|Vice-Admiral The Viscount Nelson|
|29 September 1758 – October 21, 1805 (aged 47)|
Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott
|Place of birth||Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England|
|Place of death||Cape Trafalgar, Spain|
|Allegiance||United Kingdom of|
Great Britain and Ireland
|Years of service||1771–1805|
|Battles/wars||Battle of Cape St Vincent|
Battle of the Nile
Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Battle of Copenhagen
Battle of Trafalgar
|Awards||Several (see below)|
Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1758 ( MDCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Lemuel Francis Abbot (c 1760&ndash5 December 1802 was an English portrait painter famous for his portrait of Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson (currently hanging Burnham Thorpe is a small Village and Civil parish on the River Burn and near the coast of Norfolk in the United Kingdom. Norfolk (ˈnɔrfək is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Vice Admiral is a naval rank equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority In the Battle of Cape St Vincent ( 14 February, 1797) a British fleet under John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under The Battle of the Nile or Aboukir Bay (August 1-2 1798 saw a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson defeat a French The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was a British attack on the Spanish Port city of Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands. The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson 1st Duke of Bronté, KB (29 September 1758– 21 October 1805 was a British Vice Admiral is a naval rank equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1758 ( MDCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the  Nelson went against the conventional tactics of the time by cutting through the enemy's lines. Nelson was noted for his ability to inspire and bring out the best in his men, to the point that it gained a name: "The Nelson Touch". His actions during these wars and his heroic image as a one-armed, one-eyed patriot, ensured that before and after his death he was revered. Naval warfare is Combat in and on Seas Oceans or any other major bodies of water such as large Lakes and wide Rivers History
In 1798, even though he had been married since 1787, Nelson famously became embroiled in an affair with Emma, Lady Hamilton, the wife of William Hamilton, the British Ambassador to Naples which lasted until his death. Emma Lady Hamilton (born 1761 baptised 26 April 1765 &ndash 15 January 1815 is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George Sir William Hamilton, KB ( 13 December 1730 &ndash 6 April 1803) was a Scottish diplomat, Antiquarian Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Emma became Nelson's mistress, returning to the United Kingdom to live openly with him, and eventually they had a daughter, Horatia. Horatia Nelson, christened as Horatia Nelson Thompson ( January 29 1801, 23 Piccadilly, London - March 6 1881, Beaufort It was the public knowledge of this affair that induced the Royal Navy to send Nelson back out to sea after he had been recalled. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) By his death in 1805 Nelson had become a national hero, and he was given a State funeral. A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance His memory lives on in numerous monuments, the most notable of which is London's Nelson's Column, which stands in the centre of Trafalgar Square. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Nelson's Column is a Monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. Trafalgar Square is a square in central London, England. With its position in the heart of London it is a tourist attraction its trademark is Nelson's
Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and Catherine Nelson. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1758 ( MDCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Burnham Thorpe is a small Village and Civil parish on the River Burn and near the coast of Norfolk in the United Kingdom. Norfolk (ˈnɔrfək is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Catherine Suckling (9 May 1725 &ndash 26 December 1767 was the mother of Horatio Nelson.  His mother, who died when he was nine, was a grandniece of Sir Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Oxford, the de facto first prime minister of the British Parliament. Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation.  She lived in the village of Barsham, Suffolk and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk in 1749. Barsham ( is a village and Civil parish in the Waveney district of Suffolk, England, with a population of 218 (2001 census Beccles is a Market town in Suffolk, England, within an area known as The Broads. Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England.
