Horse breeding refers to reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal Species, achieved through the process of Selective breeding Meyers b12 s0947bjpg|thumb|Heavy or draft horse breeds]] This page is a list of Horse and Pony breeds and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not While feral and wild horses breed successfully without human assistance, planned matings can be used to produce specifically desired characteristics in domesticated horses. A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state The Wild Horse ( Equus ferus) is a member of the Horse genus which currently is native only in Asia. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Furthermore, modern breeding management and technologies can increase the rate of conception, a healthy pregnancy, and successful foaling.
The male parent of a horse, a stallion, is commonly known as the sire and the female parent , the mare, is called the dam. The father is defined as the Male Parent of an offspring The Adjective "paternal" refers to father parallel to "maternal" for Both are genetically important, as each parent provides half of the genetic makeup of the ensuing offspring, called a foal. A foal is a Horse that is one year old or younger More specific terms are colt for a Male foal and Filly for a Female foal (Contrary to popular misuse, the word "colt" refers to a young male horse only; "filly" is a young female. ) Though many amateur horse owners may simply breed a family mare to a local stallion in order to produce a companion animal, most professional breeders use selective breeding to produce individuals of a given phenotype, or breed. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties See Breed (song for the song by Nirvana. See Breed (video game for the video game by Brat Designs Alternatively, a breeder could, using individuals of differing phenotypes, create a new breed with specific characteristics.
In horse breeding generally, particularly with Thoroughbreds and Arabians, "half-brothers" and sisters only describes horses which have the same dam but a different sire. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina  Horses with the same sire are simply said to be "by the same sire," and no sibling relationship is implied. Full siblings, however, have both the same dam and the same sire.
Also see Equine anatomy-Reproductive system
The estrous cycle (also spelled oestrous) controls when a mare is sexually receptive toward a stallion, and helps to physically prepare the mare for conception. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of Horse specific terms Oestrus is also the biological genus name of the gadfly. The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin It generally occurs during the spring and summer months, although some mares may be sexually receptive into the late fall, and is controlled by the photoperiod (length of the day), the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night The estrus cycle lasts about 19-22 days, with the average being 21 days. As the days shorten, the mare returns to a period when she is not sexually receptive, known as anestrus. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. This cycle contains 2 phases:
Changes in hormone levels can have great affects on the physical characteristics of the reproductive organs of the mare, thereby preparing, or preventing, her from conceiving.
The cycle is controlled by several hormones which regulate the estrous cycle, the mare's behavior, and the reproductive system of the mare. The cycle begins when the increased day length causes the pineal gland to reduce the levels of melatonin, thereby allowing the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH. The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate Brain Melatonin is a naturally occurring Hormone found in most animals including humans and some other living organisms including Algae. The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the Pituitary gland (hypophysis
While horses in the wild mate and foal in mid to late spring, many horses domestically bred for competitive purposes, especially horse racing and various futurities, are usually born as close to January first as possible, so as to be at an advantage in size and maturity when competing against other horses in the same age group. Prolactin ( PRL) or Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) is a Peptide hormone primarily associated with Lactation. Oxytocin ( IPA: /ˌɔksɪˈtoʊsɪn/ (Greek "quick birth" is a Mammalian Hormone that also acts as a Neurotransmitter in the This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. When an early foal is desired, barn managers will put the mare "under lights" by keeping the barn lights on in the winter to simulate a longer day, thus bringing the mare into estrus sooner than she would in nature. Mares signal estrus and ovulation by urination in the presence of a stallion, raising the tail and revealing the vulva. The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs A stallion, approaching with a high head, will usually nicker, nip and nudge the mare, as well as sniff her urine to determine her readiness for mating.
Once fertilized, the oocyte (egg) remains in the oviduct for approximately 5. An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female Gametocyte or Germ cell involved in reproduction. 5 more days, and then descends into the uterus. The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the The initial single cell combination is already dividing and by the time of entry into the uterus, the egg might have already reached the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst is the structure formed in early Embryogenesis, after the formation of the Blastocoel, but before Implantation.
