Hulagu with his Kerait queen Doquz Khatun
|Reign||1217 - 1265|
|Died||8 February 1265|
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chagatai/Persian: ہلاکو - Halaku; Arabic:هولاكو; c. This article is about the Mongol head of the Chagatai Khanate The Chagatai language ( جغتای - Jaĝatāy; Uyghur: چاغاتاي Chaghatay; Uzbek: ﭼﯩﻐﻪتاي 1217 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan, and the brother of Arik Boke, Mongke and Kublai Khan. Tolui, also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Толуй; c 1190 &ndash 1232 was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. The Keraits or Kereits (Кэрэйд Kereid; Керей were a cluster of tribes in central Mongolia before the rise of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Ariq Böke, or Arigh Bukha, or a combination of both (Аригбөх; died 1266 the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant The name Mongke may refer to Möngke Khan (1208-1259 Great khan of the Mongol Empire Mengu-Timur (d Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Under his leadership, the Mongols destroyed the two greatest centers of Islamic power, Baghdad and Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluks in Cairo. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.
Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan's sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Kerait princess. Tolui, also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Толуй; c 1190 &ndash 1232 was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. The Keraits or Kereits (Кэрэйд Kereid; Керей were a cluster of tribes in central Mongolia before the rise of the Mongol Empire. Sorghaghtani successfully navigated Mongol politics, arranging for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders. Hulagu was friendly to Christianity, as his mother was a Nestorian Christian. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Hulagu's favorite wife, Dokuz Khatun, was also a Christian, as was Hulagu's closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. Doquz Khatun (also spelled Dokuz Khatun) was a Mongol Kerait princess of the 13th century who was married to the Mongol ruler Hulagu. Kitbuqa Noyan (d 1260 ( Turkic: Kitbuga, Mongolian: Хитбух) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of Hulagu told the Armenian historian Vartan Arewelc'i in 1264 that he had been a Christian since birth. It is recorded however that he resorted to Buddhism as he neared his death, against the will of his Christian wife Dokuz Khatun. 
Hulagu had at least three children: Abaqa, second Ilkhan of Persia from 1265-1282, Taraqai, whose son Baydu became Ilkhan in 1295, and Teguder Ahmad, third Ilkhan from 1282-1284. Abaqa Khan (1234&ndash1282 also Abaga or Abagha Khan, was the second Mongol ruler (Il-khan of the Persian Ilkhanate Baydu, also spelled Baidu, (died in 1295 was the sixth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate division in Iran Ahmed Tekuder, also known as Sultan Ahmad (reigned 1282-1284 was the sultan of the Ilkhan empire, son of Hulegu and brother of Abaqa. 
Hulagu's brother Mongke had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. The name Mongke may refer to Möngke Khan (1208-1259 Great khan of the Mongol Empire Mengu-Timur (d In 1255, Mongke charged his brother Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Hulagu's campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs, a people of southern Iran; the destruction of the Hashshashin sect; the submission or destruction of the Abbasid caliphate based in Baghdad; the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria, based in Damascus; and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Lors (also Lurs Persianلر are a branch of Iranian people living mostly in south-western Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (al-Mamalik al-Bahariyya المماليك البحرية) was a Mamluk Dynasty of mostly Kipchak  Mongke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted, and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions.
Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled – by order of Mongke, two in ten fighting men in the entire empire were gathered for Hulagu's army.  He easily destroyed the Lurs, and his reputation so frightened the Assassins (also known as the Hashshashin) that they surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut to him without a fight. Lors (also Lurs Persianلر are a branch of Iranian people living mostly in south-western Iran. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia Alamūt ( Persian الموت "Eagle Peak" often appearing in the folk etymological form قلعه الموت Qal‘atu l-Mūt "the Castle of Death"
The Mongol army, led by Hulagu Khan and his top general Guo Kan, set out for Baghdad in November of 1257. The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Guo Kan (郭侃(1217-1277 was a famous general of Han Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of Hulagu demanded surrender; the caliph refused, warning the Mongols that they faced the wrath of God if they attacked the caliph. Hulagu's forces then besieged the city, which surrendered on February 10, 1258, leading to a week-long massacre by the Mongols, regarded as one of the most devastating events in the history of Islam. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead
After Baghdad, in 1260, Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, such as the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I, and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch. Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, as a follow up to temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300 The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Hetoum I (also Transliterated Hethoum, Hethum, Het'um, or Hayton from Armenian Bohemond VI of Antioch (ca 1237 &ndash 1275 called the Fair ( le Beau) was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death This force then conquered Muslim Syria, domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for They took together the city of Aleppo, and on March 1, 1260, under the Christian general Kitbuqa, they also took Damascus. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Kitbuqa Noyan (d 1260 ( Turkic: Kitbuga, Mongolian: Хитбух) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria.  A Christian Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads (the former cathedral of Saint John the Baptist), and numerous mosques were profaned. The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Ummayad Mosque' ( Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير transl Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers (Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa) entering the city of Damascus together in triumph, though some modern historians such as David Morgan have questioned this story as apocryphal. David Morgan is a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 
The invasion effectively destroyed the Ayyubid Dynasty, theretofore powerful ruler of large parts of the Levant, Egypt, and Arabia. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The last Ayyubid king An-Nasir Yusuf was killed by Hulagu in 1260. An-Nasir Yusuf ( Arabic الناصر يوسف) (Royal Name al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf (Arabic الملك الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف) (1228 - 1260) was  With the Islamic power centers of Baghdad and Damascus gone, the center of Islamic power transferred to the Egyptian Mamluks in Cairo. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.
Hulagu's intent at that point was to continue south through Palestine towards Cairo to engage the Mamluks. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. However, Great Khan Mongke had died in late 1259, requiring Hulagu to return Karakorum to engage in the decision on who the next Great Khan would be. The name Mongke may refer to Möngke Khan (1208-1259 Great khan of the Mongol Empire Mengu-Timur (d Hulagu departed with the bulk of his forces, leaving only about 10,000 Mongol horsemen in Syria under Kitbuqa to occupy the conquered territory.  Kitbuqa's forces engaged in raids southward towards Egypt, reaching as far as Ascalon and Jerusalem, and a Mongol garrison of about 1,000 was placed in Gaza, with another garrison located in Naplouse. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Nablus ( sometimes Nābulus; Arabic:; næːblʊs is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem 
The Mamluks took advantage of the weakened state of Kitbuqa's forces. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between The Crusaders, though traditional enemies of the Mamluks, also regarded the Mongols as the greater threat. Discussions took place between the Muslims and the Christians, with debate about whether or not to join forces against the Mongols, but the Crusaders were not in agreement with this action. So instead, the Crusaders opted for a position of a careful neutrality, a passive alliance whereby the Egyptian forces were allowed to come north through Crusader territory, and resupply near the Crusaders' powerbase of Acre. The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U  The Mamluks then engaged the remnants of the Mongol army in Galilee, at the Battle of Ayn Jalut. "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between The Mamluks achieved a decisive victory, Kitbuqa was executed, and the location established a highwater mark for the Mongol conquest. In previous defeats, the Mongols had always returned later to re-take the territory, but they were never able to avenge the loss at Ayn Jalut. For the rest of the century, the Mongols would attempt other invasions of Syria, but never be able to hold territory for more than a few months. The border of the Mongol Ilkhanate remained at the Tigris River for the duration of Hulagu's dynasty. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern
Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, after the succession was finally settled with his brother Kublai Khan established as Great Khan. Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it But when Hulagu massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ain Jalut, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan's brother Berke. Batu Khan (Бат Хаан Баты́й (c 1205–1255 was a Mongol ruler and the founder of the Blue Horde. Berke Khan (Бэрх was the Khan of the Kipchak or Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Hordes Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Baghdad, and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu's territories, led by Nogai Khan. Nogai Khan (died 1299 also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai was a General and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Hulagu suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East This was the first open war between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire.
Hulagu sent multiple communications to Europe, in an attempt to establish a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. Many attempts were made towards forming a Franco-Mongol alliance between the mid-13th and early 14th centuries starting around the time of the Seventh Crusade. Many attempts were made towards forming a Franco-Mongol alliance between the mid-13th and early 14th centuries starting around the time of the Seventh Crusade. In 1262, he sent an embassy to "all kings and princes overseas", along with his secretary Rychaldus. Rychaldus, Richaldus or Richardus ( 13th century) was a clerk and translator ( notarius However the embassy was apparently intercepted in Sicily by King Manfred, who was allied with the Mamluks and in conflict with Pope Urban IV, and Rychaldus was returned by ship. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Manfred ( Venosa, 1232 &ndash Benevento February 26, 1266) was the King of Sicily from 1258 to 1266 
On April 10 1262, Hulagu sent through John the Hungarian a letter to the French king Louis IX, offering an alliance. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Exultavit cor nostrum is a letter also known as a Papal bull, from Pope Urban IV to the Mongol Ilkhanate leader Hulagu in 1263  It is unclear whether the letter ever reached Louis IX in Paris, as the only known manuscript survived in Vienna, Austria. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich  However, the letter stated Hulagu's intention to capture Jerusalem for the benefit of the Pope, and asked for Louis to send a fleet against Egypt:
"From the head of the Mongol army, avid to devastate the perfid nation of the Sarasins, goodwilling support of the Christian faith (. . . ) so that you, who are the rulers of the coasts on the other side of the sea, endeavour to deny a refuge for the Infidels, your enemies and ours, by having your subjects diligently patrol the seas. "—Letter from Hulagu to Saint Louis. 
Despite many attempts, neither Hulagu nor his successors were ever able to form an alliance with Europe. However, the 13th century did see a vogue of Mongol things in the West. Many new-born children in Italy were named after Mongol rulers, including Hulagu: names such as Can Grande ("Great Khan"), Alaone (Hulagu), Argone (Arghun) or Cassano (Ghazan) are recorded. Arghun Khan (c 1258 &ndash March 7, 1291 was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291 Mahmud Ghazan or Qazaan the Khan of the Tartars (original Mongol name Ghazan Khan, Ch合贊 b 
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo reportedly travelled to the realm of Hulagu and stayed in the city of Bukhara, in modern day Uzbekistan, where the family lived and traded for three years from 1261 to 1264. Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer Bukhara (Buxoro Бухоро بُخارا Бухара also spelled as Bukhoro and Bokhara, from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Nicolò and Maffeo then joined up with an embassy sent by Hulagu to his brother, the Great Khan Kublai. Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it In 1266, the Polos reached the seat of the Great Khan in the Mongol capital Khanbaliq, present day Beijing, China. Khanbaliq or Cambuluc / Cambaluc, also Kaan-baligh ("Great residence of the Khan " is the ancient Mongol name for the city China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National They reportedly remained there many years, until in 1291 sent on a mission by Kublai to escort a 17-year-old princess bride, Kököchin, to Arghun Khan, Hulagu's grandson. Kököchin, also Kökechin, Kokachin or Cocacin ( Ch: 阔阔真 was a 13th century Mongol princess from the Yuan dynasty Arghun Khan (c 1258 &ndash March 7, 1291 was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291
Hulagu Khan died in 1265 and was buried in the Kaboudi Island in Lake Urmia. Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran His funeral was the only Ilkhanid funeral to feature human sacrifice.  He was succeeded by his son Abaqa, thus establishing his line. Abaqa Khan (1234&ndash1282 also Abaga or Abagha Khan, was the second Mongol ruler (Il-khan of the Persian Ilkhanate