The horn is a brass instrument consisting of about 12 feet of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. A wind instrument is a Musical instrument that contains some type of Resonator (usually a tube in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator. An aerophone is any Musical instrument which produces Sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate without the use of strings or membranes and without In Music, the range of a Musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play The perfect fifth ( is the Musical interval between a note and the note seven Semitones above it on the musical scale A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves The Vienna horn (Wiener Horn is a type of horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare Brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the Tuba. The cornet is a Brass instrument very similar to the Trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape and mellower tone quality The flugelhorn (also spelled fluegelhorn or flügelhorn) is a Brass instrument resembling a Trumpet but with a wider conical bore The mellophone is a Brass instrument that is typically used in place of the horn (sometimes called a French horn in Marching bands or Drum The baritone horn, or simply baritone, is a member of the brass family of instruments Althorn redirects here For the village in Essex see Althorne. The saxhorn is a valved Brass instrument with a tapered bore and deep cup-shaped mouthpiece. This list of horn players includes horn (French horn players about whom there is a Wikipedia article This is a list of manufacturers of horns. Not all still exist today Some of these horn techniques are not unique to the horn, but are applicable to This is a selected list of Musical compositions that feature a prominent part for (French horn, sorted by era and then by composer A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator. It is descended from the natural horn and is informally known as the French horn. The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves
Most horns have finger-operated rotary valves; some horns like the Vienna horn use piston valves. A rotary valve is a type of Valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes The Vienna horn (Wiener Horn is a type of horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. A piston valve is a device used to control the motion of a Fluid along a tube or pipe by means of the Linear motion of a Piston within A horn without valves is known as a natural horn. The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves
Three rotary valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly B-flat. The more common double horn has a fourth valve, operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or the second set of tubing tuned to B-flat. Triple horns with five valves are also made, tuned in F, B-flat, and a descant F (one octave above the lower F).
A musician who plays the horn is called a horn player (or, less frequently, a hornist). This list of horn players includes horn (French horn players about whom there is a Wikipedia article (The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument itself be properly referred to solely as the horn. )
The single horn is usually pitched in the key of F, although smaller instruments (for children or for specific professional uses) may be pitched in B-flat. Compared to the other brass instruments in the orchestra, it has a very different mouthpiece, but has the widest usable range - approximately four octaves, depending on the ability of the player. On Brass instruments the mouthpiece is the part of the instrument which is placed upon the player's Lips The purpose of the mouthpiece is a Resonator, which To produce different notes on the horn, one must do many things - the three most important are pressing the valves, producing the appropriate amount of lip tension, and blowing air into the instrument. More lip tension and faster air produces higher notes. Less lip tension and slower air produces lower notes. The horn plays in a higher portion of its overtone series as compared to most brass instruments. An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system Its conical bore (as opposed to the cylindrical bore of the trumpet or trombone) is largely responsible for its characteristic tone, often described as "mellow".
Today, music for the horn is typically written in F (or sometimes, notably in British bands, in E-flat), and sounds a perfect fifth lower than written (or a major sixth lower for the E-flat horn). The limitations on the range of the instrument are primarily governed by the available valve combinations for the first four octaves of the overtone series and after that by the ability of the player to control the pitch through their air supply and embouchure. The typical written ranges for the horn start at either the F-sharp immediately below the bass clef or the C an octave below middle C.
The standard range starting from a low F-sharp is based on the characteristics of the single horn in F. However, there is a great deal of music written beyond this range on the assumption that players are using a double horn in F/B-flat. This is the standard orchestral instrument and its valve combinations allow for the production of every chromatic tone from two octaves on either side of the horn's written middle-C (sounding F two octaves below the bass clef to F at the top of the treble clef). Although the upper range of the horn repertory rarely exceeds high C (two octaves above the horn's middle C, sounding F at the top of the treble clef), skilled players can achieve yet higher pitches.
Also important to note is that many pieces from the Baroque to Romantic periods are written in keys other than F, with the player providing the final transposition to the correct pitch. This practice began in the early days of the horn before valves, when the composer would indicate the key the horn should be in (horn in D, horn in C, etc. ) and the part would be notated as if it were in C. For example, a written C for horn in D would be transposed down a minor third and played as an A on F horn. This tradition was only recently abandoned, being used as late as Wagner and Richard Strauss, albeit only for short passages (the majority of the piece being written for horn in F).
Early horns were much simpler than modern horns. These early horns were brass tubes with a slightly flared opening (the bell) wound around a few times. These early "hunting" horns were originally played on a hunt, often while mounted. Change of pitch was effected entirely by the lips (the horn not being equipped with valves until the 19th century). Without valves, only the notes within the harmonic series are available. The horn was used, among other reasons, to call hounds on a hunt and created a sound most like a human voice, but carried much farther.
In orchestral settings, the horn (or, more often, pairs of horns) often invoked the idea of the hunt, or, beginning in the later baroque, determined the character of the key being played or represented nobility, royalty, or divinity.
Early horns were commonly pitched in B-flat alto, A, A-flat, G, F, E, E-flat, D, C, and B-flat basso. Since the only notes available were those on the harmonic series of one of those pitches, they had no ability to play in different keys. The remedy for this limitation was the use of crooks, i. e. sections of tubing of differing length that, when inserted, altered the length of the instrument, and thus its pitch.
Orchestral horns are traditionally grouped into "high" horn and "low" horn pairs. Players specialize to negotiate the unusually wide range required of the instrument. Formerly, in certain situations, composers would call for two pairs of horns in two different keys; for example, a composer might call for two horns in C and two in E-flat for a piece in c minor, in order to gain harmonics of the relative major unavailable on the C horns. Eventually, two pairs of horns became the standard, and from this tradition of two independent pairs, each with its own "high" and "low" horn, came the modern convention of writing the 1st and 3rd parts above 2nd and 4th.
In the mid-18th century, horn players began to insert the right hand into the bell to change the length of the instrument, adjusting the tuning up to the distance between two adjacent harmonics depending on how much of the opening was covered. This technique, known as hand-stopping, is generally credited to Anton Joseph Hampel around 1750, and was refined and carried to much of Europe by the influential Giovanni Punto. Hand-stopping is a technique by which a Natural horn can be made to produce notes outside of its normal harmonic series. Anton Joseph (A J Hampel (born Prague, 1710 died 30 March 1771 was a horn player from Dresden, Germany, who is generally credited with Giovanni Punto (born Jan Václav Stich) ( September 28, 1746 – February 16, 1803) was a horn player (more correctly he This offered more possibilities for playing notes not on the harmonic series. By the early classical period, the horn had become an instrument capable of much melodic playing. A notable example of this are the four Mozart Horn Concerti and Concert Rondo (K. 412, 417, 477, 371), wherein melodic chromatic tones are used, owing to the growing prevalence of hand-stopping and other newly-emerging techniques.
Around 1815 the use of pistons (later rotary valves) was introduced, initially to overcome problems associated with changing crooks during a performance. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year At first, however, valves were slowly adopted in the mainstream because of unreliability, musical taste, and players' distrust, among other reasons. Many traditional conservatories and players refused to transition at first, claiming that the valveless horn, or "natural horn", was a better instrument. The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves Some musicians, specializing in period instruments, still use a natural horn when playing in original performance styles, seeking to recapture the sound and tenor in which an older piece was written.
However, the use of valves opened up a great deal more flexibility in playing in different keys; in effect, the horn became an entirely different instrument, fully chromatic for the first time. Although, valves were originally used primarily as a means to play in different keys without crooks, not for harmonic playing. That is reflected in compositions for horns, which only began to include chromatic passages in the late 19th century. When valves were invented, generally, the French made smaller horns with piston valves and the Germans made larger horns with rotary valves. It is the German horn that is erroneously referred to in the English language (and more commonly in the United States and Canada) as the French horn. There is not a clear consensus on the reason or reasons for this nomenclature, and, as there are conflicting proposals, more research is necessary.
The natural horn is the ancestor of the modern horn. A rotary valve is a type of Valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves It is essentially descended from hunting horns, with its pitch controlled by air speed, aperture (opening of the lips through which the air passes) and the use of the right hand moving in and out of the bell. Today it is played as a period instrument. The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works The natural horn can only play from a single harmonic series at a time because there is only one length of tubing available to the horn player. The player has a choice of key through changing the length of tubing with crooks.