The gestation period lasts for about eleven months, or about 340 days (normal average range 320-370 days). Gestation is the carrying of an Embryo or Fetus inside a Female Viviparous Animal. During the early days of pregnancy, the embryo (up to about 35 days), or fetus (after 35-40 days), is mobile, moving about in the uterus until about day 16 when "fixation" occurs. An embryo (from Greek:, plural, lit "that which grows" from en- "in" + bryein "to swell be full" is a multicellular A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and True implantation - invasion into the endometrium of any sort - does not occur until about day 35 of pregnancy with the formation of the endometrial cups, and true placentation (formation of the placenta) is not initiated until about day 40-45 and not completed until about 140 days of pregnancy. In biology placentation refers to the formation type and structure or arrangement of Placentas The function of placentation is to transfers nutrients from maternal tissue A heartbeat can be detected on day 21, and the fetus gender can be determined by day 70 of the gestation. Halfway through gestation the fetus is the size of between a rabbit and a beagle. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world The Beagle is a breed of medium-sized Dog. A member of the Hound Group, it is similar in appearance to the Foxhound but smaller The most dramatic fetal development occurs in the last 3 months of pregnancy when 60% of fetal growth occurs.
Domestic mares receive specific care and nutrition to ensure that they and their foals are healthy. Mares are given vaccinations against diseases such as the Rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1) virus (which can cause abortions) as well as vaccines for other conditions that may occur in a given region of the world. Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1 is a Virus of the family Herpesviridae that causes abortion in Horses Initial spread of EHV-1 by a newly Pre-foaling vaccines are recommended 4-6 weeks prior to foaling to maximize the immunoglobulin content of the colostrum in the first milk. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily Beestings redirects here or you may have wanted Bee sting or beasting.  Deworning the mare a few weeks prior to foaling is also important, as the mare is the primary source of parasites for the foal. 
Mares can be used for riding or driving during most of their pregnancy, and it's healthy for them to have exercise. But only moderate exercise, especially when they become heavy in foal. Exercise in excessively high temperatures has been suggested as being detrimental to pregnancy maintenance during the embryonic period  - it should however be noted that ambient temperatures encountered during the research were in the region of 100 degrees F and the same results may not be encountered in regions with lower ambient temperatures.
During the last 3-4 months of gestation, rapid growth of the fetus increases the pregnant mare's nutritional requirements. Equine nutrition is the feeding of Horses ponies, Mules Donkeys and other equines Correct and balanced Nutrition is a critical Energy requirements during these last few months, and during the first few months of lactation are similar to those of a horse in full training. Trace minerals such as Copper are extremely important, particularly during the tenth month of pregnancy, for proper skeletal formation.  Many feeds designed for pregnant and lactating mares provide the careful balance required of increased protein, increased calories through extra fat as well as vitamins and minerals. Lactation describes the secretion of Milk from the Mammary glands the process of providing that milk to the young and the period of time that a Mother During the first several months of pregnancy, the nutritional requirements do not increase significantly since the rate of growth of the fetus is very slow. However, during this time, the mare should be provided supplemental vitamins and minerals, particularly if forage quality is questionable. Overfeeding the pregnant mare, particularly during early gestation, should be avoided, as excess weight may contribute to difficulties foaling or fetal/foal related problems.
A special foaling stall or shed that is large and clutter free provides the mare with a safe place to give birth. Most mares foal at night or early in the morning, and prefer to give birth alone when possible. Labor is rapid, often no more than 30 minutes, and from the time the feet of the foal appear to full delivery is often only about 15 to 20 minutes. Once the foal is born, the mare will lick the newborn foal to clean it and help blood circulation. In a very short time, the foal will attempt to stand and get milk from its mother. A foal should stand and nurse within the first hour of life.
To create a bond with her foal, the mare licks and nuzzles the foal, enabling her to distinguish hers from others. Some mares are aggressive when protecting their foals, and may attack other horses or unfamiliar humans that come near their newborns.
