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From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Five sola s are five Latin phrases (or slogans that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers' basic theological beliefs The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618[[ 619|/19]] by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Covenant theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for The regulative principle of worship is a 20th century term used for a teaching shared by Calvinists and Anabaptists on how the second commandment and Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. Reformed Christian confessions of faith are documents of the faith of various Reformed churches. The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. Theodore Beza ( Théodore de Bèze or de Besze) ( June 24, 1519 &ndash October 13, 1605) was a French John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1 January 1484 &ndash 11 October 1531 was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. This article is about the theologian (b 1703 for other uses of Jonathan Edwards see Jonathan Edwards. The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative Christian Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Theological Seminary, in Princeton The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Afrikaner Calvinism is according to theory a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Scotland is traditionally a Christian nation with around 65% claiming to be Christian at the 2001 census. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Reformed Church of France (L’Eglise Réformée de France ÉRF is a denomination in France (originally This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the
Used originally as a term of derision, the derivation of the name Huguenot remains uncertain. Various theories have been promoted .
The nickname may have been a French corruption of the German word Eidgenosse, meaning a Confederate, perhaps in combination with a reference to the name Besançon Hugues (d 1532). Geneva was John Calvin's adopted home and the center of the Calvinist movement. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and In Geneva, Hugues was the leader of the "Confederate Party," so called because it favored an alliance between the city-state of Geneva and the Swiss Confederation. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking A military alliance is an agreement between two or more military factions related to Wartime planning commitments or contingencies such agreements can be both Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation This theory of origin has support from the alleged fact that the label Huguenot was first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to transfer power in France from the influential House of Guise, a move which would have had the side-effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. The Amboise conspiracy, or Tumult of Amboise ( 1560) was a failed attempt by Huguenots and the House of Bourbon to wrest power over France Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people The House of Guise was a French Ducal family partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion. Thus, Hugues plus Eidgenosse becomes Huguenot, with the intention of associating the Protestant cause with some very unpopular politics. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 
Like the first hypothesis, several others account for the name as being derived from German as well as French. O. I. A. Roche writes in his book The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots that "Huguenot" is
|“||a combination of a Flemish and a German word. In the Flemish corner of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten, or 'house fellows,' while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or 'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicized into 'Huguenot,' often used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honor and courage.||”|
Some discredit dual linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name can be accounted for by connection with Hugues Capet king of France, who reigned long before the Reform times, but was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants as a noble man who respected people's dignity and lives. Hugh Capet (c 940 &ndash 24 October, 996) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Frank Puaux suggests, with similar connotations, a clever pun on the old French word for a covenanter (a signatory to a contract).  Janet Gray and other supporters of the theory suggest that the name huguenote would be roughly equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo. 
In this last connection, the name could suggest the derogatory inference of superstitious worship; because, ignorant people believed that Huguon, the gate of King Hugo, was haunted by the ghost of Le roi Huguet (regarded by Catholics as an infamous scoundrel), and other spirits who instead of being in purgatory came back to harm the living at night, and it was in this place in Tours that the prétendus réformés ("these supposedly 'reformed'") habitually gathered at night, both for political purposes, and for prayer and to sing the psalms. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included  With similar scorn, some even suggest that the name is derived from les guenon de Hus (the monkeys or apes of Jan Hus) While this and the many other theories offer their own measure of plausibility, attesting at least to the wit of later partisans and historians, if not of the French people at the time of this term's origin, "no one of the several theories advanced has afforded satisfaction". Jan Hus ( (ˈjan ˈɦus alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c 
Since the eighteenth century they have been commonly designated "French Protestants", the title being suggested by their German co-religionists, or "Calvinists".
The availability of the Bible in local language was important to the spread of the Protestant movement and the development of the Reformed church in France, and the country had a long history of struggles with the papacy by the time the Protestant Reformation finally arrived. Around 1294, a French version of the Scriptures was prepared by the Catholic priest, Guyard de Moulin. The first known Provençal language translation of the Bible had been prepared by the 12th century religious radical, Pierre de Vaux (Peter Waldo). Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France Peter Waldo, Valdo, or Waldes ( c. 1140 &ndash c. 1218 also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was the founder of the Long after the sect was suppressed by the Roman Catholic Church, the remaining Waldensians sought to join William Farel and the Protestant Reformation, and Olivetan would publish a French Bible for them, but those who emerged from secrecy were eradicated by Francis I in 1545. General description The earliest Waldensians believed in poverty and austerity promoting true poverty public preaching and the personal study of the scriptures William ( Guillaume) Farel (1489 &ndash 13 September 1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church Pierre Robert Olivétan (c1506-1538 was the first to translate the Bible into the French language starting from the Hebrew and Greek texts Francis I may refer to Francis I Duke of Brittany (1414-1450 reigned 1442-1450 Francis I Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545 reigned A two-volume folio version of this translation appeared in Paris, in 1488.
Other predecessors of the Reformed church included the pro-reform and Gallican Roman Catholics, like Jacques Lefevre. Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority&mdashoften represented by the Monarchs authority or the State 's authority&mdashover the Catholic Jacques Lefèvre redirects here Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c The Gallicans briefly achieved independence for the French church, on the principle that the religion of France could not be controlled by the Bishop of Rome, a foreign power.  In the time of the Protestant Reformation, Lefevre, a professor at the University of Paris, prepared the way for the rapid dissemination of Lutheran ideas in France with the publication of his French translation of the New Testament in 1523, followed by the whole Bible in the French language, in 1528. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther William Farel was a student of Lefevre who went on to become a leader of the Swiss Reformation, establishing a Protestant government in Geneva. William ( Guillaume) Farel (1489 &ndash 13 September 1565) was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church Jean Cauvin (John Calvin), another student at the University of Paris, also converted to Protestantism. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and The French Confession of 1559 shows a decidedly Calvinistic influence. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the  Sometime between 1550 and 1580, members of the Reformed church in France came to be commonly known as Huguenots
Above all, Huguenots became known for their fiery criticisms of worship as performed in the Roman Catholic Church, in particular the focus on ritual and what seemed an obsession with death and the dead. They believed the ritual, images, saints, pilgrimages, prayers, and hierarchy of the Catholic Church did not help anyone toward redemption. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of They saw Christian faith as something to be expressed in a strict and godly life, in obedience to Biblical laws, out of gratitude for God's mercy.
Like other Protestants of the time, they felt that the Roman church needed radical cleansing of its impurities, and that the Pope represented a worldly kingdom, which sat in mocking tyranny over the things of God, and was ultimately doomed. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Rhetoric like this became fiercer as events unfolded, and stirred up the hostility of the Catholic establishment.
Violently opposed to the Catholic Church, the Huguenots attacked images, monasticism, and church buildings. Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one Most of the cities in which the Huguenots gained a hold saw iconoclast attacks, in which altars and images in churches, and sometimes the buildings themselves were torn down. The cities of Bourges, Montauban and Orleans saw substantial activity in this regard. Bourges is a commune in central France on the Yèvre river It is the capital of the department of Cher and also was the capital Montauban ( Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, Préfecture (capital of the Tarn-et-Garonne This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation.
Huguenots faced periodic persecution from the outset of the Reformation; but Francis I (reigned 1515–1547) initially protected them from Parlementary measures designed for their extermination. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. The Affair of the Placards of 1534 changed the king's posture toward the Huguenots: he stepped away from restraining persecution of the movement. The Affair of the Placards (Affaire des Placards was an incident in which anti-Catholic posters appeared in public places in Paris and in four major provincial cities
Huguenot numbers grew rapidly between 1555 and 1562, chiefly amongst the nobles and city-dwellers. During this time, their opponents first dubbed the Protestants Huguenots; but they called themselves reformés, or "Reformed. " They organized their first national synod in 1558, in Paris.
By 1562, the estimated number of Huguenots had passed one million, concentrated mainly in the southern and central parts of the country. The Huguenots in France likely peaked in number at approximately two million, compared to approximately sixteen million Catholics during the same period.
In reaction to the growing Huguenot influence, and the aforementioned instances of Protestant zeal, Catholic violence against them grew, at the same time that concessions and edicts of toleration became more liberal. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting
In 1561, the Edict of Orléans, for example, declared an end to the persecution; and the Edict of Saint-Germain recognized them for the first time (January 17, 1562); but these measures disguised the growing strain of relations between Protestant and Catholic. The Edict of Saint-Germain was an Edict of toleration promulgated by the Regent Catherine de' Medici, in January 1562 Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca
Tensions led to eight civil wars, interrupted by periods of relative calm, between 1562 and 1598. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state With each break in peace, the Huguenots' trust in the Catholic throne diminished, and the violence became more severe, and Protestant demands became grander, until a lasting cessation of open hostility finally occurred in 1598.
