The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the Air (or movement beyond Earth's atmosphere, in the case of On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first manned flight was made by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes in a hot air balloon created by the Montgolfier brothers. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier was a French Chemistry and Physics teacher and one of the first pioneers of Aviation. François Laurent Marquis d'Arlandes ( 1742 - May 1, 1809) was a pioneer of Hot air ballooning along with Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier Joseph-Michel Montgolfier ( 26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier ( 6 January 1745
A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Gallery Types of aerostats See also Aerodyne Aerostatics Airship Balloon Suspended beneath is the gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule) which carries the passengers and a source of heat. Wicker is hard woven Fiber formed into a useful object Wicker is usually used for Baskets or Furniture. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is The ideal gas law is the Equation of state of a hypothetical Ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the surrounding air. A gas balloon is any Balloon that stays aloft due to being filled with a gas less dense than air or Lighter than air (such as Helium or Hydrogen In today's sport balloons the envelope is generally made from rip stop nylon fabric and the mouth of the balloon (closest to the burner flame) is made from fire resistant material such as Nomex. Nomex (styled NOMEX) is a registered Trademark for flame resistant meta- Aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed
Recently, balloon envelopes have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as hot dogs, dinasours, cows, yellow pages, beer can. beer bottle, shopping cart, elephant,bear, pumpkin,news paper, news pappwe,rocket ships, and the shapes of commercial products. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more commonly, thermal airships. Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) Terminology In some countries airships are also known as dirigibles from the French (fr ''diriger'' to direct plus -ible) meaning "directable" A thermal airship is an Airship that generates its lift via the difference in density due to a temperature differential between the gas inside its envelope and
Unmanned hot air balloons are popular in Chinese history. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, in the Three Kingdoms era (220-280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. Zhuge Liang (181–234 was Chancellor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China Shu Han ( Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢 Pinyin: Shǔ Hàn sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ was one of the Three Kingdoms competing The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of These lanterns are known as Kongming lanterns (孔明灯). 
There is also some speculation that hot air balloons could have been used by people of the Nazca culture of Peru some 1500 years ago, as a tool for designing the famous Nazca ground figures and lines. The Nazca culture (often spelled Nasca) flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD, concomitantly with the Moche culture Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Nazca lines are a series of Geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches more than 80 km (50 miles between the towns of Nazca 
The first documented balloon flight in Europe was by the Portuguese priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Bartolomeu de Gusmão, born Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685 Santos São Paulo Brazil – November 18, 1724, Toledo On August 8, 1709, in Lisbon, Bartolomeu de Gusmão managed to lift a small balloon made of paper full of hot air about 4 meters in front of king John V and the Portuguese court. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1709 ( MDCCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Bartolomeu de Gusmão, born Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685 Santos São Paulo Brazil – November 18, 1724, Toledo 
The first clearly recorded instance of a balloon carrying passengers used hot air to generate buoyancy and was built by the brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier in Annonay, France. For science museums in general check out Science museum. The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is Joseph-Michel Montgolfier ( 26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier ( 6 January 1745 These brothers came from a family of paper manufacturers and had noticed ash rising in paper fires. The Montgolfier brothers gave their first public demonstration of their invention on June 4, 1783. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first tethered balloon flight with humans on board took place on October 19, 1783 with the scientist Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the manufacture manager, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and Giroud de Villette, at the Folie Titon in Paris. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier was a French Chemistry and Physics teacher and one of the first pioneers of Aviation. Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, (Paris 1725 - Paris 1811 was a French Wallpaper manufacturer The first free flight with human passengers was on 21 November 1783. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or  King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis Francois d'Arlandes, successfully petitioned for the honor. Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre François Laurent Marquis d'Arlandes ( 1742 - May 1, 1809) was a pioneer of Hot air ballooning along with Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier  The first hot air balloons were essentially cloth bags (sometimes lined with paper) with a smoky fire built on a grill attached to the bottom. They were susceptible to catching fire, often upon landing, although this occurred infrequently.
