The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Every health condition can be assigned to a unique category and given a code, up to six characters long. Such categories can include a set of similar diseases.
The International Classification of Diseases is published by the World Health Organization. The ICD is used world-wide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems and automated decision support in medicine. In Medicine, Epidemiology and Actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of poor health (from Latin Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of these statistics. The ICD is a core classification of the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC).
An important alternative to the mental disorders section of the ICD is the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which is the primary diagnostic system for psychiatric and psychological disorders within the United States and some other countries, and is used as an adjunct diagnostic system in other countries. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association Since the 1990s, the APA and WHO have worked to bring the DSM and the relevant sections of ICD into concordance, but some differences remain.
The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth edition. The ICD-10, as it is therefore known, was developed in 1992 to track mortality statistics. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings ICD-11 is planned for 2011 and will be revised using Web 2.0 principles. Web 20 is a term describing changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aims to enhance Creativity, secure  Annual minor updates and three yearly major updates are published by WHO. The ICD is part of a "family" of guides that can be used to complement each other, including also the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which focuses on the domains of functioning (disability) associated with health conditions, from both medical and social perspectives. International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, also known as ICF, is a classification of the health components of functioning and disability
In 1893, a French physician, Jacques Bertillon, introduced the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death at the International Statistical Institute in Chicago. Jacques Bertillon ( November 11, 1851 &ndash July 7, 1922) was a French Statistician and demographer. The International Statistical Institute ( ISI)is a professional association of statisticians which seeks to "develop and improve statistical methods and their application A number of countries adopted Dr. Bertillon’s system, and in 1898, the American Public Health Association (APHA) recommended that the registrars of Canada, Mexico, and the United States also adopt it. The American Public Health Association (APHA is Washington DC The APHA also recommended revising the system every ten years to ensure the system remained current with medical practice advances. As a result, the first international conference to revise the International Classification of Causes of Death convened in 1900; with revisions occurring every ten years thereafter. At that time the classification system was contained in one book, which included an Alphabetic Index as well as a Tabular List. The book was small compared with current coding texts.
The revisions that followed contained minor changes, until the sixth revision of the classification system. With the sixth revision, the classification system expanded to two volumes. The sixth revision included morbidity and mortality conditions, and its title was modified to reflect the changes: Manual of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD). Prior to the sixth revision, responsibility for ICD revisions fell to the Mixed Commission, a group composed of representatives from the International Statistical Institute and the Health Organization of the League of Nations. In 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) assumed responsibility for preparing and publishing the revisions to the ICD every ten years. WHO sponsored the seventh and eighth revisions in 1957 and 1968, respectively.
In 1959, the U.S. Public Health Service published The International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Indexing of Hospital Records and Operation Classification (ICDA). Organization of the Public Health Service The Public Health Service Act placed the United States Public Health Service ( PHS) as the primary division It was completed in 1962 and a revision of this adaptation – considered to be the seventh revision of ICD – expanded a number of areas to more completely meet the indexing needs of hospitals. The U. S. Public Health Service later published the Eighth Revision, International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Use in the United States. Commonly referred to as ICDA-8, this classification system fulfilled its purpose to code diagnostic and operative procedural data for official morbidity and mortality statistics in the United States.
The ICD-9 was published by the WHO in 1977. At this time, the U. S. National Center for Health Statistics created an extension of it so the system could be used to capture more morbidity data and a section of procedure codes was added . National Center for Health Statistics ( NCHS) is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC which is part of the United States Department of In Medicine, Epidemiology and Actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of poor health (from Latin Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals This extension was called "ICD-9-CM", with the CM standing for "Clinical Modification".
ICD-9 consists of two or three volumes:
According to the World Health Organization Department of Knowledge Management and Sharing, the WHO no longer publishes or distributes the ICD-9 which is now public domain.
The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) is based on the World Health Organization's Ninth Revision, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9). The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ICD-9-CM is the official system of assigning codes to diagnoses and procedures associated with hospital utilization in the United States.
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are the U. S. governmental agencies responsible for overseeing all changes and modifications to the ICD-9-CM.
Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992 . The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings
Adoption was relatively swift in most of the world, but not in the United States. Since 1988, the USA had required ICD-9-CM codes for Medicare and Medicaid claims, and most of the rest of the American medical industry followed suit. This article refers to Medicare, a United States health insurance program Medicaid is the United States health program for eligible individuals and families with low incomes and resources
On 1 January 1999 the ICD-10 (without clinical extensions) was adopted for reporting mortality, but ICD-9-CM was still used for morbidity. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) In Medicine, Epidemiology and Actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of poor health (from Latin Meanwhile, NCHS received permission from the WHO to create a clinical modification of the ICD-10, and has produced drafts of the following two systems:
However, neither of these systems is currently in place. There is not yet an anticipated implementation date to phase out the use of ICD-9-CM. There will be a two year implementation window once the final notice to implement has been published in the Federal Register. The Federal Register (since March 14, 1936) abbreviated Fed Reg . A detailed timeline is provided here.
Other countries have created their own extensions to ICD-10. For example, Australia introduced their first edition of "ICD-10-AM" in 1998, and Canada introduced "ICD-10-CA" in 2000. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
The first draft of the ICD-11 system is expected in 2008, with publication following by 2011 and in 2013+ implementation will take place. WHO has announced that it will apply Web 2.0 principles for the first time to revise the ICD. Web 20 is a term describing changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aims to enhance Creativity, secure The ICD revision process will be open to all comers willing to register, back their suggestions with evidence from medical literature and participate in online debate over proposed changes. 
ICD has become the most widely used statistical classification system in the world. Although some countries found ICD sufficient for hospital indexing purposes, many others felt that it did not provide adequate detail for diagnostic indexing. The original revisions of ICD also did not provide procedure codes for classification of operative or diagnostic procedures. Procedure codes are numbers or alphanumeric codes used to identify specific health interventions taken by medical professionals As a result, interested persons in the United States began to develop their own adaptation of ICD for use in the United States.
Hospitals and other healthcare facilities index healthcare data by referring and adhering to a classification system published by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The Clinical Modification or CM system was developed and implemented in order to better describe the clinical picture of the patient. The CM codes are more precise than those needed only for statistical groupings and trend analysis. The diagnosis component of ICD-9-CM is completely consistent with ICD-9 codes.
Note that ICD-10 was adopted in 1999 for reporting mortality, but the ICD-9-CM remains the data standard for reporting morbidity. Revisions of the ICD-10 have progressed to incorporate both clinical code (ICD-10-CM) and procedure code (ICD-10-PCS) with the revisions completed in 2003. However, ICD-9 has not been phased out by the new revision.
As well as general medical diseases, the ICD includes a section classifying mental and behavioral disorders. This has developed alongside the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the two manuals seek to use the same codes. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association There are significant differences, however, such as the ICD including personality disorders on the same axis as other mental disorders, unlike the DSM. The WHO is revising their classifications in these section as part the development of the ICD-11 (scheduled for 2014), and an "International Advisory Group" has been established to guide this.
The years for which causes of death in the United States have been classified by each revision as follows: