Hypertext most often refers to text on a computer that will lead the user to other, related information on demand. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Hypertext represents a relatively recent innovation to user interfaces, which overcomes some of the limitations of written text. The user interface (or Human Computer Interface) is the aggregate of means by which people&mdash the users '&mdash interact with the System Rather than remaining static like traditional text, hypertext makes possible a dynamic organization of information through links and connections (called hyperlinks). In computing a hyperlink is a Reference or Navigation element in a Document to another Section of the same document or to another Hypertext can be designed to perform various tasks; for instance when a user "clicks" on it or "hovers" over it, a bubble with a word definition may appear, a web page on a related subject may load, a video clip may run, or an application may open.
The prefix hyper- (comes from the Greek prefix "υπερ-" and means "over" or "beyond") signifies the overcoming of the old linear constraints of written text. The term "hypertext" is often used where the term hypermedia might seem appropriate. Hypermedia is used as a logical extension of the term Hypertext in which graphics audio video plain text and Hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear In 1992 Ted Nelson - who coined both terms in 1965 - wrote:
By now the word "hypertext" has become generally accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word "hypermedia," meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics, movies and sound - as well as text - is much less used. Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937 is an American Sociologist, Philosopher, and pioneer of Information technology. Instead they use the strange term "interactive multimedia" - four syllables longer, and not expressing the idea that it extends hypertext. - Nelson, Literary Machines 1992
Hypertext documents can either be static (prepared and stored in advance) or dynamic (continually changing in response to user input). Literary Machines is a book first published in the early 1980s by Ted Nelson. Input is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a System and which activate/modify a Process. Static hypertext can be used to cross-reference collections of data in documents, software applications, or books on CDs. Application software is a subclass of Computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform A well-constructed system can also incorporate other user-interface conventions, such as menus and command lines. Hypertext can develop very complex and dynamic systems of linking and cross-referencing. The most famous implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
Recorders of information have long looked for ways to categorize and compile it. Early on, experiments existed with various methods for arranging layers of annotations around a document. Annotation is add on information asserted with a particular point in a Document or other piece of information The most famous example of this is the Talmud. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Various other reference works (for example dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc. In general a reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates by linking to another object A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge ) also developed a precursor to hypertext, consisting of setting certain words in small capital letters, indicating that an entry existed for that term within the same reference work. Sometimes the term would be preceded by a pointing hand dingbat, ☞like this, or an arrow, ➧like this. A dingbat is an ornament or spacer used in Typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a "printer's ornament" An arrow is a graphical Symbol such as → or ← used to point or indicate direction being in its simplest form a line segment with a triangle affixed to one end and
Later, several scholars entered the scene who believed that humanity was drowning in information, causing foolish decisions and duplicating efforts among scientists. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings These scholars proposed or developed proto-hypertext systems predating electronic computer technology. For example, in the early 20th century, two visionaries attacked the cross-referencing problem through proposals based on labor-intensive, brute force methods. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking road building or any In Computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a trivial but very general problem-solving technique Paul Otlet proposed a proto-hypertext concept based on his monographic principle, in which all documents would be decomposed down to unique phrases stored on index cards. Paul Marie Ghislain Otlet (pronounced "ot-LAY" (born 23 August 1868 in Brussels, Belgium, died 10 December 1944 An index card is heavy Paper stock cut to a standard size Index cards are often used for recording individual items of information that can then be easily rearranged and filed In the 1930s, H.G. Wells proposed the creation of a World Brain. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political World Brain is the title of a book of essays by English author H
Michael Buckland summarized the very advanced pre-World War II development of microfilm based on rapid retrieval devices, specifically the microfilm based workstation proposed by Leonard Townsend in 1938 and the microfilm and photoelectronic based selector, patented by Emmanuel Goldberg in 1931. Michael Keeble Buckland (born 1941 is an Emeritus Professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information and Co-Director of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative.  Buckland concluded: "The pre-war information retrieval specialists of continental Europe, the 'documentalists,' largely disregarded by post-war information retrieval specialists, had ideas that were considerably more advanced than is now generally realized. " But, like the manual index card model, these microfilm devices provided rapid retrieval based on pre-coded indices and classification schemes published as part of the microfilm record without including the link model which distinguishes the modern concept of hypertext from content or category based information retrieval. Information retrieval ( IR) is the science of searching for documents for Information within documents and for metadata about documents as well as that
All major histories of what we now call hypertext start in 1945, when Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think," about a futuristic device he called a Memex. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Vannevar Bush ( March 11, 1890 &ndash June 30, 1974; pronounced "VAN-ee-var" ˈvæˌniː The Atlantic (formerly known as The Atlantic Monthly) is an American Magazine founded in Boston in 1857 As We May Think is an essay by Vannevar Bush, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1945 The memex (a Portmanteau of "memory extender" is the name given by Vannevar Bush to the theoretical proto- Hypertext computer system he proposed He described the device as a mechanical desk linked to an extensive archive of microfilms, able to display books, writings, or any document from a library. Microforms are any form either films or paper containing microreproductions of documents for transmission storage reading and printing A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution The Memex would also be able to create 'trails' of linked and branching sets of pages, combining pages from the published microfilm library with personal annotations or additions captured on a microfilm recorder. Bush's vision was based on extensions of 1945 technology - microfilm recording and retrieval in this case. However, the modern story of hypertext starts with the Memex because "As We May Think" directly influenced and inspired the two American men generally credited with the invention of hypertext, Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart. Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937 is an American Sociologist, Philosopher, and pioneer of Information technology. Dr Douglas C Engelbart (born January 30 1925 is an American Inventor.