The first military use of aircraft in Europe took place during the French Revolutionary Wars, when the French used a tethered hydrogen balloon to observe the movements of the Austrian army during the Battle of Fleurus (1794). See also Balloon (aircraft Balloons were the first mechanisms used in air warfare The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1792 until 1802 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In the Battle of Fleurus ( June 26, 1794) French forces under Jourdan defeated an Austrian army under Saxe-Cobourg in one
In 1811 Franz Leppich went to Napoleon and claimed that he could build a hot-air balloon that would enable the French to attack from the air. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Napoleon then ordered that he be removed from French Territory. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1812 he went to Moscow to Count Rostopchin with the same proposal. Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васильевич Ростопчин (3 When the balloon was finally tried out, it failed to rise, and nothing more was seen of its inventor.
In Tolstoy's Novel, War and Peace Count Pyótr Kiríllovich Bezúkhov (Pierre) makes an excursion to see this balloon though he does not see it. This article is about the Tolstoy family, for other meanings see Tolstoy (disambiguation Tolstoy, or Tolstoi War and Peace (Война и мир Voyna i mir) is a Novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russkii Vestnik Tolstoy also includes a letter from the sovereign Emperor Alexander I to Count Rostopchin concerning the balloon. 
Hot air balloons were employed during the American Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The military balloons used by the Union Army Balloon Corps under the command of Prof. The Union Army Balloon Corps was a branch of the Federal Army during the American Civil War, established by presidential appointee Thaddeus S Thaddeus S. C. Lowe were limp silk envelopes inflated with coal gas (town gas) or hydrogen. Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe ( August 20, 1831 - January 16, 1913) also known as Professor T
Modern hot air ballons, with an onboard heat source, were pioneered by Ed Yost beginning in the 1950s which resulted in his first successful flight on October 22, 1960. Paul Edward Yost ( June 30, 1919 &ndash May 27, 2007) was the American inventor of the modern Hot air balloon and is referred to as  The first modern day hot air balloon to be built in the United Kingdom (UK) was the Bristol Belle in 1967. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Bristol Belle (G-AVTL was the name given to the first modern Hot air balloon in Europe. Today, hot air balloons are used primarily for recreation, and there are some 7,500 hot air balloons operating in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Hot air balloons are able to fly to extremely high altitudes. On November 26, 2005, Vijaypat Singhania set the world altitude record for highest hot air balloon flight, reaching 21,290 metres (69,849 feet). Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vijaypat Singhania is a former Sheriff of Mumbai, from December 19, 2005 to December 18, 2006. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit He took off from downtown Bombay, India and landed 240 kilometres (149 miles) south in Panchale. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States  The previous record of 19,811 m (64,997 ft) had been set by Per Lindstrand on June 6, 1988 in Plano, Texas. Per Lindstrand (born September 8, 1948) is a Swedish Aeronautical engineer, pilot Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Plano (ˈpleɪnoʊ is a city in Collin and Denton Counties in the U As with all registered aircraft, oxygen is needed for all crew and passengers for any flight that reaches and exceeds an altitude of 12,500 ft (3,810 m).
On January 15, 1991, the Virgin Pacific Flyer balloon completed the longest flight in a hot air balloon when Per Lindstrand (born in Sweden, but resident in the UK) and Richard Branson of the UK flew 7,671. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Per Lindstrand (born September 8, 1948) is a Swedish Aeronautical engineer, pilot "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950 is an English Business magnate, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies 91 km (4,767. 10 mi) from Japan to Northern Canada. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page With a volume of 74 thousand cubic metres (2. CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. 6 million cubic feet), the balloon envelope was the largest ever built for a hot air craft. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom Designed to fly in the trans-oceanic jet streams the Pacific Flyer recorded the highest ground speed for a manned balloon at 245 mph (394 km/h). Jet streams are fast flowing relatively narrow air currents found at the Tropopause, the transition between the Troposphere (where temperature decreases
The longest duration hot air balloon flight ever made is 50 hours and 38 minutes made by Michio Kanda and Hirosuke Tekezawa of Japan on January 2, 1997. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar 
A hot air balloon for manned flight uses a single-layered, fabric gas bag (lifting "envelope"), with an opening at the bottom called the mouth or throat. Attached to the envelope is a basket, or gondola, for carrying the passengers. Mounted above the basket and centered in the mouth is the "burner" which injects a flame into the envelope, heating the air within. The heater or burner is fueled by propane, a liquefied gas stored in pressure vessels, similar to high pressure forklift cylinders. Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel A gas cylinder or tank is a Pressure vessel used to store Gases at high Pressure.