The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise, both of which — in addition to holding rival religious views — staked a claim to the French throne. The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The House of Guise was a French Ducal family partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion. The crown, occupied by the House of Valois, generally supported the Catholic side, but on occasion switched over to the Protestant cause when politically expedient. See also France in the Middle Ages, Early Modern France Unexpected inheritance The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and
The French Wars of Religion began with a massacre at Vassy on March 1, 1562, when 23(some sources say hundreds) of the Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting Vassy is a commune and the seat of a canton of the département of Calvados in the Basse-Normandie region of Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant
The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. Protestant preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Gaspard de Coligny ( February 16, 1519 &ndash August 24, 1572) Seigneur (Lord de Châtillon held the office of Henry of Navarre and the House of Bourbon allied themselves to the Huguenots, adding wealth and holdings to the Protestant strength, which at its height grew to sixty fortified cities, and posed a serious threat to the Catholic crown and Paris over the next three decades. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III
In what became known as the St. The St Bartholomew's Day massacre ( Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) was a wave of Roman Catholic Mob violence against the Huguenots Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 24 August – 17 September 1572, Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots in Paris. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following, with death toll estimates again ranging wildly, from thousands to as high as 110,000. An amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators.
The fifth holy war against the Huguenots began on February 23, 1574. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable The conflict continued periodically until 1598, when Henry of Navarre, having succeeded to the French throne in 1589 as Henry IV, and recanted his Protestantism in favour of Roman Catholicism, issued the Edict of Nantes. Henry IV of France's succession to the throne in 1589 was followed by a four-year war to establish his legitimacy Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants of The Edict granted the Protestants equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains. The Edict simultaneously protected Catholic interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant churches in the Catholic-controlled regions.
With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, pressures to leave France abated, as did further attempts at colonization. However, under King Louis XIV (reigned 1643–1715), chief minister Cardinal Mazarin (who held real power during the king's minority up to his death in 1661) resumed persecution of the Protestants using soldiers to inflict dragonnades that made life so intolerable that many fled. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman A policy commonly called in French " dragonnades " was instituted by Louis XIV in 1681 in order to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France
The king revoked the "irrevocable" Edict of Nantes in 1685 and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau. The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants of The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685 was an Edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of After this, huge numbers of Huguenots (with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1,000,000) fled to surrounding Protestant countries: England, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark and Prussia — whose Calvinist Great Elector Frederick William welcomed them to help rebuild his war-ravaged and underpopulated country. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm February 16 1620 &ndash April 29 1688) was the Elector of Brandenburg and the The Huguenot population of France had dropped to 856,000 by the mid 1660s, of which a plurality was rural. The greatest populations of surviving Huguenots resided in the regions of Basse-Guyenne, Saintonge-Aunis-Angoumois and Poitou. 
The first Huguenots to leave France seeking freedom from persecution had done so years earlier under the leadership of Jean Ribault in 1562. Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Jean Ribault (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer navigator and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States The group ended up establishing the small colony of Fort Caroline in 1564, on the banks of the St. Johns River, in what is today Jacksonville, Florida. Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. The St Johns River (officially Saint Johns River, but commonly spelled St
The colony was the first attempt at any permanent European settlement in the present-day United States, but the group survived only a short time. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In September 1565, an attack against the new Spanish colony at St. Augustine backfired, and the Spanish wiped out the Fort Caroline garrison. St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States.
On December 31, 1687 a band of Huguenots set sail from France to the Dutch East India Company post at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. A large number of people in South Africa are descended from Huguenots Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Individual Huguenots settled at the Cape of Good Hope from as early as 1671 with the arrival of Francois Villion (Viljoen) and an organized, large scale emigration of Huguenots to the Cape of Good Hope took place during 1688 and 1689. A notable example of this is the emigration of Huguenots from La Motte d'Aigues in Provence, France. La Motte-d'Aigues is a village and commune in the Vaucluse département in southern France. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Many of these settlers chose as their home an area called Franschhoek, Dutch for French Corner, in the present day Western Cape province of South Africa. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The Western Cape is a province in the south west of South Africa. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek.
