|Birth||February 24, 1304|
|Death||1368 or 1377|
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ِAbdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي ابن بطوطة) (born February 24, 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was a Moroccan Berber scholar and jurisprudent from the Maliki Madhhab (a school of Fiqh, or Sunni Islamic law), and at times a Qadi or judge. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The Maliki Madhhab ( Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature The Maliki Madhhab ( Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Qadi (also known as Qazi or Kazi or Kadi) (قاضي is a judge ruling in accordance with the Sharia, Islamic religious law However, he is best known as a traveler and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years, covering some 73,000 miles (117,000 km). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer
At the instigation of the Sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, several years after his return, Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his journeys to a scholar named Ibn Juzayy, whom he had met while in Granada. Abu Inan Faris ( أبو عنان فارس بن علي) (born in 1329 was a Marinid ruler Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ahmad Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi (1321 - 1357 (in Arabic محمد بن محمد بن أحمد بن عبد الله بن يحيى بن يوسف Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. This account, recorded by Ibn Juzayy and interspersed with the latter's own comments, is the primary source of information for his adventures. The title of this initial manuscript تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار may be translated as A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihla الرحلة, or "Journey". A Rihla is a Classical Arabic term of a Journey, with connotations of a journey undertaken for the sake of divine knowledge of Islam. Whilst apparently fictional in places, the Rihla still gives as complete an account as exists of some parts of the world in the 14th century.
Almost all that is known about Ibn Battuta's life comes from one source—Ibn Battuta himself. In some places, the things he claims he saw or did are probably fanciful, but in many others, there is no way to know whether he is reporting or storytelling. However, due to the complexity and thoroughness of his accounts, we are left to assume that his chronicles were in fact true.
An impact crater on the moon, the Ibn Battuta crater, is named after him. In the broadest sense the term impact crater can be applied to any depression natural or manmade resulting from the high velocity impact of a projectile with larger body Ibn Battuta is a small lunar crater on the Mare Fecunditatis, a Lunar mare in the eastern part of the Moon 's near side A themed shopping mall in Dubai, the Ibn Battuta Mall, also bears his name, with some of his earlier research and inventions in displays scattered throughout its corridors. A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings that contain Retail units with interconnecting Walkways enabling visitors Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE The Ibn Battuta Mall is a large shopping mall on the Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai close to Interchange 6 for Jebel Ali Village
Ibn Battuta was born in Tangier, Morocco, during the time of Merinid Sultanate rule in the Hijri calendar year 703 into a Muslim family. Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری At the age of (approximately) twenty, Ibn Battuta went on hajj—the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Once done, however, he continued traveling, eventually covering about 75,000 miles over the length and breadth of the Muslim world, and beyond (about 44 modern countries). The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings Ibn Battuta started his journeys in 1325.
Returning to Cairo, he took a second side trip, to Damascus (then also controlled by the Mameluks), having encountered a holy man during his first trip who prophesied that Ibn Battuta would only reach Mecca after a journey through Syria. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية An additional advantage to the side journey was that other holy places were along the route—Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, for example—and the Mameluk authorities put special effort into keeping the journey safe for pilgrims. Hebron ( al-Ḫalīl or al-Khalīl, Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn is the largest city in the West Bank, located in the south Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a
After spending Ramadan in Damascus, Ibn Battuta joined up with a caravan traveling the 800 miles from Damascus to Medina, burial place of the prophet Muhammad. Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics After four days, he then journeyed on to Mecca. There he completed the usual rituals of a Muslim pilgrim, and having graduated to the status of al-Hajji as a result, now faced his return home. Hajji (الحجّي al-ḥağğī Hadžija Pilgrim) or El-Hajj, is an honorific title given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed Upon reflection, he decided to continue journeying instead. His next destination was the Il-Khanate in modern-day Iraq and Iran. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.