Modern hot air balloons are usually made of light-weight and strong synthetic fabrics such as ripstop nylon, or dacron (a polyester). Rip-stop nylon is a light-weight Nylon fabric with inter-woven ripstop reinforcement threads in a crosshatch pattern Uses PET can be semi-rigid to rigid depending on its thickness and is very lightweight Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain 
During the manufacturing process, the material is cut into panels and sewn together, along with structural load tapes (webbing) that carry the weight of the gondola or basket. The individual sections which run from the throat to the crown (top) of the envelope are called gores or gore sections. A gore is a segment of a three-dimensional shape fabricated from a two- Dimensional material Envelopes can have as few as 4 gores or as many as 24 or more. 
Envelopes often have a crown ring at their very top. This is a hoop of smooth metal, usually aluminum and approximately 1 ft (0. 3 m) in diameter, to which vertical load tapes attach.
The fabric (or at least part of it, the top 1/3 for example) may be coated with a sealer, such as silicone or polyurethane, to make it impermeable to air. Silicones are largely inert compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links  It is often the degradation of this coating and the corresponding loss of impermeability that ends the effective life of an envelope, not weakening of the fabric itself. Heat, moisture, and mechanical wear-and-tear during set up and pack up are the primary causes of degradation. Once an envelope becomes too porous to fly, it may be retired and used as a 'rag bag': cold inflated and opened for children to run through. Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material and is measured as a fraction between 0–1 or as a Percentage between 0–100% Products for recoating the fabric are becoming commercially available. 
A range of envelope sizes is available. The smallest, one-person, basket-less balloons (called "Hoppers" or "Cloudhoppers") have less than 1,000 m³ (35,000 ft³) of envelope volume (for a perfect sphere this would mean a radius of around 13. A hopper balloon (or simply hopper) is a small one-person Hot air balloon. 3 metres (44 ft)). At the other end of the scale are the balloons used by large commercial sightseeing operations that carry well over two dozen people and have envelope volumes of up to 15,000 m³ (600,000 ft³). However, most balloons are roughly 2,500 m³ (100,000 ft³) and carry 3 to sometimes 4 people.
The top of the balloon usually has a vent of some sort. The most common type of vent is a disk-shaped flap of fabric called a parachute vent. The fabric is connected around its edge to a set of "vent lines" that converge in the center. (The arrangement of fabric and lines roughly resembles a parachute -- thus the name. A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. ) These "vent lines" are themselves connected to a control line that runs to the basket. A parachute vent is opened by pulling on the control line. Once the control line is released, the pressure of the remaining hot air pushes the vent fabric back into place. A parachute vent can be opened briefly while in flight to initiate a rapid descent. (Slower descents are initiated by allowing the air in the balloon to cool naturally. ) The vent is pulled completely open to collapse the balloon after landing.
An older, and today less commonly used, style of vent is called a "Velcro-style" vent. Velcro is a brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners. It consists of two layers a "hook" side which is a piece of Fabric covered with tiny hooks This too is a disk of fabric at the top of the balloon. However, rather than having a set of "vent lines" that can repeatedly open and close the vent, the vent is secured by "hook and loop" fasteners (such as Velcro) and is only opened at the end of the flight. Balloons equipped with a "Velcro-style" vent typically have a second "maneuvering vent" built into the side (as opposed to the top) of the balloon.
Some hot air balloons have turning vents which are side vents which, when opened, cause the balloon to rotate. Such vents are particularly useful for balloons with rectangular baskets in order to align the wider side of the basket for landing.