Many of the farms in the Western Cape province in South Africa still bear French names and there are many families, today mostly Afrikaans speaking, whose surnames bear witness to their French Huguenot ancestry. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in Examples of these are: Blignaut, de Klerk (Le Clercq), de Villiers, Visagie (Visage), du Plessis, du Toit, TerBlanche,Franck, Fourie, Fouche, Giliomee (Guilliaume), Hugo, Joubert, Labuschagne (la Buscagne), le Roux, Lombard, Malan, Malherbe, Marais, Theron, Jordaan (Jurdan) and Viljoen (Villon),Du Preez (Des Pres) amongst others, which are all common surnames in present day South Africa. Joubert is a French language Surname, and may refer to André Joubert, South African rugby player Burt Joubert, François de Malherbe ( 1555 - October 16, 1628) was a French Poet, Critic and translator Theron, originally Greek pronounced THER-on meaning "Hunter" or French pronounced THE-ro may refer to Theron, a 5th century BC tyrant of Acragas  The wine industry in South Africa owed a significant debt to the Huguenots, many of whom had vineyards in France. A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic
Barred from settling in New France, many Huguenots moved instead to the Dutch colony New Netherland later incorporated into New York and New Jersey and the 13 colonies of Great Britain in North America, the first in 1624. Huguenot Society of America is a hereditary patriotic society organized in New York City on April 12 1883 and incorporated on June 12 1885 The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast A significant number of families present in New Amsterdam were of French Huguenot descent, having emigrated to the Netherlands in previous century. The Huguenot congregation was formally established in 1628 as L'Église française à la Nouvelle York. This parish continues today as L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit part of the Episcopal (Anglican) communion still welcoming Francophone New Yorkers from all over the world. Services are still conducted in French for a Francophone parish community, and members of the Huguenot Society of America.
Huguenot immigrants founded New Paltz, New York, where is now located the oldest street in the current United States of America with the original stone houses, New Rochelle, New York (named after La Rochelle in France). New Paltz is both a village and town in the US state of New York. The Huguenot Street Historic District known as Historic Huguenot Street is located in downtown New Paltz, New York, approximately north of New York City New Rochelle ( French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the south-east portion of the U La Rochelle is a city in western France, and a Seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Chretien du Bois was one of the original Huguenot settlers in this area. A Huguenot settlement on the south shore of Staten Island, New York was founded by Daniel Perrin in 1692. Rossville is the name of a neighborhood of Staten Island New York, located to the west of Prince's Bay, on the island's South Shore. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Perrin coat of arms Daniel Perrin (b 1642 d 1719 was one of the first permanent European inhabitants of Staten The present day neighborhood of Huguenot was named after Perrin and these early settlers. Huguenot is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island New York, USA.
Some Huguenot immigrants settled in Central Pennsylvania. There, they assimilated with the predominately Pennsylvania German settlers. Surnames of Huguenot origin found in the area include Forry, Free, Laucks, Lorah, Motter, and Zeller.
Some of the settlers chose the Virginia Colony (John Broache is one on record), and formed communities in present-day Chesterfield County and at Manakintown, an abandoned Monacan village now located in Powhatan County about 20 miles (32 km) west of downtown Richmond, Virginia, where their descendants continue to reside. The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia) was the English colony Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. The Monacans are a group of people of mixed ancestry recognized as a Native American tribe by the state of Virginia in the United States. Powhatan County is a county located in the US state &mdash officially " Commonwealth " &mdash of Virginia. This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. On May 12, 1705, the Virginia General Assembly passed an act to naturalize the 148 Huguenots resident at Manakintown. The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia. 
The Huguenot Memorial Bridge across the James River and Huguenot Road was named in their honor, as were many local features including several schools, including Huguenot High School. Huguenot Memorial Bridge is located in Henrico County and the Independent city of Richmond Virginia. The James River in the US state of Virginia is a long River, including its Jackson River source Huguenot High School, part of the Richmond Public Schools system is a High school located in Richmond, Virginia, with grades 9-12
Many Huguenots also settled in the area around the current site of Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. In 1685, Rev. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France settled in what was then called Charlestown. He became pastor of the first Huguenot church in North America in that city. The French Huguenot Church of Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot congregation in the United States today. The Huguenot Church, built in 1844 in Charleston South Carolina, was the first Gothic Revival church in South Carolina and was designed by architect Edward L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit in NY is older, founded in 1628, but left the French Reformed movement in 1804 to become part of the Episcopal Church in America.
