A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle which combines a conventional propulsion system with an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle without being hampered by range from a charging unit like a battery electric vehicle (BEV), which uses batteries charged by an external source. The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric Mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Ground propulsion is a different term than transport because it refers to solid bodies being propelled A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores Energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable generally in Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of Fuel required to move the Automobile over a given Distance. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type of Electric vehicle (EV that uses chemical Energy stored in Rechargeable battery The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components.
Regular HEVs most commonly use an internal combustion engine (ICE) in tandem with electric motors to power their propulsion system. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (often a motor-generator) to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion A regenerative brake is a mechanism that reduces Vehicle speed by converting some of its Kinetic energy into another useful form of energy In Electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy, generally using Electromagnetic A motor-generator (an M-G set or a dynamotor for Dynamo -motor is a device for converting electrical power to another form Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed. Idle reduction is type of Automobile emissions control aimed at reducing the amount of energy wasted by an idling vehicle An HEV's engine is smaller and may be run at various speeds, providing more efficiency.
HEVs became widely available to the public in the late 1990s with the introduction of the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The Honda Insight is a Hybrid electric vehicle manufactured by Honda in its first generation as a three-door hatchback from model years 2000 to 2006 The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric Mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation HEVs are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future automotive market. The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles  An article for the July-August 2007 issue of THE FUTURIST magazine titled "Energy Diversity as a Business Imperative" included plug-in hybrid vehicles. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power GM vice president for environment and energy Elizabeth Lowery is quoted as saying, "Today, we are embracing multiple energy sources because there is no single answer available for the mass market. "
The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the fuel type, and the mode of operation. Hybrid Vehicles make use of both an on-board Rechargeable energy storage system (RESS and a fueled power source for vehicle propulsion.
In 2007, several automobile manufacturers announced that future vehicles will use aspects of hybrid electric technology to reduce fuel consumption without the use of the hybrid drivetrain. Regenerative braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical accessories, such as air conditioning. Shutting down the engine at idle can also be used to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions without the addition of a hybrid drivetrain. In both cases, some of the advantages of hybrid electric technology are gained while additional cost and weight may be limited to the addition of larger batteries and starter motors. There is no standard terminology for such vehicles, although they may be termed mild hybrids. Mild hybrids are essentially conventional Vehicles with oversized Starter motors allowing the Engine to be turned off whenever the car is
The 2000s saw development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can be recharged from the electrical power grid and do not require conventional fuel for short trips. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power Electric power transmission, a process in the delivery of Electricity to consumers is the bulk transfer of electrical power The Renault Kangoo was the first production model of this design, released in France in 2003. The Renault Kangoo and Kangoo Express are Panel van and Leisure activity vehicle produced by French automaker Renault since 1997
Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs, and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an Internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol ( Gasoline) and similar volatile While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Like most modern ICE-powered vehicles, HEVs can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present. A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or
Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine for power generation. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Diesels have advantages when delivering constant power for long periods of time, suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. The diesel engine's high torque, combined with hybrid technology, may offer substantially improved mileage. Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel), so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel (although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more common, and petroleum may be needed for lubrication). Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Lubrication is the process or technique employed to reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity and moving relative to each another by interposing a substance called If diesel-electric HEVs were in use, this benefit would likely also apply. Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles (particularly buses); as of 2007, no light duty diesel-electric hybrid passenger cars are currently available, although prototypes exist. Peugeot is expected to produce a diesel-electric hybrid version of its 308 in late 2008 for the European market. 
PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307, Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën C-Cactus. PSA Peugeot Citroën (previously Peugeot Société Anonyme) is a French Automobile and Motorcycle manufacturer; these The Peugeot 307 is a Family car produced by the French Peugeot manufacturer since 2001 The Citroën C4 is a Small family car produced by French automaker Citroën since autumn 2004 The Citroën C-Cactus is a Citroën C-Cactus concept car that debuted at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show.  Volkswagen made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 L/100 km (140 mpg imp/120 mpg US) fuel economy, but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. A prototype is an original type form or instance of something serving as a typical example basis or standard for other things of the same category General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. See also Vauxhall Astra and Holden Astra for the usage of the nameplate by other General Motors subsidiaries There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles, but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009.
Robert Bosch GmbH is supplying hybrid diesel-electric technology to diverse automakers and models, including the Peugeot 308. Robert Bosch GmbH is a German diversified technology-based corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart Germany. The Peugeot 308 is a Small family car produced by the French car manufacturer PSA. 
So far, production diesel-electric engines have mostly just appeared in mass transit buses.
FedEx, along with Eaton Corp. FedEx Corporation ( is a Logistics services company based in the United States. in the USA and Iveco in Europe, has begun deploying a small fleet of Hybrid diesel electric delivery trucks.  As of October 2007 Fedex now operates more than 100 diesel electric hybrids in North America, Asia and Europe. 
In some cases, manufacturers are producing HEVs that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost, rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts.  The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is partly controlled by the software within the hybrid system and partly the result of the engine, battery and motor size. In the future, manufacturers may provide HEV owners with the ability to partially control this balance (fuel efficiency vs. added performance) as they wish, through a user-controlled setting.  Toyota announced in January, 2006 that it was considering a "high-efficiency" button.
One can buy a stock hybrid or convert a stock petroleum car to a hybrid electric vehicle using an aftermarket hybrid kit . An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional Internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV to electric propulsion creating an All-electric 
Benefits of the hybrid electric design include:
Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles to realize different fuel usage, power, emissions, weight and cost profiles. The ICE in an HEV can be smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the combustion engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand. The drive system in a vehicle is required to operate over a range of speed and power, but an ICE has its highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation, making conventional vehicles inefficient. In contrast, in most HEV designs, the ICE operates closer to its range of highest efficiency more of the time. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. The greater fuel economy of HEVs has implication for reduced petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide
In 1901, while employed at Lohner Coach Factory, Ferdinand Porsche designed the "Mixte", a series-hybrid vehicle based on his earlier "System Lohner-Porsche" electric carriage. Prof Dr Ing hc Ferdinand Porsche ( The Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid was one of the earliest Hybrid vehicles developed in 1901 by Ferdinand Porsche. The Mixte broke several Austrian speed records, and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. The Mixte used a gasoline engine powering a generator, which in turn powered electric hub motors, with a small battery pack for reliability. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a A hub motor is an electric motor built directly into the hub of a wheel It had a range of 50 km, a top speed of 50 km/h and a power of 5. 22 kW during 20 minutes. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second.
The 1915 Dual Power, made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker, had a four-cylinder ICE and an electric motor. Woods Motor Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of electric Automobiles in Chicago Illinois between 1899 and 1916 Below 15 mph (25 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle, drawing power from a battery pack, and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (55 km/h) top speed. About 600 were made up to 1918. 
A more recent working prototype of the HEV was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt, the first transistor-based electric car). Victor Wouk (1919–2005 was an American scientist and pioneer in the development of electric and Hybrid vehicles Victor Wouk the brother of writer Herman Introduced for the 1959 model year the Henney Kilowatt was the world's first modern ( Transistor -regulated Electric car. Wouk's work with HEVs in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid".  Wouk installed a prototype hybrid drivetrain (with a 16 kW electric motor) into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, but the program was stopped by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1976 while Eric Stork, the head of the EPA at the time, was accused of a prejudicial coverup. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. The Buick Skylark was a passenger car produced by the Buick division of General Motors. The word prejudice refers to prejudgment making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case or event A cover-up is an attempt whether successful or not to conceal evidence of wrong-doing error Incompetence, or other embarrassing information 
The regenerative braking system, the core design concept of most production HEVs, was developed by electrical engineer David Arthurs around 1978 using off-the shelf components and an Opel GT. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of The Opel GT is a two-seat Sports car introduced in 1968 by Opel, a German possession of General Motors. However the voltage controller to link the batteries, motor (a jet-engine starter motor), and DC generator was Arthurs'. The vehicle exhibited 75 mpg–U. S. (3. 14 L/100 km / 90. 1 mpg–imp) fuel efficiency and plans for it (as well as somewhat updated versions) are still available through the Mother Earth News web site. Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense is the same as Thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier For the Early 1900's anarchist magazine see Mother Earth (magazine Mother Earth News is a bi-monthly American Magazine The Mother Earth News' own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 mpg–U. S. (2. 8 L/100 km / 100. 9 mpg–imp).
In 1989, Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo (or Audi 100 Avant duo) experimental vehicle, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. AUDI AG, ( Xetra: NSU commonly known as Audi (aˈʊdi is a German Automobile manufacturer which produces Audi branded cars with headquarters A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power The Audi 100 is a Mid-sized Automobile from Audi (part of the Volkswagen Group) made between 1968 and 1994 The Audi Quattro is a notable road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the then Volkswagen Group This car had a 12. 6 bhp Siemens electric motor which drove the rear wheels. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels. The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and ˈnɑɪˌkæd "nye-cad" is a type of Rechargeable battery using Nickel oxide hydroxide In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός The vehicle's front wheels were powered by a 2. 3-litre five-cylinder engine with an output of 136 bhp. The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country and electric mode in the city. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine.
Two years later, Audi, unveiled the second duo generation - likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. Once again this featured an electric motor, a 28. 6 bhp three-phase machine, driving the rear wheels. This time, however, the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen differential from the main engine compartment, which housed a 2. Torsen, (full name Torsen traction) is an Automotive part a Limited slip differential. 0-litre four-cylinder engine.
The Bill Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program on 29 September 1993 that involved Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, USCAR, the DoE, and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles was a cooperative research program between the U Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Chrysler LLC is an American Automobile manufacturer that has been producing Automobiles since 1925 Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States.  The NRC cited automakers’ moves to produce HEVs as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines, as called for under Goal 2. For the Detroit Red Wings scoring line see Production line (hockey A production line is a set of sequential operations established Based on information received from automakers, NRC reviewers questioned whether the “Big Three” would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective, pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004, as set out in Goal 3. A prototype is an original type form or instance of something serving as a typical example basis or standard for other things of the same category  The program was replaced by the hydrogen-focused FreedomCAR initiative by the George W. Bush administration in 2001, an initiative to fund research too risky for the private sector to engage in, with the long-term goal of developing effectively carbon emission- and petroleum-free vehicles. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.
Automotive hybrid technology became successful in the 1990s when the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius became available. The Honda Insight is a Hybrid electric vehicle manufactured by Honda in its first generation as a three-door hatchback from model years 2000 to 2006 The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric Mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation These vehicles have a direct linkage from the ICE to the driven wheels, so the engine can provide acceleration power.
The Prius has been in high demand since 2004. Newer designs have more conventional appearance and are less expensive, often appearing and performing identically to their non-hybrid counterparts while delivering 40% better fuel efficiency. The Honda Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, for instance, but delivers about 50 mpg–U. See also Honda Civic The Honda Civic Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Honda Civic sedan. S. (4. 7 L/100 km / 60. 1 mpg–imp). The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. The Honda Insight, while not matching the demand of the Prius, stopped being produced after 2006 and has a devoted base of owners. In 2004, Honda also released a hybrid version of the Accord but discontinued it in 2007 citing disappointing sales. The Honda Accord is series of midrange Automobile manufactured by Honda since 1976 and sold in most automotive markets throughout the world 
An R.L. Polk survey of 2003 model year cars showed that hybrid electric car registrations in the United States rose to 43,435 cars, a 25. Ralph Lane Polk (1849-1923 was an American compiler of facts and publisher of directories The model year of a product is a number used to describe approximately when a product was produced The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 8% increase from 2002 numbers. California had the most HEVs registered: 11,425. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The proportionally high number may be partially due to the state's higher gasoline prices and stricter emissions rules, which HEVs generally have little trouble passing.
Honda, which offers Insight, Civic and Accord models, sold 26,773 HEVs in the first 11 months of 2004. Toyota has sold a cumulative 306,862 HEVs between 1997 and November 2004, and Honda has sold a total of 81,867 HEVs between 1999 and November 2004. 