After birth, a foal's navel is dipped in antiseptic to prevent infection, it is sometimes given an enema to help clear the meconium from its digestive tract, and the newborn is monitored to ensure that it stands and nurses without difficulty. An enema (plural enemata or enemas) is the procedure of introducing liquids into the Rectum and colon via the Anus. Meconium is the earliest While most horse births happen without complications, many owners have first aid supplies prepared and a veterinarian on call in case of a birthing emergency. A veterinarian ( American English) or a Veterinary surgeon ( British English) often shortened to vet, is a Physician People who supervise foaling should also watch the mare to be sure that she passes the placenta in a timely fashion, and that it is complete with no fragments remaining in the uterus, where retained fetal membranes could cause a serious inflammatory condition (endometritis) and/or infection. The placenta is an Ephemeral organ present in placental Vertebrates, such as Eutherial Mammals and Sharks during Gestation The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the Endometritis refers to Inflammation of the Endometrium, the inner lining of the Uterus. If the placenta is not removed from the stall after it is passed, a mare will often eat it, an instinct from the wild, where blood would attract predators.
Foals develop rapidly, and within a few hours a wild foal can travel with the herd. A foal is a Horse that is one year old or younger More specific terms are colt for a Male foal and Filly for a Female foal In domestic breeding, the foal & dam are usually separated from the herd for a while, but within a few weeks are typically pastured with the other horses. A foal will begin to eat hay, grass & grain alongside the mare at about 4 weeks old; by 10-12 weeks the foal requires more nutrition than the mare's milk can supply. Foals are typically weaned at 4-8 months of age, although in the wild a foal may nurse for a year.
Beyond the appearance and conformation of a specific type of horse, breeders aspire to improve physical performance abilities. Meyers b12 s0947bjpg|thumb|Heavy or draft horse breeds]] This page is a list of Horse and Pony breeds and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not Equine conformation refers to the correctness of a horse's bone structure musculature and its body proportions in relation to each other This concept, known as matching "form to function," has led to the development of not only different breeds, but also families or bloodlines within breeds that are specialists for excelling at specific tasks.
For example, the Arabian horse of the desert naturally developed speed and endurance to travel long distances and survive in a harsh environment, and domestication by humans added a trainable disposition to the animal's natural abilities. The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals In the meantime, in northern Europe, the locally adapted heavy horse with a thick, warm coat was domesticated and put to work as a farm animal that could pull a plow or wagon. A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed This animal was later adapted through selective breeding to create a strong but ridable animal suitable for the heavily-armored knight in warfare. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Horses were first used in warfare over 5000 years ago The earliest evidence of the use of horses ridden in warfare dates
Then, centuries later, when people in Europe wanted faster horses than could be produced from local horses through simple selective breeding, they imported Arabians and other oriental horses to breed as an outcross to the heavier, local animals. The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line This led to the development of breeds such as the Thoroughbred, a horse taller than the Arabian and faster over the distances of a few miles required of a European race horse or light cavalry horse. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Another cross between oriental and European horses produced the Andalusian, a horse developed in Spain that was powerfully built, but extremely nimble and capable of the quick bursts of speed over short distances necessary for certain types of combat as well as for tasks such as bullfighting. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain
Later, the people who settled the Americas needed a hardy horse that was capable of working with cattle. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Thus, Arabians and Thoroughbreds were crossed on Spanish horses, both domesticated animals descended from those brought over by the Conquistadors, and feral horses such as the Mustangs, descended from the Spanish horse, but adapted by natural selection to the ecology and climate of the west. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of These crosses ultimately produced new breeds such as the American quarter horse and the Criollo of Argentina. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
In modern times, these breeds themselves have since been selectively bred to further specialize at certain tasks. One example of this is the American quarter horse. Once a general-purpose working ranch horse, different bloodlines now specialize in different events. A ranch is an area of landscape including various structures given primarily to the practice of ranching the practice of raising grazing livestock such as Cattle For example, larger, heavier animals with a very steady attitude are bred to give competitors an advantage in events such as team roping, where a horse has to start and stop quickly, but also must calmly hold a full-grown steer at the end of a rope. Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a Rodeo event that features a Steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted Cowboys On the other hand, for an event known as cutting, where the horse must separate a cow from a herd and prevent it from rejoining the group, the best horses are smaller, quick, alert, athletic and highly trainable. Cutting is the separation of a physical object or a portion of a physical object into two portions through the application of an acutely directed force Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family They must learn quickly, have conformation that allows quick stops and fast, low turns, and the best competitors have a certain amount of independent mental ability to anticipate and counter the movement of a cow, popularly known as "cow sense. "