Single horns use a single set of tubes connected to the valves. This allows for simplicity of use and a much lighter weight. They are usually in the keys of F or B-flat, although many F horns have longer slides to tune them to E-flat, and almost all B-flat horns have a valve to put them in the key of A. The problem with single horns is the inevitable choice between accuracy or tone - while the F horn has the "typical" horn sound, above third-space C accuracy is concern for the majority of players because, by its nature, one plays high in the horn's harmonic series where the overtones are closer together. This led to the development of the B-flat horn, which, although easier to play accurately, has a less desirable sound in the mid and especially the low register where it is not able to play all of the notes. The solution has been the development of the double horn which combines the two into one horn with a single lead pipe and bell. Both main types of single horns are still used today as student models because they are cheaper and lighter than double horns. In addition, the single B-flat horns are sometimes used in solo and chamber performances and the single F survives orchestrally as the Vienna horn. The Vienna horn (Wiener Horn is a type of horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. Additionally, single F alto and B-flat alto descants are used in the performance of some baroque horn concertos and F, B-flat and F alto singles are occasionally used by jazz performers. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States
Dennis Brain's benchmark recordings of the Mozart Horn Concerti were made on a single B-flat instrument by Gebr. Alexander, now on display at the Royal Academy of Music in London. Dennis Brain (1921 – 1957 was a British Virtuoso horn player and was largely responsible for popularizing the horn as a solo classical instrument with Gebr Alexander, of Mainz, Germany, is a manufacturer of instruments founded in 1782 by Franz Ambros Alexander and still in business today The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is a well known conservatoire and one of the leading music institutions in the world
Despite the introduction of valves, the single F horn proved difficult for use in the highest range, where the partials grew closer and closer, making accuracy a great challenge. An early solution was simply to use a horn of higher pitch -- usually B-flat. The use of the F versus the B-flat horn were a hotbed of debate between horn players of the late nineteenth century, until the German horn maker Ed. Kruspe produced a prototype of the "double horn" in 1897. Ed Kruspe is a Brass instrument manufacturer located near Eisenach, Germany.
The double horn also combines two instruments into a single frame: the original horn in F, and a second, higher horn keyed in B-flat. By using a fourth valve (operated by the thumb), the horn player can quickly switch from the deep, warm tones of the F horn to the higher, brighter tones of the B-flat horn. The two sets of tones are commonly called "sides" of the horn. Using the fourth valve not only changes the basic length (and thus the harmonic series and pitch) of the instrument, it also causes the three main valves to use proportionate slide lengths. 
In the USA, the two most common styles ("wraps") of double horns are named Kruspe and Knopf, after the first instrument makers who developed and standardized them. The Kruspe wrap locates the B-flat change valve above the first valve, near the thumb. The Knopf wrap has the change valve behind the third valve, near the pinky finger (although the valve's trigger is still played with the thumb). In effect, the air flows in a completely different direction on the other model. Kruspe wrap horns tend to be larger in the bell throat than the Knopf type. Typically, Kruspe models are constructed from nickel silver or German Silver, while Knopf type horns tend to be of yellow brass. Both models have their own strengths and weaknesses, and while the choice of instrument is very personal, an orchestral horn section is usually found to have either one or the other, owing to the differences in tone color, response, and projection of the two different styles.
In the UK and Europe the most popular horns are arguably those made by Gebr. Alexander, of Mainz (particularly the Alexander 103), and those made by Paxman in London. Paxman Musical Instruments is a British manufacturer of horns. In Germany and the Benelux countries, the Alex. 103 is extremely popular. These horns do not fit strictly into the Kruspe or Knopf camps, but have features of both. Alexander prefers the traditional medium bell size, which they have produced for many years, whereas Paxman do offer their models in a range of bell throat sizes. In the United States, the Conn 8D, a mass produced instrument based on the Kruspe design, has been extremely popular in many areas (New York, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Philadelphia). Since roughly the early 1990s, however, for reasons ranging from changing tastes to a general dislike of Conn's newer 8Ds, orchestras have been moving away from the popular Conn 8D. Knopf model horns (by Geyer, Karl Hill, Keith Berg, Steve Lewis, Dan Rausch, and Ricco-Kuhn) are used in other areas (San Francisco, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Boston, Houston).
The first design of double horn did not have a separate set of slides pitched in F. Rather, the main key of the horn was B-flat (the preference of German horn players) and it could be played in F by directing air through the B flat slides, an F extension, and another set of tiny slides. This "compensated" for the longer length of the F slides, producing a horn now called the "compensating double". It was, and still is, widely used by European horn players because of its light weight and ease of playing, especially in the high register.