Nelson was briefly educated at Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, where he made several lifelong friends, including Levett Hanson, who proved a lifelong correspondent. Paston College is a Sixth form college in North Walsham, Norfolk, England Paston College is one of only two sixth form colleges in Norfolk North Walsham is a Market town and Civil parish in the English County of Norfolk.  Nelson also attended Norwich School, and by the time he was twelve he had enrolled in the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service)  His naval career began on 1 January 1771 when he reported to the third-rate Raisonnable as an Ordinary Seaman and coxswain. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1771 ( MDCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In the British Royal Navy, a third-rate was a Ship of the line mounting 64 to 80 guns typically built with two Gun decks (thus the related term Service History At the request of Nelson's father Suckling entered the young Horatio Nelson as midshipman into the ship's books though Nelson did not embark until a couple of months In the Royal Navy in the middle of the 18th century the term Ordinary Seaman was used to refer to a Seaman with between one and two years' experience at sea The coxswain (ˈkɒksən is the person in charge of a Boat, particularly its navigation and steering Nelson’s maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, commanded the vessel. Captain Maurice Suckling (1726-1788 was a Royal Navy officer who was instrumental in the training of the future Admiral Horatio Nelson. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training. For the fish called midshipman see Midshipman fish. The rank of midshipman is one of the oldest ranks still in existence Nelson found that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life. Seasickness is a form of Motion sickness characterized by a feeling of Nausea and in extreme cases vertigo experienced after spending time on a craft 
Suckling became Comptroller of the Navy in 1775 and used his position to help Nelson's rapid advance. A comptroller or controller (kənˈtroʊlər ˈkɑmˌtroʊ- also financial controller, abrv  By 1777 Nelson had risen to the rank of lieutenant and was assigned to the West Indies. Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting During his service as lieutenant he saw action in the American War of Independence. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"  He was made post-captain in June 1779, at the age of 20. Post-Captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy. His first command at this rank was the 28-gun frigate HMS Hinchinbroke, newly captured from the French. For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship 
In 1780 he was involved in an action against the Spanish fortress of San Juan in Nicaragua. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America  Though the expedition was ultimately a major debacle, none of the blame was attributed to Nelson, who was praised for his efforts. He fell seriously ill, probably contracting malaria, and returned to Britain for more than a year to recover. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including 
In 1783, Nelson led a 100-man force in a successful attempt to dislodge a French force from the Turks Islands. The Turks and Caicos Islands ( TCI) (ˈtɜːks ænd ˈkeɪkəs are a British Overseas Territory consisting of two groups of tropical islands in the West Indies In 1784 he contemplated standing for Parliament at the General Election that year, but did not do so; he was instead given command of the frigate Boreas, and assigned to enforce the Navigation Act in the vicinity of Antigua. Antigua (ænˈtiːgə an-TEE-gah) is an Island in the West Indies, in the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region the main This was during the dénouement of the American War of Independence, and enforcement of the Act was problematic: Now-foreign American vessels were no longer allowed to trade with British colonies in the Caribbean Sea, an unpopular rule with both the colonies and the Americans. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere After seizing four American vessels off Nevis, Nelson was sued by the captains of the ships for illegal seizure. NEVIS, or New Exhaust Valve & Intake System, is a type of Internal combustion engine developed by Cesare Bortone in cooperation with the University As the merchants of Nevis supported them, Nelson was in peril of imprisonment and had to remain sequestered on Boreas for eight months. It took that long for the courts to deny the captains their claims, but in the interim Nelson met Frances "Fanny" Nisbet, a widow native to Nevis. Nelson and Fanny were married on 11 March 1787 at the end of his tour of duty in the Caribbean. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Nelson lacked a command for a few years after 1789. He lived on half pay during this time (a reasonably common occurrence in the peacetime Royal Navy). Then, in 1793, as the French Revolutionary government annexed the Austrian Netherlands (modern Belgium), which were traditionally preserved as a buffer state, Britain went to war. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Nelson was recalled to service and given command of the 64-gun Agamemnon in 1793.
He was first assigned to the Mediterranean, based out of the Kingdom of Naples. The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian In 1794 he was wounded in the face by stones and debris thrown up by a close cannon shot during a joint operation at Calvi, Corsica. Calvi is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily As a result, Nelson lost the sight in his right eye. Despite popular legend, there is no evidence that Nelson ever wore an eye patch, though he was known to wear an eyeshade to protect his remaining eye.
In 1796 the position of commander-in-chief of the fleet in the Mediterranean passed to Sir John Jervis, who appointed Nelson to be commodore and to exercise independent command over the ships blockading the French coast. Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent GCB PC RN ( 9 January 1735 &ndash 14 March 1823 Please see Commodore (rank for other versions of this rank Commodore is a rank of the Royal Navy above Captain and Agamemnon, often described as Nelson's favourite ship, was by now worn out and was sent back to the UK for repairs. Nelson was appointed to the 74-gun HMS Captain. In December 1796, on leaving Elba for Gibraltar, Nelson transferred his flag to the frigate Minerve (of French construction, commanded by Captain Cockburn). Elba (Ilva is an island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship A Spanish frigate, Santa Sabina, was captured during the passage and Lieutenant Hardy was put in charge of the captured vessel. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy 1st Baronet GCB ( 5 April 1769 &ndash 20 September 1839) was a British The following morning, two Spanish ships of the line and one frigate appeared. Nelson at first had no choice but to fight. But Hardy, in order to save his commodore, sacrificed his own ship by drawing the Spanish fire, leaving Nelson free to flee. Santa Sabina was recovered by the Spanish and Hardy was captured.  The Spanish captain who was on board Minerve was later exchanged for Hardy in Gibraltar. In 1797 Nelson and his wife moved to Ipswich, Suffolk. Ipswich ( ˈɪpswɪtʃ is a Non-metropolitan district and the County town of Suffolk, England on the Estuary of the River Orwell Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England.