Audi was the first European car manufacturer to put in 1997 a hybrid vehicle into series production, the third generation Audi duo, then based on the A4 Avant. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of The Audi A4 is a Compact executive car produced by the German automaker Audi since 1994 
2005 saw the first hybrid electric sport utility vehicle (SUV) released, the Ford Escape Hybrid. A sport utility vehicle ( SUV) is a generic marketing description for a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a Station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis The Ford Escape Hybrid, launched in 2004 is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company. Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patents from Toyota related to hybrid technology, although Ford's engine was independently designed and built. In exchange for the hybrid licenses, Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota. Toyota announced model year 2005 hybrid electric versions of the Toyota Highlander and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i, which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a differential. The Toyota Kluger, known as the Toyota Highlander in North America, is a Crossover SUV assembled by Toyota under the Toyota Brand name Toyota also plans to add hybrid drivetrains to every model it sells in the coming decade.
In 2007, Lexus released a hybrid electric version of their GS sport sedan dubbed the GS450h, with "well in excess of 300hp". The 2007 Camry Hybrid became available in Summer 2006 in the United States and Canada. The Toyota Camry Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Camry sedan. Nissan announced the release of the Altima hybrid (technology supplied by Toyota) in 2007. The Altima (pronounced ALL-teh-mah is a Mid-size car (formerly compact manufactured by the Japanese Automaker Nissan, and is arguably a continuation Hybrid cars see record sales. 
Manufacturers are going to introduce 15 new hybrids in 2008
In 2007 appears the DoE´s Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Plan and the PHEV mass-production race.
eCycle Inc produces series diesel-electric motorcycles, with a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a target retail price of $5500. See also Plug-in hybrid The history of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs spans a little more than a century A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. 
A number of manufacturers currently produce hybrid electric automobiles and light trucks, including Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, Mercury, Nissan, PSA (Peugeot-Citröen), Renault, and Toyota. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. () is a Multinational corporation, engine Manufacturer and engineering corporation headquartered in Japan. ( is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Hiroshima, Japan. Mercury is an Automobile Marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level-luxury For the article about the bicycle manufacturer see Cycles Peugeot. Citroën (pronounced See-Troh-Enn is a French Automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. This is about the company for other uses see Renault (disambiguation. (pronounced) is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and is currently the world's largest Automaker. Other types of HEVs are manufactured including Microhybrids (small hybrid electric city cars) like the Aptera. A city car (or urban car) is a small moderately powered Automobile intended for use in Urban areas It is comparable in size and features to a Aptera Motors, formerly Accelerated Composites is a maker of high-efficiency vehicles and is located in Carlsbad California. Diesel-electric hybrid vehicles such as Citroën C-Cactus concept car and GM's Chevy Volt plug-in hybrid may soon see mass-production. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. The Citroën C-Cactus is a Citroën C-Cactus concept car that debuted at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in series hybrid vehicle by General Motors, with production A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power
Combined sales of HEVs in the U. S. rose 54% in February 2007 to more than 22,998 units, up 52% from the results in February 2006. The figures do not include sales of GM HEVs, which the automaker does not yet break out, but do reflect the addition of the Nissan Altima Hybrid, now sold in eight states. The Altima (pronounced ALL-teh-mah is a Mid-size car (formerly compact manufactured by the Japanese Automaker Nissan, and is arguably a continuation  An estimated 180,000 HEVs were sold in the U. S. in first half of 2007, or 3% of car sales during that period. 
HEVs (and specially plug-ins) may be particularly appropriate for use as taxicabs, as in many locations they are used in predominantly urban environments; have intensive operating schedules, maximizing fuel savings over the life of the vehicle; may spend considerable periods of time at idle, where the hybrid electric engine may allow for the ICE to be shut off (while retaining use of electrical accessories); and can recharge batteries at taxicab stands. A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride For other meanings including people named Idle see Idle (disambiguation. See also Taxicab A taxicab stand (also called taxi rank, cab stand, taxi stand, Cab rank, or hack stand
San Francisco intends to convert its entire fleet to hybrid or Compressed natural gas vehicles by 2008. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a Fossil fuel substitute for Gasoline (petrol Diesel, or Propane Fuel. 