This relatively new design was created to afford the player even more security in the high register. It employs not only the F and B-flat horns, but also a third, descant horn. This descant horn is usually pitched an octave above the F horn, though it can be alternatively pitched in E-flat. It is activated through the use of a second thumb valve. The triple horn was met with considerable resistance when it first appeared. Horn players were reluctant to spend far more money for a triple horn than they would for a double horn, and a feeling that using a triple horn to help with the high register was "cheating" was rampant amongst prominent horn players. Also, the horns were much heavier than the average double horn. Players noted that their arms became fatigued much faster. Moreover, the combination of three different horns creates issues with sonority because the piping which is shared between all three sides (that is, the lead pipe and bell) are mathematically disproportional to two or all three horn lengths. Horn makers have had to make concessions to "even out" the sound between all three, often to the loss of sound quality of each side or entire ranges of the instrument. However, advances in horn production are gradually eliminating these drawbacks, and the triple horn is gaining in popularity. They are rarely available in anything lower than professional quality. Like double horns, triple horns can come in both full and compensating wraps. Today, they can be found playing in many professional orchestras. Europe seems to have more openly accepted the triple horn than the United States. Their popularity continues to grow, and their impact on the modern horn scene still remains to be calculated.
The Vienna horn is a special horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. The Vienna horn (Wiener Horn is a type of horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. The Vienna horn (Wiener Horn is a type of horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Instead of using rotary valves or piston valves, it uses the Pumpenvalve (or Vienna Valve), which is a double-piston operating inside of the valve slides, and usually situated on the opposite side of the corpus from the player's left hand, and operated by a long pushrod. A rotary valve is a type of Valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes A piston valve is a device used to control the motion of a Fluid along a tube or pipe by means of the Linear motion of a Piston within Unlike the modern horn, which has grown considerably larger internally (for a bigger, broader, and louder tone), and considerably heavier (with the addition of valves and tubing in the case of the double horn) the Vienna horn very closely mimics the size and weight of the natural horn, (although the valves do add some weight, they are lighter than rotary valves) even using crooks in the front of the horn, between the mouthpiece and the instrument. Although instead of the full range of keys, Vienna horn players usually use an F crook for most music, switching to an A or B-flat crook for higher pitched music (Beethoven 7th symphony, Bach, various Mozart and Haydn, etc). Vienna horns are often used with funnel shaped mouthpieces similar to those used on the natural horn, with very little (if any) backbore and a very thin rim. The Viennese horn requires very specialized technique and can be quite challenging to play, even for accomplished players of modern horns.
The marching horn is quite similar to the mellophone in shape and appearance, but is pitched in the key of B-flat (the same as the B-flat side of a regular double horn). The marching horn is also normally played with a horn mouthpiece (unlike the mellophone, which needs an adapter to fit the horn mouthpiece). These instruments are primarily used in marching bands, but in many colleges and drum corps they are being replaced with mellophones, which can better balance the tone of the trumpets and trombones. The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s
The mellophone is a single horn, usually in B-flat, but can also be pitched in G (drum corps version, pre 2000) or F alto. It is shaped more like a trumpet than a regular horn, with piston valves and a forward-pointing bell. These horns are generally considered better marching instruments than regular horns because their position is more stable, they project better, and they weigh less.
Sometimes, a derivative of the F alto horn, commonly used in brass bands, called a mellophone is used. Althorn redirects here For the village in Essex see Althorne. The mellophone is a Brass instrument that is typically used in place of the horn (sometimes called a French horn in Marching bands or Drum The first mellophones, pitched in E flat were shaped like a horn, but had the handedness reversed to allow the trumpet player to cover Horn parts without making the difficult transition to playing with the left hand. Handedness is an attribute of human beings defined by their unequal distribution of Fine motor skill between the left and right Hands. Modern Mellophones are pitched in F alto, and, though they are usually played with a trumpet mouthpiece, their range overlaps the common playing range of the horn. This mouthpiece switch makes the mellophone louder, less mellow, and more brassy and brilliant (though not as much as a trumpet), making it more appropriate for marching bands. It is a sound similar to that of the bass trumpet. The bass trumpet is a type of low Trumpet which was first developed during the 1820s in Germany Sometimes, however, mellophones are unpopular with horn players because the mouthpiece change is difficult and requires a whole new technique. Mouthpiece adapters are available so that a horn mouthpiece can fit into the mellophone lead pipe, but this does not compensate for the many differences that a horn player must adapt to. The bore is generally cylindrical as opposed to the generally conical horn; thus, the "feel" or the mellophone is quite foreign to a horn player. Another unpopular feature of the mellophone is how it is played (with the right hand instead of the left, as with the horn), and is played with trumpet fingerings, which can confuse the amateur horn player. Intonation can also a source of grief when playing the mellophone.