Another example is the Thoroughbred. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed While most representatives of this breed are bred for horse racing, there are also specialized bloodlines suitable as show hunters or show jumpers. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. The show hunter is a type of show horse in the that is judged on its movement manners and way of going particularly while jumping fences Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping" or "jumpers" is a member of a family of English riding equestrian events that also includes The hunter must have a tall, smooth build that allows it to trot and canter smoothly and efficiently. Instead of speed, value is placed on appearance and upon giving the equestrian a comfortable ride, with natural jumping ability that shows bascule and good form. Bascule (ˈbæskjuːl is the natural round arc a horse's body takes as it goes over a jump
A show jumper, however, is bred less for overall form and more for power over tall fences, along with speed, scope, and agility. Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping" or "jumpers" is a member of a family of English riding equestrian events that also includes This favors a horse with a good galloping stride, powerful hindquarters that can change speed or direction easily, plus a good shoulder angle and length of neck. A jumper has a more powerful build than either the hunter or the racehorse.
The history of horse breeding goes back millennia. Though the precise date is in dispute, humans could have domesticated the horse as far back as approximately 4500 BCE. However, evidence of planned breeding has a more blurry history.
One of the earliest people known to document the breedings of their horses were the Bedouin of the Middle East, the breeders of the Arabian horse. The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina While it is difficult to determine how far back the Bedouin passed on pedigree information via an oral tradition, there were written pedigrees of Arabian horses by A. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges D. 1330. The Akhal-Teke of West-Central Asia is another breed with roots in ancient times that was also bred specifically for war and racing. The nomads of the Mongolian steppes bred horses for several thousand years as well. Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East
The types of horses bred varied with culture and with the times. The uses to which a horse was put also determined its qualities, including smooth amblers for riding, fast horses for carrying messengers, heavy horses for plowing and pulling heavy wagons, ponies for hauling cars of ore from mines, packhorses, carriage horses and many others.
Medieval Europe bred large horses specifically for war, called destriers. The destrier is the most well-known war horse of the medieval era. These horses were the ancestors of the great heavy horses of today, and their size was preferred not simply because of the weight of the armor, but also because a large horse provided more power for the knight’s lance. Weighing almost twice as much as a normal riding horse, the destrier was a powerful weapon in battle.
On the other hand, during this same time, lighter horses were bred in northern Africa and the Middle East by Muslim warriors, who preferred a faster, more agile horse. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The lighter horse suited the raids and battles of the Bedouins, allowing them to outmaneuver rather than overpower the enemy. When Muslim warriors and European knights collided in warfare, the heavy knights were frequently outmaneuvered. The Europeans, however, soon made up for the lack of speed of their native breeds by incorporating genetic traits from captured oriental horses such as the Arabian, Barb to their stables. The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina This cross-breeding led both to a nimbler war horse, such as today's Percheron, but also to created a type of horse known as a Courser, a predecessor to the Thoroughbred, which was used as a message horse. A courser is a swift and strong horse frequently used during the Middle Ages as a warhorse. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed
During the Renaissance, horses were bred not only for war, but for haute ecole riding, derived from the most athletic movements required of a war horse, and popular among the elite nobility of the time. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Classical dressage evolved from Cavalry movements and training for the battlefield and has since developed into the competitive Dressage seen today Breeds such as the Lipizzan were developed from Spanish-bred horses for this purpose, and also became the preferred mounts of cavalry officers, who were derived mostly from the ranks of the nobility. The Lipizzan or Lipizzaner ( Slovene Lipicanec) is a breed of Horse closely associated with the Spanish Riding School It was during this time that gunpowder was developed, and so the light cavalry horse, a faster and quicker war horse, was bred for a “shoot and run” tactic rather than the close hand-to-hand fighting seen in the Middle Ages.