Nelson then took Captain and joined Sir John Jervis's fleet off Cape St Vincent, and reported the presence of a Spanish fleet that had sailed from Cartagena. In the Battle of Cape St Vincent ( 14 February, 1797) a British fleet under John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent GCB PC RN ( 9 January 1735 &ndash 14 March 1823 Cape St Vincent (Cabo de São Vicente 'kabu dɨ sɐ̃ũ vi'sẽtɨ next to the Sagres Point, on the so-called Costa Vicentina (Vincentine Coast is  Jervis prepared to give battle and the two fleets met on 14 February. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Here Nelson found himself towards the rear of the British line, and realising that it would be a long time before he could get into action, he carried out his first famous act of disobeying orders.  Instead of continuing to follow the line, he wore ship, breaking from the line and heading to engage the Spanish van, consisting of the 112-gun San Josef, the 80-gun San Nicolas and the 130-gun Santísima Trinidad. A jibe or gybe is a sailing maneuver where a Sailing vessel turns its Stern through the wind such that the wind direction changes from one side of the Design & construction She was built at Havana, Cuba to a design by Irish Naval architect Matthew Mullan and launched in 1769 as an She engaged all three, assisted by HMS Culloden which had come to Nelson's aid. After an hour of exchanging broadsides had left both Captain and Culloden heavily damaged, Nelson found himself alongside the San Nicolas. He led a boarding party across, crying 'Westminster Abbey! or, glorious victory!' and forced her surrender.  The San Josef attempted to come to the San Nicolas’s aid but became entangled with her. Nelson then took his party from the decks of the San Nicolas onto the San Josef and captured her as well.  As night fell the Spanish broke off and sailed for Cadiz. Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight Four ships had surrendered to the British, two of the them were Nelson's captures.
Nelson was victorious, but had disobeyed orders. Jervis liked Nelson and so did not officially reprimand him.  However in his official report of the battle he did not mention Nelson. He did though write a private letter to George Spencer in which he said that Nelson 'contributed very much to the fortune of the day'. George John Spencer 2nd Earl Spencer KG PC FRS FSA ( 1 September 1758 &ndash 10 November 1834) was  Nelson also wrote several letters about his victory, reporting that his action was being referred to amongst the fleet as 'Nelson's Patent Bridge for boarding first rates'.  Nelson's account was later challenged by Rear-Admiral William Parker, who had been aboard HMS Prince George. Admiral Sir William Parker 1st Baronet ( January 1, 1743 at Harburn, Warwickshire, England- October 31, 1802) was a British Citations and notes He claimed that Nelson had been supported by several more ships than he had acknowledged in his attack on the Spanish van, and that by the time he had boarded the San Josef, she had already struck her colours.  Nelson's account of his role prevailed however. The victory was well received in Britain, Jervis was made Earl St Vincent and Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath. Viscount St Vincent, of Meaford in the County of Stafford is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George  On 20 April he was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Blue. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Please see “ Admiral ” for other nations which use this rank This was not a reward for his actions in the battle, but rather a standard promotion according to his seniority. 
Nelson was given command of HMS Theseus and on 27 May 1797 was ordered to lie off Cadiz, monitoring the Spanish fleet and awaiting the arrival of Spanish treasure ships from the American colonies. Citations and notes Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  He soon pressed an attack on the city, carrying out a bombardment and an amphibious assault on 3 July. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Personally leading the action, his barge collided with that of the Spanish commander, and a hand to hand struggle ensued between the two crews. Twice Nelson was nearly cut down, both times his life was saved by a seaman named John Sykes who took the blows and was badly wounded. The British then captured the Spanish boat and towed it back to the Theseus.  During this period he prepared a scheme to capture Santa Cruz de Tenerife, aiming to secure a large amount of money from the treasure ship El Principe de Asturias that was reported to have recently arrived. See also Santa Cruz de Tenerife (province. Historical population In 1990 the population slowly boomed above the 200000 mark falling
The battle plan called for a combination of naval bombardments and an amphibious landing. The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was a British attack on the Spanish Port city of Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands. The initial attempt was called off after adverse currents hampered the assault and the element of surprise was lost.  Nelson immediately ordered another assault but this was beaten back. He prepared for another attempt though, to take place during the night. He himself would lead one of the battalions. The operation ended in failure. The Spanish were better prepared than had been expected and had secured strong defensive positions.  Several of the boats failed to land in the correct places in the confusion whilst those that did were swept by gunfire and grapeshot. Nelson's boat reached its intended landing point but as he stepped ashore he was hit in the right arm by a musketball, fracturing his humerus bone in multiple places. The humerus is a Long bone in the Arm or Forelimb that runs from the Shoulder to the Elbow.  He was rowed back to the Theseus to be attended to by the surgeon. On arriving on his ship he refused to be helped aboard, declaring 'Leave me alone! I have got my legs left and one arm. ' He was taken to the surgeon, instructing him to prepare his instruments and 'the sooner it was off the better'.  Most of the right arm was amputated and within half an hour he had returned to issuing orders to his captains. 