In concerts, it is the consensus that mellophones and marching horns have an inferior tone to regular concert horns, and lack the intonational subtlety of the horn because the player cannot use their hand to improve tuning. For these reasons, marching horn is usually only played in marching bands and, occasionally, jazz bands, and almost never in concert settings.
It should be noted that although horn players are often asked to play mellophones, the mellophone is NOT the same instrument and should be treated as such, orchestrationally and otherwise.
The Wagner tuba is a rare brass instrument that is essentially a horn modified to have a larger bell throat and a vertical bell. The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare Brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the Tuba. Contrary to intuition, it is generally not considered part of the tuba family. Mediatubaogg -->The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched Brass instrument. Invented for Richard Wagner specifically for his work Der Ring des Nibelungen, it has since been written for by various other composers, including Bruckner and R. Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer Strauss. It uses a horn mouthpiece and is available as a single tuba in B-flat or F, or, more recently, as a double tuba similar to the double horn. Its range is similar to that of the euphonium. The euphonium is a conical-bore, Baritone -voiced Brass instrument.
The horn, although not large, is awkward in its shape and does not lend itself well to transport, especially transport on commercial airlines. To compensate, horn makers can make the bell detachable. This allows for smaller and more manageable horn cases. The player can attach the bell when performing. This also allows for different bells to be used on the same horn, somewhat alleviating the need for multiple horns for different styles.
The horn is most often used as an orchestral instrument, with its singular tone being employed by composers to achieve specific effects. Leopold Mozart, for example, used horns to signify the hunt, as in his Jagdsinfonie (hunting symphony). Johann Georg Leopold Mozart ( November 14, 1719 &ndash May 28, 1787) was a composer conductor teacher and violinist Once the technique of hand-stopping had been developed, allowing fully chromatic playing, composers began to write seriously for the horn. Hand-stopping is a technique by which a Natural horn can be made to produce notes outside of its normal harmonic series. Telemann wrote much for the horn, and it features prominently in the work of Handel and in Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. Georg Philipp Telemann (March 14 1681 &ndash June 25 1767 was a German Baroque music Composer, born in Magdeburg. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" 1. Gustav Mahler made great use of the horn's uniquely haunting and distant sound in his symphonies, notably the famous Nachtmusik (night music) section of his Symphony No. 7. Gustav Mahler 's Seventh Symphony was written from 1904 to 1906
Many composers have written just one or a few notable works which have become established as favorites in the horn repertoire; this includes Poulenc (Elegie) and Saint-Saëns (Concertpiece for horn and orchestra, op. See also, Rhône-Poulenc Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k January 7, 1899 – January 30, Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and 94 and Romance). Others, particularly Mozart, whose friend Joseph Leutgeb was a noted horn player, wrote extensively for the instrument including concerti and other solo works. Joseph (Ignaz Leutgeb (or Leitgeb) ( October 8, 1732 - February 27, 1811) was an outstanding horn player of the classical The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Mozart's A Musical Joke satirizes the limitations of contemporary horn playing, including the risk of selecting the wrong crook by mistake. A Musical Joke (in German Ein Musikalischer Spaß) K 522 ( Divertimento for two horns and strings is a composition by Wolfgang Amadeus By the end of the 18th Century the horn was sufficiently established as a solo instrument that the horn player Giovanni Punto became an international celebrity, touring Europe and inspiring works by composers as significant as Beethoven. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist.