Most of the Huguenot congregations in North America merged or affiliated with other Protestant denominations, such the Presbyterian Church (USA), Episcopal Church, United Church of Christ, Reformed Churches, and the Reformed Baptists. The Presbyterian Church (USA or PC (USA is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. The United Church of Christ ( UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination principally in the United States, The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically The name Reformed Baptist refers both to a distinct Christian denomination, and to a description of theological leaning
American Huguenots readily married outside their immediate French Huguenot communities, leading to rapid assimilation. They made an enormous contribution to American economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. One outstanding contribution was the establishment of the Brandywine powder mills by E.I. du Pont, a former student of Lavoisier. Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours ( June 24, 1771 &ndash October 31, 1834) known as Irénée du Pont, or E
Paul Revere was descended from Huguenot refugees, as were Henry Laurens who signed the Declaration of Independence for South Carolina, Alexander Hamilton, and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution. Paul Revere (bap December 22, 1734 ( OS) / January 1 1735 (NS &ndash May 10, 1818) was an American Silversmith Henry Laurens (March 6 1724 December 8 1792 was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary
French Huguenots already fought in the low lands alongside the Dutch and against Spain during the first years of the Dutch Revolt. The Dutch Republic became rapidly the exile haven of choice for Huguenots. Early ties were already visible in the Apologie of William the Silent, condemning the Spanish Inquisition and written by his court reverend Huguenot Pierre L'Oyseleur, lord of Villiers. William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical project that has emerged in recent years
Louise de Coligny, sister of murdered Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny had married the calvinist Dutch revolt leader William the Silent. Louise de Coligny ( Châtillon-sur-Loing, 23 September 1555 - Fontainebleau, 13 November 1620) was the daughter of Gaspard de Coligny ( February 16, 1519 &ndash August 24, 1572) Seigneur (Lord de Châtillon held the office of William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply And as both spoke French in everyday life, their court church in the Prinsenhof in Delft was providing French spoken Calvinist services, a practice still continued to today. The Prinsenhof is now one of the remaining 14 active Walloon churches of the Dutch Reformed Church. Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe
These very early ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the House of Orange-Nassau, since the early days of the Dutch Revolt explains the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies around Cape of Good Hope in South-Africa and the New Netherlands colony in America. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast
Stadtholder William III of Orange, who later became King of England, emerged as the strongest opponent of Louis XIV, after Louis' attack on the Dutch Republic in 1672. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent He formed the League of Augsburg as main opposition coalition. The Grand Alliance was a European Coalition, consisting (at various times of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Consequently many Huguenots saw the wealthy and calvinist Dutch Republic, leading the opposition against Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. They also found established many more French speaking calvinist churches there.
The Dutch Republic received the largest group of Huguenot refugees with an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict. Amongst them were 200 reverends. This was a huge influx, the entire population of the Dutch Republic amounted to ca. 2 million at that time. Around 1700 it is estimated that near 25% of the Amsterdam population was Huguenot. Amsterdam and the area of West-Frisia were the first areas providing full citizens rights to Huguenots in 1705, followed by the entire Dutch Republic in 1715. Huguenots married with Dutch from the outset.
One of the most prominent Huguenots refugees to the Netherlands was Pierre Bayle, who started teaching in Rotterdam, while publishing his multi-volume masterpiece Historical and Critical Dictionary. Pierre Bayle ( November 18, 1647 December 28, 1706) was a French Philosopher and writer The Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (or Historical and Critical Dictionary in English was a biographical Dictionary written by Pierre Which became one of the one hundred foundational texts that formed the first collection of the US Library of Congress. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress
Most Huguenot descendents in the Netherlands today are recognisable by French family names with typical Dutch given names. Due to their early ties with the Dutch Revolt's leadership and even participation in the revolt, parts of the Dutch patriciate are of Huguenot descent. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect"
An estimated 50,000 Protestant Walloons and Huguenots fled to England, with about 10,000 moving on to Ireland. Canterbury ( ˈkæntəbɹ̩i is a City in eastern Kent in the South East region of England. A leading Huguenot theologian and writer who led the exiled community in London, Andrew Lortie (born André Lortie), became known for articulating Huguenot criticism of the Holy See and transubstantiation. Andrew Lortie (or André Lortie) was a leading Huguenot Protestant Theologian, author and emigre leader born in France and resident The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence.