After this trip, Ibn Battuta returned to Mecca for a second hajj and lived there for a year before embarking on a second great trek, this time down the Red Sea and the Eastern African coast. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. His first major stop was Aden, where his intention was to make his fortune as a trader of the goods that flowed into the Arabian Peninsula from around the Indian Ocean. Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Before doing so, however, he determined to have one last adventure and signed on for a trip down the coast of Africa.
Spending about a week in each of his destinations, he visited Mogadishu, Mombassa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa, among others. Mogadishu ( Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar, Hamar; مقديشو Maqadīshū Mombasa is the second largest City in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Kilwa is one of the 6 districts of the Lindi Region of Tanzania. With the change of the monsoon, he and the ship he was aboard then returned to Arabia. Having completed his final adventure before settling down, he then immediately decided to go visit Oman and the Straits of Hormuz. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Navigation Ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS which separates inbound from outbound traffic to reduce the risk of collision This done, he journeyed to Mecca again.
Spending another year there, he then resolved to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population Needing a guide and translator if he was to travel there, he went to Anatolia, then under the control of the Seljuqs, to join up with one of the caravans that went from there to India. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A sea voyage from Damascus on a Genoese ship landed him in Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. Alanya (ɑˈlɑnjɑ is a seaside resort city and district of Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey, 120 km (75 miles from the city Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches From there he traveled by land to Konya and then Sinope on the Black Sea coast. Konya ( قونیه; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium ( Latin Sinop ( Greek: Σινώπη /Sinope is a city with a population of 47000 on İnce Burun ( İnceburun, Cape Ince) by its The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey
Crossing the Black Sea, Ibn Battuta landed in Caffa (now Theodosia), in the Crimea, and entered the lands of the Golden Horde. This article refers to the medieval Turkic state For the Irish rock band see The Golden Horde (band. There he bought a wagon and fortuitously joined the caravan of Ozbeg, the Golden Horde's Khan, on a journey as far as Astrakhan on the Volga River. Sultan Mohammed Öz-Beg, better known as Uzbeg or Ozbeg (1282&ndash1341 reign 1313&ndash1341 was the longest-reigning khan of the Golden Astrakhan (А́страхань Ästerxan Persian: حاجیترخان Haji-Tarkhan) is a major city in southern European Russia and
Upon reaching Astrakhan, the Khan allowed one of his pregnant wives to go give birth back in her home city—Constantinople. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS It is perhaps of no surprise to the reader that Ibn Battuta talked his way into this expedition, his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.
Arriving there towards the end of 1332, he met the emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus and saw the outside of Hagia Sophia. Andronikos III Palaiologos or Andronicus III Palaeologus ( Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος Andronikos III Paleologos; Անդրանիկ Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later After a month in the city, he retraced his route to Astrakhan, then carried on past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bokhara and Samarkand. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. The Aral Sea ( Kazakh: Арал Теңізі Aral Tengizi, Orol dengizi Russian: Аральскοе мοре Tajik / Persian: Daryocha-i Bukhara (Buxoro Бухоро بُخارا Бухара also spelled as Bukhoro and Bokhara, from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, the mountain passes of which he used to cross into India. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت,
The Sultanate of Delhi was a new addition to Dar al-Islam, and Sultan Muhammed Tughlaq had resolved to import as many Muslim scholars and other functionaries as possible to consolidate his rule. The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए The house of divisions in Islam such as "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Harb" does not appear in the Koran or the Hadith. Muhammad bin Tughluq (محمد بن تغلق (c1300&ndash 1351 also Prince Juna Khan was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351 On the strength of his years of studies while in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was employed as a qadi ("judge") by the sultan. Qadi (also known as Qazi or Kazi or Kadi) (قاضي is a judge ruling in accordance with the Sharia, Islamic religious law
Tughlaq was erratic even by the standards of the time, and Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate, aiding in the converting of the people that lived along the trade routes that he travelled, and being under suspicion for a variety of treasons against the government. Eventually he resolved to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj, but the Sultan offered the alternative of being ambassador to China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Given the opportunity to both get away from the Sultan and visit new lands, Ibn Battuta took it.
