long enough to avoid being mistaken for other words in the existing vocabulary. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language  Adoption of a word is done through consensus, after which the word will be made official by the union. Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido ( ULI) the Union for the International Language Ido is the official union of the Ido -language movement Care must also be taken to avoid homonyms if possible, and usually a new word undergoes some discussion before being adopted. In linguistics a homonym is one of a group of words that share the same pronunciation but have different meanings and are usually spelled differently Foreign words that have a restricted sense and are not likely to be used in everyday life (such as the word intifada to refer to the conflict between Israel and Palestine) are left untouched, and often written in italics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Name There are differences of opinion as to what the Palestinian territories should be called
As with all constructed languages, gauging the number of speakers of Ido is an extremely difficult task. Usenet postings by the prominent Esperantist Don Harlow have estimated the population at being somewhere in the thousands, but no accurate numbers exist. Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system Donald Harlow ( July 8, 1942 &ndash January 27, 2008) was an active Esperantist and former president of Esperanto-USA (E-USA Moreover, given the often political IAL environment in which those that speak a language are not merely language users but adherents to its system and linguistic philosophy as well, there are two categories of those that know the language, Ido speakers and Ido supporters. Ido resembles Esperanto to a large extent, and many Esperantists have learned Ido out of curiosity while still not using it, preferring to support the more well-known Esperanto movement instead. One Esperanto bulletin board included the following:
Mi provis Idon antaŭ Esperanto, kaj alvenis konklude: la diferoj estas efike trivialaj, komparite al pli gravaj koncernaĵoj (kiujn mi ne detalos ĉi tie). Pro tio mi elektis subteni Esperanton, kaj ne subteni Idon, kvankam eble mi lernos Idon por hobio. Tamen via id-vortoj estas bone komprenebla al mi, kaj mi uzus Idon, se ne ekzistis tre pli subtenita lingvo.
I tried Ido before Esperanto, and came to conclude that the differences are in fact trivial, compared to larger concerns (that I will not go into detail about here). For that [the larger speaker community and volume of material] I chose to support Esperanto and not to support Ido, though maybe I will learn Ido as a hobby. However, your writing in Ido [responding to an Ido speaker] is comprehensible to me, and I would use Ido if there did not exist a much more supported language.
It is possible to find discussions of this nature on the Internet in English, Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua and other IALs, each understanding the other with little problem. 
A number of Esperantists viewed the schism of Ido as a mixed blessing, and a number of writings show that some were inversely glad to see those who were interested only in creating a perfect language by constantly reforming it leave the fold so that those remaining could work on using and promoting the language itself. However, these "constant reformers" eventually moved on to other reform projects, few of which survived much beyond the deaths of the authors themselves, and Ido has remained constant since then—it is safe to say that were Ido a community of language reformers during its early days, that this is not the case anymore. 
A small sample of 24 Idists on the Yahoo! group Idolisto during late 2005 showed that 57% had begun their studies of the language during the past three years, 32% from the mid-1990s to 2002, and 8% had known the language from before.
Translation of tune by Russian bard Alexandr Sukhanov from verses by Russian poet Yunna Morits. Yunna Morits ( Moritz) ( Юнна Петровна Мориц; 1937-) a Russian artist of many talents primarily known as a poet was born in Kiev
Ido has a number of publications that can be subscribed to or downloaded for free in most cases. Kuriero Internaciona is a magazine produced in France every few months with a range of topics. Adavane! is a magazine produced by the Spanish Ido Society every two months that has a range of topics, as well as a few dozen pages of work translated from other languages. Progreso is the official organ of the Ido movement and has been around since the inception of the movement in 1908. Other sites can be found with various stories, fables or proverbs along with a few books of the Bible translated into Ido on a smaller scale. The site publikaji has a few podcasts in Ido along with various songs and other recorded material.
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia includes an Ido-language edition (known in Ido as Wikipedio); as of December 2007, it has over 15,000 articles. ***************************************************************************************** * * Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.