Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. Cyclopaedia or A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences ( folio, 2 vols
For the mechanical technology, see hydraulic machinery and hydraulic cylinder

Hydraulics is a topic of science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use Fluid power to do work A Hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear Hydraulic motor) is a mechanical Actuator that is used to give a linear Force through a linear stroke Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Hydraulics is part of the more general discipline of fluid power. Fluid power is the technology of exploiting the properties of fluids to generate control and transmit power as a result of the pressurization of fluids Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. Fluid mechanics is the study of how Fluids move and the Forces on them Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behavior and erosion. A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees Fluidics (also known as Fluidic logic) is the use of a Fluid or compressible medium to perform analog or Digital operations similar to those For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. A water turbine is a rotary Engine that takes energy from moving water Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is one of the branches of Fluid mechanics that uses Numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve However if used incorrectly, hydraulic instruments can result in weird occurrences because of the nature of high pressure fluids.

The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from ὕδραυλος (hydraulos) meaning water organ which in turn comes from ὕδωρ (hydor, Greek for water) and αὐλός (aulos, meaning pipe). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The water organ or hydraulic organ (early types are sometimes called hydraulis, hydraulos, hydraulus or hydraula) is a type of automatic Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for Lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and Plumbing fixtures for

## History

### Earliest masters

The earliest masters of this science were Ctesibius (flourished c. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ( Greek Κτησίβιος ( fl 270 BC) and Hero of Alexandria (c. Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria ( Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c 10–80 AD) in the Greek-Hellenized West. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe the spread of Greek culture. Heron describes a number of working machines using hydraulic power, such as the force pump, which is known from many Roman sites as having been used for raising water and in fire engines, for example. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump.

### China

In ancient China there was Sunshu Ao (6th century BC), Ximen Bao (5th century BC), Du Shi (circa 31 AD), Zhang Heng (78 - 139 AD), and Ma Jun (200 - 265 AD), while medieval China had Su Song (1020 - 1101 AD) and Shen Kuo (1031 - 1095). Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖 was an ancient Chinese court minister serving the administration of Duke Zhuang of Chu during the reign of King Ding of Zhou ( Ximen Bao (西門豹 was an Ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen of Wei (文侯 ( 445 BC - 396 BC) during the Du Shi ( d 38 was a Chinese governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical Engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in Ancient Zhang Heng ( (CE 78–139 was an astronomer, mathematician, inventor, geographer, cartographer, artist, poet Ma Jun (fl 220&ndash265 styled Deheng (徳衡 was a Chinese Mechanical Engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms Su Song ( style name: Zirong 子容 (1020&ndash1101 AD was a renowned Chinese statesman, astronomer, cartographer, Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese Du Shi employed a waterwheel to power the bellows of a blast furnace producing cast iron. A water wheel is a means of extracting power from the flow (or fall of water otherwise known as Hydropower. A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized Air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. Zhang Heng was the first to employ hydraulics to provide motive power in rotating an armillary sphere for astronomical observation. Astronomy in China has a very long history Oracle bones from the Shang Dynasty ( 2nd millennium BC) record eclipses and novae

### Sri Lanka

Moat and gardens at Sigirya.

In ancient Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese used hydraulics in many applications, in the ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and number approximately 15 million people with the Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous The second most ancient of Sri Lanka 's kingdoms Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 The discovery of the principle of the valve tower, or valve pit, for regulating the escape of water is credited to Sinhalese ingenuity more than 2,000 years ago. For other uses see Valve (disambiguation. For the electronic component see Thermionic valve. By the first century A. D, several large-scale irrigation works had been completed. Macro- and micro-hydraulics to provide for domestic horticultural and agricultural needs, surface drainage and erosion control, ornamental and recreational water courses and retaining structures and also cooling systems were in place in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. Sigiriya (Lion's rock is an ancient rock fortress and ruins of a castle situated in central Matale District of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The citadel on the massive rock at the site includes cisterns for collecting water. For cisterns in Neuroanatomy, see Cistern (neuroanatomy.For the village in England see Syston.

### Near East

In the Near East there was continuous and rapid development of civilisation in the fertile crescent from around 16,000BC. The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often The Neolithic period saw the advent of irrigation through small ditches - the very first and rudimentary "hydraulic works". The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The first definite evidence of irrigation dates from the VIIth Millennium BC - in the middle Tigris valley. The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern At Choga Mami remains of two meter wide canals have been found. The first wells appeared in the VIth Millennium BC. [1]

### Roman Innovations

Aqueduct of Segovia

While there is great public awareness of their highly visible aqueducts, less is known about their use of hydropower, although extant remains suggest that it was much more widespread than appreciated. Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may The use of hydraulic mining methods is at its most spectacular in the gold-fields of northern Spain, which was conquered by Augustus in 25 BC. Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of Mining that employs Water to dislodge rock material or move sediment Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The alluvial gold-mine of Las Medulas for example must be one of the largest of their mines and even today rivals modern mines in sheer size. "Gold mine" redirects here See Goldmine for other uses of the term Las Médulas, located near the town of Ponferrada in León province, Spain, used to be the most important Gold mine in the Roman It was worked by at least 7 long aqueducts, and the water streams were used to erode the soft deposits, and then wash the tailings for the valuable gold content.

## Modern era

### Benedetto Castelli

In 1619 Benedetto Castelli (1576 - 1578–1643), a student of Galileo Galilei, published the book Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti or "On the Measurement of Running Waters", one of the foundations of modern hydrodynamics. Benedetto Castelli, born Antonio Castelli (1578 &ndash April 9 1643) was an Italian mathematician Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher He served as a chief consultant to the Pope on hydraulic projects, i. e. , management of rivers in the Papal States, beginning in 1626. [2]

### Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (1623–1662-1672) study of fluid hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. Blaise Pascal (blɛz paskal (June 19 1623 &ndash August 19 1662 was a French Mathematician, Physicist, and religious Philosopher His inventions include the hydraulic press, which multiplied a smaller force acting on a larger area into the application of a larger force totaled over a smaller area, transmitted through the same pressure (or same change of pressure) at both locations. A hydraulic press is a hydraulic mechanism for applying a large lifting or compressive force Pascal's law or principle states that for an incompressible fluid at rest, the difference in pressure is proportional to the difference in height and this difference remains the same whether or not the overall pressure of the fluid is changed by applying an external force. Pascal (unitIn the Physical sciences, Pascal's law or Pascal's principle states that "a change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressible fluid is conveyed This implies that by increasing the pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container, i. e. , any change in pressure applied at any point of the fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluids.

### Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille

A French physician, Poiseuille researched the flow of blood through the body and discovered an important law governing the rate of flow with the diameter of the tube in which flow occurred. Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille \pwä-'zəi\ ( April 22, 1799 - December 26, 1869) was a French Physician and Physiologist