En route to the coast, he and his party were attacked by Hindus, and, separated from the others, he was robbed and nearly lost his life. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Nevertheless, he managed to catch up with his group within two days and continued the journey to Cambay. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Khambhat, formerly known as Cambay, is a city and a Municipality in Anand district From there, they sailed to Calicut (two centuries later, Vasco da Gama also landed at the same place). WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kozhikode District. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca While Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, however, a storm blew up, and two of the ships of his expedition were sunk. The third then sailed away without him and ended up seized by a local king of Samudera Pasai in today Aceh of Sumatra island a few months later. for the town in Burma see Pasai Burma Pasai, also known as Samudera and Samudera-Pasai sometimes called See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two In his travel log, he mentioned about the ruler of Samudera, Malik ul Salih, who was a Muslim and performed his religious duties in his utmost zeal. Malik ul Salih (Malik Al Saleh Malik al Salih or Malik ul Saleh established the first Muslim state of Samudera Pasai in the year 1267. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The madh'hab was Imam Shafi'i, and it reminded him of similar customs he had seen in India. Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Al-Shafi'i, Arabic Jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD 
Fearful of returning to Delhi as a failure, he stayed for a time in the south of India under the protection of Jamal al-Din. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Jamaluddin was ruler of a small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the river Sharavathi on the Arabian Sea coast. The Nawayath s (also spelled as Navayath or Nawayat are a small Muslim community found living in and around the town of Bhatkal a prosperous little picturesque town Sharavathi ( Kannada: ಶರಾವತಿ is a River which originates and flows entirely within the Karnataka state of India. The Arabian Sea ( Arabic: بحر العرب transliterated: Baḥr al-'Arab Sanskrit: सिन्धु सागर transliterated: This place is presently known as Hosapattana and is located in the Honnavar taluka of Uttara Kannada district. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Honavar or Honnavar (Kannada ಹೊನ್ನಾವರ is a Port Town in Uttara Kannada ( Kannada ಉತ್ತರ ಕನ್ನಡ) is a district in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. When the sultanate was overthrown, it became necessary for Ibn Battuta to leave India altogether. He resolved to carry on to China, with a detour near the beginning of the journey to the Maldives. The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching
He spent nine months in the Maldive Islands, much longer than he had intended. As a qadi, his skills were highly desirable in these formerly Buddhist islands that had been recently converted to Islam, and he was half-bribed, half-kidnapped into staying. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Appointed chief judge and marrying into the royal family, he became embroiled in local politics and ended up leaving after wearing out his welcome by imposing strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom. From there, he carried on to Ceylon for a visit to Sri Pada (Adam's Peak). Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Adam's Peak (also Adam's Mount; Sinhalese Samanalakanda "butterfly mountain" Tamil Sivanolipatha Malai) is a tall conical Mountain
Setting sail from Ceylon, his ship nearly sank in a storm, then the ship that rescued him was attacked by pirates. Stranded on shore, Ibn Battuta once again worked his way back to Calicut, from where he then sailed to the Maldives again before getting on board a Chinese junk and trying once again to get to China.
This time he succeeded, reaching in quick succession Chittagong, Sumatra, Vietnam, and then finally Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China. Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially "Zaytun" redirects here For the South Korean military division in Iraq see Zaytun Division. This article is about the People's Republic of China province From there, he went north to Hangzhou, not far from modern-day Shanghai. ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million He also traveled even further north, through the Grand Canal to Beijing, although there has been some doubt about whether this actually occurred. The Grand Canal of China ( also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( is the longest ancient Canal or artificial River in the world
Returning to Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta decided to return home—though exactly where "home" was a bit of a problem. Returning to Calicut once again, he pondered throwing himself on the mercy of Muhammed Tughlaq but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca once again. Returning via Hormuz and the Il-Khanate, he saw that state dissolved into civil war, Abu Sa'id having died since his previous trip there.