After Charles II retook the British throne in 1660, horse racing, which had been banned by Cromwell, was revived. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Thoroughbred was developed 40 years later, bred to be the ultimate racehorse, through the lines of 3 foundation Arabian stallions. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed Foundation bloodstock or foundation stock are Horses that are the progenitor or foundation of a new horse breed or a given bloodline within a breed The Arabian horse is a breed of Horse with a reputation for Intelligence, spirit and stamina
In the 1700s, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo noted the importance of selecting appropriate parentage to achieve desired outcomes of successive generations. James Burnett Lord Monboddo ( October 25, 1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish Judge, scholar of language evolution and Monboddo worked more broadly in the abstract thought of species relationships and evolution of species. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The Thoroughbred breeding hub in Lexington, Kentucky was developed in the late 1700s, and became a mainstay in American racehorse breeding.
The 17th and 18th centuries saw more of a need for fine carriage horses in Europe, bringing in the dawn of the warmblood. Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds primarily originating in Europe, registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook The warmblood breeds have been exceptionally good at adapting to changing times, and from their carriage horse beginnings they easily transitioned during the 1900s into a sport horse type. Today’s warmblood breeds, although still used for competitive driving, are more often seen competing in the show jumping or dressage arenas. Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping" or "jumpers" is a member of a family of English riding equestrian events that also includes Dressage (pronounced dress-ahhzh /ˈdrɛsɑʒ/ (a French term most commonly translated to mean "training" is a path and destination of competitive Horse training
The Thoroughbred continues to dominate the horseracing world, although its lines have been more recently used to improve warmblood breeds and to develop sport horses.
The predecessor of the American Quarter Horse was developed in the 1700s, mainly for quarter racing (racing ¼ of a mile). The breed was later adapted for work in the west, and “cow sense” was particularly bred for as their use for herding cattle increased. However, because there was also a need for animals suitable for sprint racing, the modern Quarter Horse has two distinct types: the sleeker racing type and the stock horse type. The racing type most resembles the finer-boned ancestors of the first racing Quarter Horses, and the type is still used for ¼-mile races. The stock horse type, used in western events, is bred for a shorter stride, docile temperament, and cow sense.
The need for horses for heavy draft and carriage work continued until the industrial revolution and the advent of the automobile and the tractor. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the A tractor is a Vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high Tractive effort at slow speeds for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used After this time, draft and carriage horse numbers dropped significantly, though light riding horses remained popular for recreational pursuits. A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people usually horse-drawn Draft horses today are used on a few small farms, but today are seen mainly for pulling and plowing competitions rather than farm work. Heavy harness horses are now used as an outcross with lighter breeds, such as the Thoroughbred, to produce the modern warmblood breeds popular in Olympic and sport horse disciplines. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds primarily originating in Europe, registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an International Multi-sport event, usually quadrennial organised by the International
Breeding a horse is an endeavor where the owner, particularly of the mare, will usually need to invest considerable time and money. For this reason, a horse owner needs to consider several factors, including:
There are value judgements involved in considering whether an animal is suitable breeding stock, hotly debated by breeders. Gestation is the carrying of an Embryo or Fetus inside a Female Viviparous Animal. Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a Human Pregnancy or A value judgment is a Judgment of the Rightness or Wrongness of something or of the Usefulness of something based on a personal view Additional personal beliefs may come into play when considering a suitable level of care for the mare and ensuing foal, the potential market or use for the foal, and other tangible and intangible benefits to the owner.
If the breeding endeavor is intended to make a profit, there are additional market factors to consider, which may vary considerably from year to year, from breed to breed, and by region of the world. In many cases, the low end of the market is saturated with horses, and the law of supply and demand thus allows little or no profit to be made from breeding unregistered animals or animals of poor quality, even if registered. Supply and demand is an Economic model describing effects on price and quantity in a Market.