Besides special shapes, possibly for marketing purposes, there are several variations on the traditional "inverted tear drop" shape. The simplest, often used by home builders, is a hemisphere on top of a truncated cone. A cone is a three-dimensional Geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat round base to a point called the apex or vertex More-sophisticated designs attempt to minimize the circumferential stress on the fabric, with different degrees of success depending on whether they take fabric weight and varying air density into account. Stress is a measure of the average amount of Force exerted per unit Area. This shape may be referred to as "natural".  Finally, some specialized balloons are designed to minimize aerodynamic drag to improve flight performance in competitions. Note This article is currently under renovation and may at times appear disjoint 
Baskets are commonly made of woven wicker or rattan. Basket weaving (also basketry, basket making, or basketmaking) is the process of Weaving unspun Vegetable Fibers into Wicker is hard woven Fiber formed into a useful object Wicker is usually used for Baskets or Furniture. Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for the roughly six hundred Species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical These materials have proven to be sufficiently light, strong, and durable for balloon flight. Such baskets are usually rectangular or triangular in shape. They vary in size from just big enough for two people to large enough to carry twenty-four. Larger baskets often have internal partitions for structural bracing and to compartmentalize the passengers. Small holes may be woven into the side of the backet to act as foot holds for passengers climbing in or out.
Baskets may also be made of aluminum , especially a collapsable aluminum frame with a fabric skin, to reduce weight or increase portability. WikipediaNaming These may be used by pilots without a ground crew or who are attempting to set altitude, duration, or distance records.
Other specialty baskets include the fully enclosed gondolas used for around-the-world attempts, and baskets that consist of little more than a seat for the pilot and perhaps one passenger.
The burner unit gasifies liquid propane, mixes it with air, ignites the mixture, and directs the flame and exhaust into the mouth of the envelope. Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable The unit may consist of one or more individual burners of which the pilot may use one or more at a time to generate the desired heat. Each burner is characterized by a metal coil of propane tubing through which the flame shoots in order to preheat the incoming liquid propane.
The burner unit may be suspended from the mouth of the envelope, or rigidly supported over the basket. The burner unit may be mounted on a gimbal to enable the pilot to aim the flame and avoid overheating the envelope fabric. A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis
The pilot actuates a burner by opening a propane valve, called a blast valve. The valve may be spring loaded so that it closes automatically, or it may stay open until closed by the pilot. The burner has a pilot light to ignite the propane and air mixture. A pilot light is a small Gas Flame, usually Natural gas or Liquefied petroleum gas, which is kept alight in order to serve as an ignition source The pilot light may be lit by the pilot with an external device, such as a flint striker or a lighter, or with a built-in piezo electric spark. Flint (or flintstone) is a hard sedimentary Cryptocrystalline form of the Mineral Quartz, categorized as a variety of Chert A lighter is a portable device used to create a Flame. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with lighter fluid (usually Naphtha or liquid Butane Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to 
A burner may have a secondary propane valve that releases propane more slowly and thereby generates a different sound. This is called a whisper burner and is used for flight over livestock to lessen the chance of spooking them. It also generates a more yellow flame and is used for night glows because it lights up the inside of the envelope better than the primary valve.
Burners can generate heat on the order of 30 million BTUs (31,651,677 kilojoule). The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity 
Propane fuel tanks are usually cylindrical pressure vessels made from aluminum, stainless steel, or titanium with a valve at one end to feed the burner and to refuel. A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a Pressure different from the ambient Pressure. WikipediaNaming In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 They may have a fuel gauge and a pressure gauge. A fuel gauge (or gas gauge) is an instrument used to indicate the level of Fuel contained in a tank Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of Pressure and Vacuum. Common tank sizes are 10 (38), 15 (57), and 20 (76) US gallons (litres). A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume.  They may be intended for upright or horizontal use, and may be mounted inside or outside the basket.
The pressure necessary to force the fuel through the line to the burner may be supplied by the vapor pressure of the propane itself, if warm enough, or by the introduction of an inert gas such as nitrogen. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14  Tanks may be preheated with electrical heat tapes to produce sufficient vapor pressure for cold weather flying. Electric Trace Heating also known as Electric Heat Tracing and Electric Surface Heating is a system used to maintain or raise the temperature of pipes and vessels  Warmed tanks will usually also be wrapped in an insulating blanket to preserve heat during the setup and flight.