Of these refugees, upon landing on the Kent coast, many gravitated towards Canterbury, then the county's hub, where many Walloon & Huguenot families were granted asylum. Edward VI granted them the whole of the Western crypt of Canterbury Cathedral for worship. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a This privilege in 1825 shrank to the south aisle and in 1895 to the former chantry chapel of the Black Prince, where services are still held in French according to the reformed tradition every Sunday at 3pm. Chantry is the English term for the establishment of an institutional Chapel on private land or within a greater church where a priest would chant masses Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376 popularly known as The Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward Other evidence of the Walloons and Huguenots in Canterbury includes a block of houses in Turnagain Lane where weavers' windows survive on the top floor, and 'the Weavers', a half-timbered house by the river (now a restaurant - see illustration above). The house derives its name from a weaving school which was moved there in the last years of the 19th century, resurrecting the use to which it had been put between the 16th century and about 1830. Many of the refugee community were weavers, but naturally some practised other occupations necessary to sustain the community distinct from the indigenous population, this separation being a condition of their initial acceptance in the City. They also settled elsewhere in Kent, particularly Sandwich, Faversham and Maidstone - towns in which there used to be refugee churches.
Huguenot refugees flocked to Shoreditch, London in large numbers. Shoreditch is an area of London within the London Borough of Hackney. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. They established a major weaving industry in and around Spitalfields (see Petticoat Lane and the Tenterground), and in Wandsworth. Spitalfields is an area in the borough of Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London, near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market located on Wentworth Street and Middlesex Street in East London. A tenterground or Tenter ground was an area used for drying newly manufactured cloth after Fulling. This article refers only to the town of Wandsworth For the wider area generally referred to as Wandsworth see the separate article on London Borough of Wandsworth. The Old Truman Brewery, then known as the Black Eagle Brewery, appeared in 1724. The Old Truman Brewery is the former Black Eagle Brewery complex located around Brick Lane in the Spitalfields area in the London Borough The fleeing of Huguenot refugees from Tours, France had virtually wiped out the great silk mills they had built. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons
At the same time other Huguenots arriving in England settled in Bedfordshire, which was (at the time) the main centre of England's Lace industry. Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a County in England that forms part of the East of England region. Huguenots greatly conributed to the development of lace-making in Bedfordshire, with many families settling in Cranfield, Bedford and Luton. Cranfield is a village in north-west Bedfordshire, England, between Bedford and Milton Keynes. Bedford is the County town of Bedfordshire, England. It is a large town and the administrative centre for the Bedford borough Luton ( is a large town in the east of England, 32 miles (51 kilometres north of London.
Many Huguenots settled in Ireland during the Plantations of Ireland. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties Huguenot regiments fought for William of Orange in the Williamite war in Ireland, for which they were rewarded with land grants and titles, many settling in Dublin. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The Williamite War in Ireland, also known as the Jacobite War in Ireland and in Ireland as Cogadh an Dá Rí or The War of the Two Kings Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Some of them took their skills to Ulster and assisted in the founding of the Irish linen industry. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Numerous signs of Huguenot presence can still be seen with names still in use, and with areas of the main towns and cities named after the people who settled there, for instance the Huguenot District in Cork City. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast
There are Huguenot cemetries in London as well as Ireland.
Huguenots refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia. Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Nearly 44,000 Huguenots established themselves in Germany, and particularly in Prussia where many of their descendents rose to positions of prominence. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Several congregations were founded, such as the Fredericia (Denmark), Berlin, Stockholm, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Emden. Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Emden is a City and Seaport in the northwest of Germany, on River Ems.
Among the early Huguenots seeking refuge in Sweden were the parents of Olaus Laurentius, who fled from Flanders (presumably the Flemish region of France), and settled in the town of Borlange, Sweden. In 1543 their son Olaus Laurentius (Olof Larsson) was born in Borlange. Based on his birthdate, we must presume his parents left Flanders before 1543, early during the persecution of Huguenots and other Protestants in France.
(From the patronymic surnaming of Sweden, we can determine that Olaus' father's name had to be Lars (or some form of the name Laurence. ) Olaus Laurentius became the Vicar of Gagnef parish, and the patriarchal ancestor of a huge family of descendants throughout Europe and the midwest USA.