The minimum cost of breeding for a mare owner includes the stud fee, and the cost of proper nutrition, management and veterinary care of the mare throughout gestation, parturition, and care of both mare and foal up to the time of weaning. Equine nutrition is the feeding of Horses ponies, Mules Donkeys and other equines Correct and balanced Nutrition is a critical There are many aspects to horse care. Horses ponies, Mules Donkeys and other domesticated Equidae require attention from Veterinary medicine the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife Veterinary expenses may be higher if specialized reproductive technologies are used or health complications occur.
Making a profit in horse breeding is often difficult. While some owners of only a few horses may keep a foal for purely personal enjoyment, many individuals breed horses in hopes of making some money in the process.
A general rule of thumb is that a foal intended for sale should be worth three times the cost of the stud fee if it were sold at the moment of birth. From birth forward, the costs of care and training are added to the value of the foal, with a sale price going up accordingly. If the foal wins awards in some form of competition, that may also enhance the price.
On the other hand, without careful thought, foals bred without a potential market for them may wind up being sold at a loss, and in a worst-case scenario, sold for "salvage" value -- a euphemism for sale to slaughter as horsemeat. Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a Horse. It is slightly sweet tender low in fat and high in protein
Therefore, a mare owner must consider their reasons for breeding, asking hard questions of themselves as to whether their motivations are based on either emotion or profit and how realistic those motivations may be.
The stallion should be chosen to complement the mare, with the goal of producing a foal that has the best qualities of both animals, yet avoids having the weaker qualities of either parent. Generally, the stallion should have proven himself in the discipline or sport the mare owner wishes for the "career" of the ensuing foal. Mares should also have a competition record showing that they also have suitable traits, though this does not happen as often.
Some breeders consider the quality of the sire to be more important than the quality of the dam. However, other breeders maintain that the mare is the most important parent. Because stallions can produce far more offspring than mares, a single stallion can have a greater overall impact on a breed. However, the mare may have a greater influence on an individual foal because its physical characteristics influence the developing foal in the womb and the foal also learns habits from its dam when young. Foals may also learn the "language of intimidation and submission" from their dam, and this imprinting may affect the foal's status and rank within the herd.  Many times, a mature horse will achieve status in a herd similar to that of its dam; the offspring of dominant mares become dominant themselves.
A purebred horse is usually worth more than a horse of mixed breeding, though this matters more in some disciplines than others. Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that Horses are prey animals with a well-developed Fight-or-flight instinct The breed of the horse is sometimes secondary when breeding for a sport horse, but some disciplines may prefer a certain breed or a specific phenotype of horse. Trot projection-1-jpg|right|thumb|270px|A trot showing natural suspension Meyers b12 s0947bjpg|thumb|Heavy or draft horse breeds]] This page is a list of Horse and Pony breeds and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties Sometimes, purebred bloodlines are an absolute requirement: For example most Racehorses in the world must be recorded with a breed registry in order to race. Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal Species, achieved through the process of Selective breeding This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in Animal husbandry and the Hobby of Animal fancy, is an official list of
Bloodlines are often considered, as some bloodlines are known to cross well with others. If the parents have not yet proven themselves by competition or by producing quality offspring, the bloodlines of the horse are often a good indicator of quality and possible strengths and weaknesses. Some bloodlines are known not only for their athletic ability, but could also carry a conformational or genetic defect, poor temperament, or for a medical problem. Some bloodlines are also fashionable or otherwise marketable, which is an important consideration should the mare owner wish to sell the foal.
Horse breeders also consider conformation, size and temperament. All of these traits are heritable, and will determine if the foal will be a success in its chosen discipline. The offspring, or “get,” of a stallion are often excellent indicators of his ability to pass on his characteristics, and the particular traits he actually passes on. Some stallions are fantastic performers but never produce offspring of comparable quality. Others sire fillies of great abilities but not colts. At times, a horse of mediocre ability sires foals of outstanding quality.
Mare owners also look into the question of if the stallion is fertile and has successfully "settled" (i. e. impregnated) mares. A stallion may not be able to breed naturally, or old age may decrease his performance. Mare care boarding fees and semen collection fees can be a major cost. Semen collection refers to the process of obtaining Semen from domestic Animals or humans with the use of various methods for the purposes of Artificial insemination
Breeding a horse can be an expensive endeavor, whether breeding a backyard competition horse or the next Olympic medalist. Costs may include:
Stud fees are determined by the quality of the stallion, his performance record, the performance record of his get (offspring), as well as the sport and general market that the animal is standing for.