A balloon may be outfitted with a variety of instruments to aid the pilot. These commonly include an altimeter, a rate of climb (vertical speed) indicator, envelope (air) temperature, and ambient (air) temperature. An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the Altitude of an object above a fixed level The term Variometer also refers to a type of tunable Electrical Transformer A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator  A GPS receiver can be useful to indicate ground speed (traditional aircraft air speed indicators would be useless) and direction. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth
The combined mass of an average system can be calculated as follows
For a total of 3,538 kg or about 3. 9 tons (or 3,227 kg with the adjustment above)
Raising the air temperature inside the envelope makes it lighter than the surrounding (ambient) air. The balloon floats because of the buoyant force exerted on it. This force is the same force acts on objects when they are in water and is described by Archimedes' principle. In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is The amount of lift (or buoyancy) provided by a hot air balloon depends primarily upon the difference between the temperature of the air inside the envelope and the temperature of the air outside the envelope. In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is For most envelopes made of nylon fabric, the maximum internal temperature is limited to approximately 120 °C (250 °F). It should be noted that the melting point of nylon is significantly higher than these maximum operating temperature — about 230 °C (450 °F). However the lower temperatures are generally used because the higher the temperature, the more quickly the strength of the nylon fabric degrades over time. With a maximum operating temperature of 120 °C (250 °F), balloon envelopes can generally be flown for between 400 and 500 hours before the fabric needs to be replaced. Many balloon pilots operate their envelopes at temperatures significantly below the maximum in order to extend the longevity of their envelope fabric.
For typical atmospheric conditions, a hot air balloon requires about 3 m³ of envelope volume in order to lift 1 kilogram (50 ft³/lb). The precise amount of lift provided depends not only upon the internal temperature mentioned above, but the external temperature, altitude above sea level, and humidity of the surrounding air.
On a hot day, the balloon cannot be loaded as much as on a cool day, because the temperature required for launch will exceed the maximum sustainable for nylon envelope fabric.
In the lower atmosphere, the lift provided by a hot air balloon decreases about 3% for each 1,000 meters (1% per 1,000 ft) of altitude gained. 
A note on the physics: according to Archimedes' principle, the uplift on a balloon is equal to the weight of unheated air displaced by the balloon. As the density of air at 20 °C is about 1. 2 kg/m³ (see density of air) which is 0. The density of air, ρ (Greek rho (air density is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere, and is a useful value in Aeronautics. 07476 lb/ft³, the uplift for a balloon of 100,000 ft³ would be 7476 lb, or 3398 kg. This should be compared with the total mass stated in the previous section.
Standard hot air balloons are called Montgolfiere balloons and rely solely on the buoyancy of hot air provided by the burner and contained by the envelope. 
The Rozière type of hybrid balloon, named after its creator, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, has a separate cell for a lighter than air gas (typically helium, or hydrogen) as well as a cone below for hot air (as is used in a hot air balloon) to heat the helium at night. The Rozière balloon (or simply Rozière) is a type of hybrid balloon that has separate chambers for a non-heated lifting gas (such Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1
Solar balloons are hot air balloons that use just solar energy captured by a dark envelope to heat the air inside. A solar balloon or solar airship, is a balloon that is filled with air and gains buoyancy because of the air inside the balloon gets heated because of the sun's radiation black Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life 
To help ensure the safety of pilot and passengers, a hot air balloon may carry several pieces of safety equipment.
In order to relight the burner, in case the pilot light goes out and the optional piezo ignition fails, the pilot should have ready access to a flint spark lighter. A flint spark lighter (sometimes just called a spark lighter, striker, or flint lighter) is a type of Lighter used in many applications
Many systems, especially those that carry passengers have completely redundant fuel and burner systems: two fuel tanks, connected to two separate hoses, which feed two distinct burners. This enables a safe landing in the case of a clog somewhere in one system or if a system must be disabled because of a fuel leak.