Around 1700, a significant proportion of Berlin's population was of French mother tongue and the Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their service for nearly a century. They ultimately decided to switch to German in protest against the occupation of Prussia by Napoleon in 1806/07. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
The Prince Louis of Conde and sons Daniel and Osias arranged with Count Ludwig von Nassau-Saarbrucken to establish a Huguenot community in present-day Saarland in 1604. The Count was a supporter of mercantilism and welcomed technically-skilled immigrants into his lands regardless of their religious persuasions. The Condes established a thriving glass-making works which provided wealth to the principality for many years, and other founding families created enterprises including textiles and other traditional Huguenot occupations in France. The community and its congregation remain active to this day, with many of the founding families still present in the region. Members of this community emigrated to the US in the 1890s.
In Bad Karlshafen, Hessen, Germany is the Huguenot Museum and Huguenot archive. Bad Karlshafen is a town in the district of Kassel, in Hesse, Germany. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive.
The exodus of Huguenots from France created a kind of brain drain from which the kingdom did not fully recover for years. A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity The French crown's refusal to allow Protestants to settle in New France was a factor behind that colony's slow population growth, which ultimately led to its conquest by the British. By the time of the French and Indian War, there may have been more people of French ancestry living in Britain's American colonies than there were in New France. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg invited Huguenots to settle in his realms, and a number of their descendants rose to positions of prominence in Prussia. Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm February 16 1620 &ndash April 29 1688) was the Elector of Brandenburg and the The last Prime Minister of the (East) German Democratic Republic, Lothar de Maizière, is a scion of a Huguenot family. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Lothar de Maizière mɛˈzjɛʀ}} (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the first and only democratically elected
The persecution and flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England; the two kingdoms, which had enjoyed peaceful relations prior to 1685, became bitter enemies and fought against each other in a series of wars from 1689 onward.
Persecution of Protestants continued in France after 1724, but ended in 1787 (Edict of Toleration) and the French Revolution of 1789 finally made them full-fledged citizens. The persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV refers to hostile activities against French Protestants between 1724 and 1764 during the reign of Louis XV. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
The December 15, 1790 Law stated that : "All persons born in a foreign country and descending in any degree of a French man or woman expatriated for religious reason are declared French nationals (naturels français) and will benefit from rights attached to that quality if they come back to France, establish their domicile there and take the civic oath. " This might have been, historically, the first law recognising a right of return. The term right of return refers to the principle in International law that members of an Ethnic or National group have a right to Immigration
Article 4 of the June 26, 1889 Nationality Law stated that: "Descendants of families proscribed by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes will continue to benefit from the benefit of the December 15, 1790 Law, but on the condition that a nominal decree should be issued for every petitioner. That decree will only produce its effects for the future. "
Foreign descendants of Huguenots lost the automatic right to French citizenship in 1945 (by force of the ordonnance du 19 octobre 1945, revoking the 1889 Nationality Law).
In the 1920s and 1930s, members of the extreme-right Action Française movement expressed strong animus against the Protestants, as against the Jews, and the Freemasons - all three being regarded as groups supporting the French Republic which Action Française sought to overthrow. The Action Française is a French Monarchist ( Orléanist) Counter-revolutionary movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
During the occupation of France in the Second World War, a significant number of Protestants - not persecuted themselves - were active in hiding and saving Jews. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Up to the present, many French Protestants, due to their history, feel a special sympathy for and tendency to support "The Underdog" in various situations and conflicts. An underdog is a person or group in a Competition, frequently in electoral politics, Sports, and Creative works who is popularly expected to
Protestants in France today number about 1 million, or about 2% of the population  . They are most concentrated in the Cévennes region in the south. The Cévennes are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements ' of Gard, Lozère, Ardèche
A number of French churches are descended from the Huguenots, including:
The Huguenot cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote). The Huguenot cross is a Christian religious symbol originating in France and is one of the more recognisable and popular symbols of the evangelical It is now an official symbol of the Eglise des Protestants reformé (French Protestant church) and Huguenot descendants are proud to display this piece of jewellery as a sign of reconnaissance (recognition) between them.
Baird, Charles W "History of the Huguenot Emigration to America" Genealogical Publishing Company, Published: 1885, Reprinted: 1998, ISBN 978-0-8063-0554-7 Charles Burgess (later, Cathal Brugha) - Irish freedom fighter