Hybrid technology for buses has seen increased attention since recent battery developments decreased battery weight significantly. Drivetrains consist of conventional diesel engines and gas turbines. Some designs concentrate on using car engines, recent designs have focused on using conventional diesel engines already used in bus designs, to save on engineering and training costs. Several manufacturers are currently working on new hybrid designs, or hybrid drivetrains that fit into existing chassis offerings without major re-design. A challenge to hybrid buses may still come from cheaper lightweight imports from the former Eastern block countries or China, where national operators are looking at fuel consumption issues surrounding the weight of the bus, which has increased with recent bus technology innovations such as glazing, air conditioning and electrical systems. A hybrid bus can also deliver fuel economy though through the hybrid drivetrain. Hybrid technology is also being promoted by environmentally concerned transit authorities.
In 2003 GM introduced a hybrid diesel-electric military (light) truck, equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. Hybrid electric light trucks were introduced in 2004 by Mercedes Benz (Sprinter) and Micro-Vett SPA (Daily Bimodale). Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the International Truck and Engine Corp. and Eaton Corp. have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004. Navistar International Corporation ( (formerly International Harvester Company) is a manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks MaxxForce brand diesel Eaton Corporation ( is a diversified industrial manufacturer with 2007 sales of $13 In mid 2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market. ( is a Japanese car commercial vehicle and heavy truck manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo. They claim that approximately 300 vehicles, mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR (Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder) system. In 2007, height petroleum price means a hard sell for hybrid trucks and appears the first U. S. production hybrid truck (International DuraStar Hybrid). 
Other vehicles are:
Hino Motors (a Toyota subsidiary) has the world's first production hybrid electric truck in Australia (110 kW/150 hp diesel engine plus a 23 kW/31 hp electric motor). Hino Motors Ltd (日野自動車 Hino Jidōsha,) commonly known as simply Hino is a Manufacturer of Diesel (pronounced) is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and is currently the world's largest Automaker. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. 
Other hybrid petroleum-electric truck makers are DAF Trucks, MAN AG with MAN TGL Series, Nissan Motors and Renault Trucks with Renault Puncher. DAF Trucks NV is a Dutch Truck manufacturing company and a division of PACCAR. MAN AG is a German engineering Company based in Munich. MAN is one of Europe's leading manufacturers of engineering equipment Renault Trucks is a French truck manufacturer with its corporate headquarters at Saint-Priest near Lyon. The Renault Puncher, of Renault Trucks, is the vehicle specially dedicated to 20-26 Tonnes distribution
Hybrid electric truck technology and powertrain maker: ZF Friedrichshafen. For the UK engine manufacturer see Powertrain Ltd. In a Motor vehicle, the term drivetrain, powertrain or powerplant ZF Friedrichshafen AG is a leading worldwide supplier of driveline and Chassis technology
The United States Army's manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Future Combat Systems (FCS is the United States Army 's principal modernization program Other military hybrid prototypes include the Millenworks Light Utility Vehicle, the International FTTS, and the Shadow RST-V. The MillenWorks Light Utility Vehicle (LUV is a prototype testbed for automotive technologies The International FTTS (Future Tactical Truck System demonstrator UV (Utility Vehicle is a technology demonstration vehicle designed by International Truck for evaluation
In May 2003 JR East started test runs with the so called NE (new energy) train and validated the system's functionality (series hybrid with lithium ion battery) in cold regions. Hybrid Locomotive is a Locomotive or Multiple unit train that uses an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS (battery or Ultracapacitors is the largest passenger railway company in the world and one of the seven JR companies Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode In 2004, Railpower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so called Green Goats, which led to orders by the Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railways starting in early 2005. Railpower Technologies Corp ( is a Canadian company that builds environmentally friendly hybrid yard Locomotives founded by Frank Donnelly and Gerard The Canadian Pacific Railway (