Ted Nelson coined the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1965 and worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1968 at Brown University. Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937 is an American Sociologist, Philosopher, and pioneer of Information technology. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Andries "Andy" van Dam (born 8 December 1938, Groningen) is a Dutch -born American professor of Computer science and former This article is about the computer technology See HES (disambiguation for other uses Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Brown University is a highly esteemed private University located in Providence, Rhode Island and is a member of the Ivy League. Engelbart had begun working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel, and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. NLS, or the "oN-Line System" was a revolutionary Computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. SRI International, based in the United States is one of the world's largest contract Research institutes. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a hypertext interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos". The Mother of All Demos is a name given to Douglas Engelbart's December 9 1968 demonstration at the Convention Center in San Francisco.
Funding for NLS slowed after 1974. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Influential work in the following decade included NoteCards at Xerox PARC and ZOG at Carnegie Mellon. NoteCards was a Hypertext system developed at Xerox PARC by Randall Trigg Frank Halasz and Thomas Moran in 1984. PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of ZOG was an early Hypertext system developed at Carnegie Mellon University during the 1970s by Donald McCracken and Robert Akscyn. Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private Research University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United ZOG started in 1972 as an artificial intelligence research project under the supervision of Allen Newell, and pioneered the "frame" or "card" model of hypertext. Allen Newell ( March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in Computer science and Cognitive psychology at the ZOG was deployed in 1982 on the U.S.S. Carl Vinson and later commercialized as Knowledge Management System. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Ship history 1982 to 1989 After commissioning on 13 March 1982 USS Carl Vinson was put to sea for a post-commissioning shakedown Knowledge Management System (KM System refers to a (generally IT based system for managing knowledge in organizations supporting creation capture storage Two other influential hypertext projects from the early 1980s were Ben Shneiderman's The Interactive Encyclopedia System (TIES) at the University of Maryland (1983) and Intermedia at Brown University (1984). The Interactive Encyclopedia System, or TIES, was a Hypertext system developed at the University of Maryland College Park by Ben Shneiderman The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable often confusing inter-disciplinary activities that occur Brown University is a highly esteemed private University located in Providence, Rhode Island and is a member of the Ivy League.
The first hypermedia application was the Aspen Movie Map in 1977. The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary Hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 8 June 1955 is an English computer scientist who is credited ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980 of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989 A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content using a simplified Markup language. The early 1980s also saw a number of experimental hypertext and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were later integrated into the Web. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Hypermedia is used as a logical extension of the term Hypertext in which graphics audio video plain text and Hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear Terminology is the study of terms and their use Terms are Words and Compound words that are used in specific contexts Guide was the first hypertext system for personal computers. Guide was a Hypertext system originally developed by Peter J Brown at the University of Kent in 1982 A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated
In August 1987, Apple Computer revealed its HyperCard application for the Macintosh line of computers at the MacWorld convention in Boston, Massachusetts. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics HyperCard was an Application program created by Bill Atkinson for Apple Computer Inc Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc Produced by Boston -based IDG World Expo, Macworld Conference & Expo is a trade show dedicated to the Apple Macintosh platform with conference tracks held The first hypertext-specific academic conference took place in November 1987, in Chapel Hill NC. An academic conference is a conference for Researchers (not always Academics to present and Discuss their work Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
Meanwhile Nelson, who had been working on and advocating his Xanadu system for over two decades, along with the commercial success of HyperCard, stirred Autodesk to invest in Nelson's revolutionary ideas. Project Xanadu was the first Hypertext project Founded in 1960 by Ted Nelson, the project contrasts its vision with that of paper "Today's popular software Autodesk Inc ( is an American Multinational corporation that focuses on 2D and 3D design Software for use in architecture engineering The project continued at Autodesk for four years, but no product was released.
In the late 1980s, Berners-Lee, then a scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web to meet the demand for automatic information-sharing among scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire known as CERN The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. In 1992, Lynx was born as an early Internet web browser. Lynx is a free Open-source, text-only Web browser and Gopher client for use on cursor-addressable character cell terminals. Its ability to provide hypertext links within documents that could reach into documents anywhere on the Internet began the creation of the web on the Internet.