The development of the valve horn was exploited by romantic composers such as Richard Strauss, Bruckner and Mahler. Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Anton Bruckner (4 September 1824 &ndash 11 October 1896 was an Austrian composer known primarily for his symphonies, masses, and Motets Strauss's Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks contains one of the best known horn solos from this period, relying on the chromatic facility of the valved horn. Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks (German Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche, 1894-95 Op
Horn music in England had something of a renaissance in the mid 20th Century when Dennis Brain inspired works such as Britten's Serenade for Tenor, Horn and Strings and other works from contemporary composers such as Michael Tippett, who stretches horn ensemble playing to its technical limits in his Sonata for Four Horns. Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, The Serenade for Tenor Horn and Strings is a Song cycle written in 1943 by the English Composer Benjamin Britten, scored for Sir Michael Kemp Tippett, OM (2 January 1905 &ndash 8 January 1998 was one of the foremost English Composers of the 20th century Peter Maxwell Davies was commissioned by 50 amateur and professional UK horn players to write a horn piece to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Brain's death. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b 8 September 1934 is an English Composer and conductor.
Much of the repertoire is scored as featured parts for the orchestral players, especially the principal horn. It is common for leading horn players to move from principal positions in the great orchestras to distinguished solo careers, a path followed by Brain and many since.
There is an abundance of chamber music repertoire for horn. It is a standard member of woodwind quintet instrumentation and often appears in other configurations, such as Brahms' "Horn Trio" for violin, horn and piano. Also, the horn can be used by itself in a horn ensemble or "horn choir. " The horn choir is especially practical because the extended range of the horn provides the composer or arranger with more possibilities, registerally, sonically, contrapuntally, etc.
A Classical Orchestra usually contained two horns. Typically, the 1st horn played a high part and the 2nd horn played a low part. Composers from Beethoven onwards commonly used four horns. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Here, the 1st and 2nd horns played as a pair (1st horn being high, 2nd horn being low), and the 3rd and 4th horns played as another pair (3rd horn being high, 4th horn being low). In music written for the modern horn follows a similar pattern with 1st and 3rd horns being high and 2nd and 4th horns being low.
This setup of high-low-high-low has many reasons: Firstly, it makes it easier to play a high part if you have someone on your left playing a low part, but it makes it easier to play a low part if you have your high player (from your pair) to your left. Secondly, pairing makes it easier to write for horns, seeing as the 3rd & 4th horns can take over from the 1st & 2nd horns, or play a contrasting part. Thirdly, when music was first written, it was for the Natural horn, which meant that the horns could only easily play certain notes. The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves Because of this, the 1st & 2nd horns had to be in a different key from the 3rd & 4th horns so that more of the notes can be played. For example, if the piece is in C minor, the 1st & 2nd horns might be in C, the tonic major key, which could get most of the notes, and the 3rd & 4th horns might be in E flat, the relative major key, to fill in the gaps.
Most horn sections today also have an assistant who doubles the 1st horn part for selected passages joining in loud parts, playing instead of the principal if there is a 1st horn solo approaching, or alternating with the principal if the part is tiring to play. Playing assistant is usually overlooked, but it is harder than it seems, and takes experience to do it well. Often the assistant is asked to play a passage after resting a long time. Also, he or she may be asked to enter in the middle of a passage, exactly matching the sound, articulation, and overall interpretation of the principal.
Some pieces (like Rachmaninov's Isle of the Dead, Britten's Sinfonia da Requiem, Holst's The Planets and Richard Strauss' Don Quixote) have called for 6 horns, or even 8 horns (e. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов Isle of the Dead, Op 29 is a Symphonic poem composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff. Sinfonia da Requiem Op 20 for orchestra is a Symphony written by Benjamin Britten in 1940 at the age of 26 Gustav Theodore Holst (21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934was an English Composer and was a music teacher for nearly 20 years The Planets Op 32 is a seven- movement Orchestral suite by the British composer Gustav Holst, written between 1914 Don Quixote, op 35 is a composition by Richard Strauss for Cello, Viola and Large orchestra. g. , some of Mahler's Symphonies and Wagner's operas). Here the pairing remains the same, with the odd horns being high parts and the even horns being low parts.
It is also worth noting that Ewan McGregor played the horn, appearing on a regional television programme, and John Entwistle was also proficient on the horn. Ewan Gordon McGregor (born 31 March 1971 ˌjuːən məˈgrɛgər is a Scottish Actor, who has had significant success in mainstream indie and art John Alec Entwistle ( October 9, 1944 – June 27, 2002) was an English Bass guitarist, Songwriter, Singer