The highest stud fees are generally for racing Thoroughbreds, which may charge from two to three thousand dollars for a breeding to a new or unproven stallion, to several hundred thousand dollars for a breeding to a proven producer of stakes winners. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed Sport horse stallions generally range from $1000 to $3000, although the top stallions may reach $4000 for one breeding. The lowest stud fees may only be $100-$200, but there are trade-offs: the horse will probably be unproven, and probably much less athletic than a horse with a stud fee that is a bit higher.
As a stallion's career, either performance or breeding, improves, his stud fee tends to increase in proportion. If one or two offspring are especially successful, winning several stakes races or an Olympic medal, the stud fee will generally greatly increase. Younger, unproven stallions will generally have a lower stud fee earlier on in their careers.
To help decrease the risk of financial loss should the mare die or abort the foal while pregnant, many studs have a live foal guarantee (LFG), allowing the owner to have a free breeding to their stallion the next year. Live foal guarantee is a common provision in Horse breeding Contracts It is a form of a Warranty offered to the mare owner by the stallion However, this is not offered for every breeding.
There are two general ways to "cover" or breed the mare:
After the mare is bred or artificially inseminated, she is checked 16 days later to see if she “took”, and is pregnant. A second check is usually performed at 28 days. If the mare is not pregnant, she may be bred again during her next cycle.
It is considered safe in the horse to breed a mare to a stallion of much larger size. Because of the mare’s type of placenta and its attachment and blood supply, the foal will be limited in its growth within the uterus to the size of the mare's uterus, but will grow to its genetic potential after it is born. Test breedings have been done with draft horse stallions bred to small mares with no increase in the number of difficult births. A draft horse, draught horse or dray horse (from the Anglo-Saxon dragan meaning to draw or haul is a large Horse bred for hard heavy tasks 
When breeding live cover, the mare is usually boarded at the stud. She is "teased" several times with a stallion that will not breed to her, usually with the stallion being presented to the mare over a barrier. Her reaction to the teaser, whether hostile or passive, is noted. A mare that is in heat will generally tolerate a teaser (although this is not always the case), and may present herself to him, holding her tail to the side. A veterinarian may also determine if the mare is ready to be bred, by ultrasound or palpating daily to determine if ovulation has occurred.
When it has been determined that the mare is ready, both the mare and intended stud will be cleaned. The mare will then be presented to the stallion, usually with one handler controlling the mare and one or more handlers in charge of the stallion. Multiple handlers are preferred, as the mare and stallion can be easily separated should there be any trouble.
The Thoroughbred industry requires all registered foals to be bred through live cover. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed Artificial fertility treatments, listed below, are not permitted.
By contrast, the standardbred industry allows registered foals to be bred by live cover, or by artificial insemination (AI) with fresh or frozen (not dried) semen. No other artificial fertility treatment is allowed. In addition, foals bred via AI may only be registered if the stallion's sperm was collected during his lifetime, and used no later than the calendar year of his death or castration. 
Artificial insemination (AI) has several advantages over live cover, and has a very similar conception rate:
A stallion is usually trained to mount a phantom (or dummy) mare, although a live mare may be used, and he is collected using an artificial vagina (AV), which is heated to simulate the vagina of the mare. The AV has a filter and collection area at one end to collect the semen, which is then processed in a lab. The semen can then be chilled or frozen and shipped to the mare owner. When the mare is in heat, a veterinarian introduces the semen directly into her via a syringe and pipette.
Often an owner does not want to take a valuable competition mare out of training to carry a foal. This presents a problem, as the mare will usually be quite old by the time she is retired from her competitive career, at which time it is more difficult to impregnate her. Other times, a mare may have physical problems that prevent or discourage breeding. However, there are now several options for breeding these mares. These options also allow a mare to produce multiple foals each breeding season, instead of the usual one. Therefore, mares may have an even greater value for breeding.