Early in 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois released the first version of their Mosaic web browser to supplement the two existing web browsers: one that ran only on NeXTSTEP and one that was only minimally user-friendly. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The National Center for Supercomputing Applications ( NCSA) is one of five original centers in the National Science Foundation 's Supercomputer Centers Program and a This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of Mosaic is the browser which popularized the World Wide Web. It was also a browser for earlier concepts such as Ftp, Usenet, and Gopher A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a Nextstep was the original object-oriented, multitasking Operating system that NeXT Computer developed to run on its range of proprietary computers Because it could display and link graphics as well as text, Mosaic quickly became the replacement for Lynx. Mosaic ran in the X Window System environment, which was then popular in the research community, and offered usable window-based interactions. It allowed images as well as text to anchor hypertext links. It also incorporated other protocols intended to coordinate information across the Internet, such as Gopher. For other uses see Gopher. Gopher is a distributed Document search and retrieval Network protocol designed 
After the release of web browsers for both the PC and Macintosh environments, traffic on the World Wide Web quickly exploded from only 500 known web servers in 1993 to over 10,000 in 1994. IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Thus, all earlier hypertext systems were overshadowed by the success of the web, even though it originally lacked many features of those earlier systems, such as an easy way to edit what you were reading, typed links, backlinks, transclusion, and source tracking. A typed link in a Hypertext system is a link to another document or part of a document that includes information about the character of the link Backlinks (or back-links (UK are incoming links to a Website or Web page. In Computer science, transclusion is the inclusion of part of a document into another document by reference Source tracking pertains to the ability of some Hypertext systems to rigorously track the exact source of every document or partial document included in the system that
In 1995, Ward Cunningham made the first wiki available, which built on the web by adding easy editing, and (within a single wiki) backlinks and limited source tracking. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content using a simplified Markup language. Wikis continue to be a medium where features are implemented, which were developed or imagined in the early explorations of hypertext.
Among the top academic conferences for new research in hypertext is the annual ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT 2006). The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and educational Computing society Although not exclusively about hypertext, the World Wide Web series of conferences, organized by IW3C2, include many papers of interest. There is a list on the web with links to all conferences in the series.
See main article Hypertext fiction
Hypertext writing has developed its own style of fiction, coinciding with the growth and proliferation of hypertext development software and the emergence of electronic networks. Hypertext fiction is a genre of Electronic literature, characterized by the use of Hypertext links which provides a new context for non-linearity in "literature" Two software programs specifically designed for literary hypertext, Storyspace and Intermedia became available in the 1990s. Intermedia was the third notable Hypertext project to emerge from Brown University, after HES (1967 and FRESS (1969
Storyspace 2. 0, a professional level hypertext development tool, is available from Eastgate Systems, which has also published many notable works of electronic literature, including Michael Joyce's afternoon, a story, Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl, Stuart Moulthrop's Victory Garden, and Judy Malloy's its name was Penelope. Eastgate Systems is a publisher and software company headquartered in Watertown Massachusetts. Electronic literature is a Literary genre consisting of works of Literature that originate within digital environments This article is about the hypertext author and scholar For the North Carolina town councilman see Michael A Afternoon a story is a work of Electronic literature written in 1987 by American author Michael Joyce. Shelley Jackson (born 1963 is a writer and artist known for her cross-genre experiments including her groundbreaking work of hyperfiction, Patchwork Girl Patchwork Girl is a work of Electronic literature by American author Shelley Jackson. Stuart Moulthrop is an innovator of Electronic literature and Hypertext fiction, both as a theoretician and as a writer Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were Vegetable, Fruit and Herb Gardens planted at Other works include Julio Cortazar's Rayuela and Milorad Pavić's Dictionary of the Khazars. Julio Cortázar, born Jules Florencio Cortázar ( August 26, 1914 &ndash February 12, 1984) was an Argentine Author Hopscotch (Rayuela is a Novel by Argentine author Julio Cortázar. Milorad Pavić (Милорад Павић (born October 15, 1929 in Belgrade) is a noted Serbian Poet, Prose writer Dictionary of the Khazars A Lexicon Novel is the first novel by Serbian writer Milorad Pavich (Milorad Pavić published in 1984
An advantage of writing a narrative using hypertext technology is that the meaning of the story can be conveyed through a sense of spatiality and perspective that is arguably unique to digitally-networked environments. An author's creative use of nodes, the self-contained units of meaning in a hypertextual narrative, can play with the reader's orientation and add meaning to the text.
Critics of hypertext claim that it inhibits the old, linear, reader experience by creating several different tracks to read on, and that this in turn contributes to a postmodernist fragmentation of worlds. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism However, they do see its value in its ability to present several different views on the same subject in a simple way.