At a minimum the pilot should wear flame resistant gloves. These can be made of leather or some more sophisticated material, such as nomex. Nomex (styled NOMEX) is a registered Trademark for flame resistant meta- Aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed These will enable the pilot to shut off a gas valve in the case of a leak even if there is a flame present. Quick action on the pilot's part to stop the flow of gas can turn a potential disaster into an inconvenience.
In addition, the pilot should wear clothes made of natural fibers. These will singe and not burn readily if brought into contact with an open flame. Many synthetic fibers, unless especially formulated for use near flame or high temperatures like nomex, will melt onto the wearer and can cause severe burning.
Some balloon systems, especially those that hang the burner from the envelope instead of supporting it rigidly from the basket, require the use of helmets by the pilot and passengers.
The ground crew should wear gloves on their hands whenever the possibility of handling ropes or lines exists. The mass and exposed surface to air movement of a medium sized balloon is sufficient to cause rope burns to the hands of anyone trying to stop or prevent movement.
The ground crew should also wear sturdy shoes and at least long pants in case of the need to access a landing or landed balloon in rough or overgrown terrain.
As with aircraft, hot air balloons require regular maintenance in order to remain airworthy. As aircraft made of fabric and that lack direct horizontal control, hot air balloons may occasionally require repairs to rips or snags.
While some operations, such as cleaning and drying, may be performed by the owner or pilot, other operations, such as sewing, must be performed by a qualified repair technician and recorded in the balloon's maintenance log book.
To ensure long life and safe operation, the envelope should be kept clean and dry. This prevents mold and mildew from forming on the fabric and abrasion from occurring during packing, transport, and unpacking due to contact with foreign particles. In the event of a landing in a wet (because of precipitation or early morning or late evening dew) or muddy location (farmer's field), the envelope should be cleaned and laid out or hung to dry.
The burner and fuel system must also be kept clean to ensure safe operation on demand. Damaged fuel hoses need to be replaced. Stuck or leaky valves must be repaired or replaced.
The wicker basket may require occasional refinishing or repair. The skids on its bottom may require occasional replacement.
In the case of a snag, burn, or rip in the envelope fabric, a patch may be applied or the affected panel completely replaced. Patches may be held in place with glue, tape, stitching, or a combination of these techniques. Replacing an entire panel requires the stitching around the old panel to be removed, and a new panel to be sewn in with the appropriate technique, thread, and stitch pattern.
Depending on the size of the balloon, location, and intended use, hot air balloons and their pilots need to comply with a variety of regulations.
In the USA, balloons below a certain size (empty weight of less than 254 pounds or 115 kg) can be used as an ultralight aircraft and cannot carry passengers, except for pilot training. Ultralight aircraft in the United States are much smaller and lighter than ultralight aircraft in all other countries Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an Aircraft. Anything larger than that must be registered (have an N-number), have an airworthiness certificate, and pass annual inspections. An aircraft registration is a unique Alphanumeric string that identifies an Aircraft, in similar fashion to a licence plate on an automobile Airworthiness is a term used to dictate whether an Aircraft is worthy of safe flight
In the United States, a pilot of a hot air balloon must have a pilot certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and it must carry the rating of "Lighter-than-air free balloon", and unless the pilot is also qualified to fly gas balloons, will also carry this limitation: "Limited to hot air balloons with airborne heater". Pilot certification in the United States is under the authority of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of
In order to carry paying passengers for hire (and attend some balloon festivals), a pilot must have a commercial pilot certificate. Pilot certification in the United States is under the authority of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA Commercial hot air balloon pilots may also act as hot air balloon flight instructors. A flight instructor is a person who teaches others to fly Aircraft.
A pilot does not need a license to fly an ultralight aircraft, but training is highly advised, and some hot air balloons meet the criteria.
While most balloon pilots fly for the pure joy of floating through the air, many are able to make a living as a professional balloon pilot. Some professional pilots fly commercial passenger sightseeing flights, while others fly corporate advertising balloons.