Returning to Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj, he learned that his father had died. Death was the theme of the next year or so, for the Black Death had begun, and Ibn Battuta was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia After reaching Mecca, he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter century after leaving it. During the trip he made one last detour to Sardinia, then returned to Tangier to discover that his mother had also died, a few months before. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily)
Having settled in Tangier for all of a few days, Ibn Battuta then set out for a trip to al-Andalus—Muslim Iberia. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Alfonso XI of Castile was threatening the conquest of Gibraltar, and Ibn Battuta joined up with a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port. Alfonso XI of Castile (Salamanca August 13, 1311 &ndash Gibraltar March 26/27 1350 was the king of Castile and León, the son of Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso, and the threat had receded, so Ibn Battuta decided to visit for pleasure instead. He travelled through Valencia and ended up in Granada. The Christian Kingdom of Valencia, located in the Eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain.
Leaving al-Andalus, he decided to travel through one of the few parts of the Muslim world that he had never explored: Morocco. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakesh, which was nearly a ghost town after the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez. Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City" Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat
Once more he returned to Tangier, and once more he moved on. Two years before his own first visit to Cairo, the Malian king Mansa Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and had caused a sensation with his extravagant riches—West Africa contained vast quantities of gold, previously unknown to the rest of the world. The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. While Ibn Battuta never mentions this specifically, hearing of this during his own trip must have planted a seed in his mind, for he decided to set out and visit the Muslim kingdom on the far side of the Sahara Desert. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest
In the fall of 1351, Ibn Battuta set out from Fez, reaching the last Moroccan town (Sijilmasa) a bit more than a week later. Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a Mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. When the winter caravans began a few months later, he joined one, together with two of his cousins, ibn Ziri and ibn 'Adi. After a month, he arrived at the Central Saharan town of Taghaza. Taghaza is an extinct town in the desert region of contemporary northern Mali. Taghaza was actually a dry salt lake bed, and its buildings were constructed from slabs of salt by slaves of the Massufa tribe, who cut the salt from the lake bed in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a profitable commercial center and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not have a favorable impression of the place. A long and difficult journey lay ahead, requiring special advance guides or takshif with local experience to arrange a passage. When the takshif became lost, the entire caravan usually disappeared without a trace. Ibn Battuta had his own tragedy: after quarreling with ibn 'Adi, ibn Ziri lagged behind the caravan until he became lost, and was never seen again. Traversing the open wastes of the Sahara Desert was therefore terrifying to many travelers, and Ibn Battuta noted the difficulty of navigating without landmarks, writing that there was "no visible road or track in these parts, nothing but sand blown here and there by the wind. " After another 900 harrowing km through the worst part of the desert, Ibn Battuta finally arrived in Mali, particularly the town of Iwalatan (Walata). Oualata ( Arabic: ولاته is a town in south east Mauritania.
From there, he traveled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the Niger River) until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a Medieval West African civilization of the Mandinka from c There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Suleyman was Mansa of the Mali Empire from 1341 to 1360 The brother of the powerful Kankan Musa I, he succeeded Musa's son Maghan to the throne Dubious about the miserly hospitality of the king, he nevertheless stayed for eight months before journeying back up the Niger to Timbuktu. Timbuktu ( Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, in the West African Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at the time it was small and unimpressive, and Ibn Battuta soon moved on. Partway through his journey back across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return home. This he did, and this time it lasted.
After the publication of the Rihla, little is known about Ibn Battuta's life. He may have been appointed a qadi in Morocco. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Ibn Battuta died in Morocco some time between 1368 and 1377 from the same disease that claimed his mother's life, the Black Death. For centuries his book was obscure, even within the Muslim world, but in the 1800s, it was rediscovered and translated into several European languages. Since then, Ibn Battuta has grown in fame and is now a well-known figure in the Middle East, not only for being an extensive traveller and author, but also for aiding in the conversion of the people along the trade routes that he took.