Railpower offers hybrid electric road switchers, as does GE. A switcher or shunter ( Great Britain: shunter; Australia: shunter or yard pilot; USA: switcher (or  Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered HEVs, not having energy storage on board, unless they are fed with electricity via a collector for short distances (for example, in tunnels with emission limits), in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. See also Global Hybrid Cooperation for the General Motors / DaimlerChrysler / BMW Hybrid vehicle technology often called "Dual-Mode"
Produces marine hybrid propulsion:
HEVs are more expensive (the so-called "hybrid premium") than traditional ICE vehicles (ICEV), due to extra batteries, more electronics and in some cases other design considerations. Solar Sailor Holdings Ltd (SSHL is an Australian company founded in 1999 Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia The trade-off between higher initial cost and lower fuel costs (often referred to as the payback period) is dependent on usage - miles traveled, or hours of operation, fuel costs, and in some cases, government subsidies. Payback period in business and economics refers to the period of time required for the return on an investment to "repay" the sum of the original investment Traditional economy vehicles may result in a lower direct cost for many users (before consideration of any externality). In Economics, an externality is an impact on any party not directly involved in an economic decision
Consumer Reports ran an article in April 2006 stating that HEVs would not pay for themselves over 5 years of ownership. However, this included an error with charging the "hybrid premium" twice.  When corrected, the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Prius did have a payback period of slightly less than 5 years.  This includes conservative estimates with depreciation (seen as more depreciation than a conventional vehicle, although that is not the current norm) and with gas prices. In particular, the Consumer Reports article assumed $2/U. S. gallon for 3 years, $3/U. S. gallon for one year and $4/U. S. gallon the last year. As recent events have shown, this is a volatile market and hard to predict. For 2006, gas prices ranged from low $2 to low $3, averaging about $2. 60/U. S. gallon.
A January 2007 analysis by Intellichoice. com shows that all 22 currently available HEVs will save their owners money over a five year period. The most savings is for the Toyota Prius, which has a five year cost of ownership 40. 3% lower than the cost of comparable non-hybrid vehicles. 
A report in the Greeley Tribune says that over the five years it would typically take for a new car owner to pay off the vehicle cost differential, a hybrid Camry driver could save up to $6,700 in gasoline at current gasoline prices, with hybrid tax incentives as an additional saving. The Toyota Camry is a Mid-size car, formerly a Compact car manufactured by Toyota since 1980 
In countries with incentives to fight against global warming and contamination and promote vehicle fuel efficiency, the pay-back period can be immediate and ICEV can cost more than hybrid because they generate more pollution. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense is the same as Thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier
Plug-in hybrids can also be recharged using an electric outlet. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power
In order to encourage the purchase of HEVs, several incentives and ecotaxes have been made into law. In Economics, an incentive is any factor (financial or non-financial that provides a motive for a particular course of action or counts as a reason for preferring one choice Ecotax, short for Ecological taxation, can refer to A policy that introduces taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives
In the Netherlands, the Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT), payable when a car is sold to its first buyer, can earn the owner of an HEV a discount up to €6,000. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Vehicle Registration Tax or VRT is a tax that must be paid in Ireland when registering a motor vehicle The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU In the Republic of Ireland, a 50% reduction in VRT applies, which normally amounts to 25% of the market value of a car. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. In Sweden there is an "Eco car" subsidy of SEK 10 000 (~ USD 1. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. 600) cash payout to private car owners. For fringe benefit cars there is a reduction of the benefit tax of 40% for EV's & HEV's and 20% for other "Eco cars". 
Drivers of HEVs in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of vehicle excise duty (car tax), which is based on carbon dioxide emissions. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single In central London, these vehicles are also exempt from the £8 daily London congestion charge. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The London congestion charge is a fee for some motorists travelling within those parts of London designated as the Congestion Charge Zone (CCZ  Due to their low levels of regulated emissions, the greenest cars are eligible for 100% discount under the current system. To be eligible the car must be on the current Power Shift Register.  At present, these include the cleanest LPG and natural gas cars and most hybrid-, battery- and fuel cell-electric vehicles. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane,
Residents in Ontario and Quebec, Canada can claim a rebate on the Provincial Retail Sales Tax of up to $2,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of a hybrid electric vehicle.  Ontario recently announced a new green license plate for hybrid car users and will announce a slew of benefits that go along with it in 2008.  Residents in British Columbia are eligible for a 100% reduction of sales tax up to a maximum of $2,000 if the hybrid electric vehicle is purchased or leased before April 1, 2011 (extended in 2007/2008 budget from March 31, 2008 and expanded from a maximum of only $1,000 from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009, at which point the concession was scheduled to expire. ) Prince Edward Island residents can claim rebates on the Provincial Sales Tax of up to $3,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of any hybrid vehicles since March 30, 2004.  The Canadian federal government recently began offering rebates in March 2007 of $1000-$2000. Generally cars getting 6. 5 L/100km or better and light trucks getting 8. 3 L/100km or better will quailify. 
Diesel-electric and gasoline-electric hybrids are not grouped under the electric fuel category because the input fuel is diesel or gasoline rather than an alternative transportation fuel. DOE, which has EPACT92 implementation authority, ruled that diesel-electric and gasoline-electric hybrids are not "alternative fuel vehicles. The Energy Policy Act (109th Congress HR776ENR abbreviated as EPACT92 is a United States government act. "
The purchase of hybrid electric cars qualifies for a federal income tax credit up to $3,400 on the purchaser's Federal income taxes. The term tax credit describes two different concepts The first is a recognition of partial payment already made towards Taxes due. The tax credit is to be phased out two calendar quarters after the manufacturer reaches 60,000 new cars sold in the following manner: it will be reduced to 50% ($1700) if delivered in either the third or fourth quarter after the threshold is reached, to 25% ($850) in the fifth and sixth quarters, and 0% thereafter. The term tax credit describes two different concepts The first is a recognition of partial payment already made towards Taxes due. Many states give additional tax credits to hybrid electric car buyers.
AllianceBernstein projects that worldwide by 2030, 72% of the fleet and 85% of new cars will be hybrids (regular or plug-in hybrids). AllianceBernstein LP ( is a US-based Investment management firm majority-owned by France's AXA. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is a Hybrid vehicle which combines a conventional propulsion system with a Rechargeable energy storage system (RESS A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power 
Worldwide demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) will advance rapidly to 4. 0 million units in 2015. HEVs are expected to quickly penetrate the world light vehicle market in response to rising energy costs and increased emissions regulations worldwide. 
There is an impeding shortage of many rare raw materials used in the manufacture of hybrid cars (Nishiyama 2007) (Cox 2008). For example, the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors used in hybrid cars (Cox 2008). Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are according to IUPAC, the collection of seventeen Chemical elements in the Periodic table, namely An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. However, over 95% of the world's rare earth elements are mined in China (Haxel et al. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 2005), and domestic Chinese consumption is expected to consume China's entire supply by 2012 (Cox 2008).
A few non-Chinese sources such as Thor Lake and Hoidas Lake in Canada, as well as Mt Weld in Australia are currently under development (Lunn 2006). Hoidas Lake is a remote northern Canadian lake which lies approximately 50 kilometers north of Uranium City Saskatchewan. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. However, it is not known if they will be online in time to supply sufficient production by the time shortage hits.
Cox C. 2008. Rare earth innovation: the silent shift to china [Internet]. Herndon (VA): The Anchor House Inc; [updated 2008; cited 2008 Mar 18]. Available from http://theanchorhouse.com/2008/03/
Haxel G, Hedrick J, Orris J. 2006. Rare earth elements critical resources for high technology. Reston (VA): United States Geological Survey. USGS Fact Sheet: 087‐02. Available online from the USGS at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs087‐02/fs087‐02.pdf
Lunn J. 2006. Great western minerals [Internet]. London: Insigner Beaufort Equity Research; [Updated 3 October 2006; Cited 2008 Mar 18]. Available online from http://www.gwmg.ca/pdf/Insinger_Report.pdf