Meanwhile a force under Sir Thomas Troubridge had fought their way to main square but could go no further. Sir Thomas Troubridge 1st Baronet (c 1758&ndash 1 February 1807) was a British naval commander and politician Unable to return to the fleet because their boats had been sunk, Troubridge had been forced to enter negotiations with the Spanish commander and the British were subsequently allowed to withdraw.  The expedition had failed to achieve any of its objectives and had left a quarter of the landing force dead or wounded.  The fleet remained off Tenerife for a further three days, Nelson fully aware of the extent of his failure and the adverse affect his amputed arm could have on his career. By 16 August his squadron had rejoined Jervis's fleet off Cadiz. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Despondantly he wrote to Jervis 'A left-handed Admiral will never again be considered as useful, therefore the sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better, and make room for a better man to serve the state. . . ' He returned to England aboard HMS Seahorse, arriving at Spithead on 1 September. Spithead is an area of the Solent and a roadstead off Gilkicker Point in Hampshire, England. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. He was met with a hero's welcome though, the British public had lionised Nelson after Cape St. Vincent and his wound earned him sympathy.  They refused to attribute the defeat at Tenerife to him, preferring instead to blame poor planning on the part of St. Vincent, the Secretary at War or even William Pitt. The Secretary at War was a political position in the British government with some responsibility over the administration and organization of the British army, but William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 &ndash 23 January 1806 was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 
Nelson returned to Bath with Fanny, before moving to London in October to seek medical expertise concerning his amputated arm. Whilst in London news reached him that Admiral Duncan had defeated the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown. The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. The Battle of Camperdown ( 11 October 1797) was a British naval victory in the North Sea over the Dutch during the French  Nelson exclaimed that he would have given his other arm to have been present.  He spent the last months of 1797 recuperating in London, during which he was awarded the freedom of the city and an annual pension of £1,000 a year. He used the money to buy Round Wood Farm near Ipswich, and intended to retire there with Fanny. 
Despite these plans, Nelson was never to live there.  Surgeons had been unable to remove the central ligature in his amputated arm. The ligature had caused considerable inflammation and poisoning, but had come out of its own accord early in December. Nelson rapidly began to recover, and eager to return to sea, began agitating the Admiralty for a command. He was promised the 80-gun HMS Foudroyant but she was not yet ready for sea. Service History Foudroyant had a long and successful career and although she was not involved in any major fleet action she did provide invaluable service to numerous He was instead appointed to the 74-gun HMS Vanguard, and Nelson appointed Edward Berry as his flag captain. Rear Admiral Sir Edward Berry 1st Baronet, KCB (1768 &ndash 13 February 1831) was an officer in Britain's Royal Navy primarily known for his role as In the Royal Navy, a flag captain was the captain of an admiral 's Flagship.  French activities in the Mediterranean theatre were concerning the Admiralty. Napoleon was gathering forces for his invasion of Egypt, but his objectives were unknown to the Admiralty. The French Invasion of Egypt (1798-1801 was Napoleon Bonaparte 's unsuccessful campaign in Egypt and Syria to protect French trade Nelson and the Vanguard were to be dispatched to Cadiz to reinforce the fleet. Nelson hoisted his flag on 28 March 1798 and sailed to join the fleet assembled at Cadiz under Earl St. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Vincent. St. Vincent sent him on to Gibraltar with a small force to reconnoitre French activities. 
Whilst Nelson was sailing to Gibraltar through a fierce storm, Napoleon had sailed with his invasion fleet, a force under the command of Vice-admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers. Vice Admiral is a naval rank equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers, Comte de Brueys, ( February 12, 1753 &ndash August 1, 1798) was the French commander When news of this reached St. Vincent, Nelson was reinforced with a number of 74s and ordered to intercept the French.  Nelson immediately began searching the Italian coast for Napoleon's fleet, but was hampered by a lack of frigates. Napoleon had arrived at Malta and after a show of force, secured the island's surrender. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands  Nelson made for Malta but had again missed the French, who had already left for Egypt. After a conference with his captains, he decided that Egypt was Napoleon's most likely destination and headed for Alexandria. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια On his arrival on 28 June though he found no sign of the French. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Dismayed, he withdrew and began searching to the east of the port. Whilst he was absent, Napoleon's fleet arrived on 1 July and landed their forces unopposed. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. 
Brueys then withdrew his fleet to Abu Qir Bay, ready to support Napoleon if required. The Abū Qīr Bay (sometimes Transliterated Abukir Bay or Aboukir Bay) ( Arabic: خليج أبو قير transliterated: Khalīj Abū  Nelson had crossed the Mediterranean in a fruitless attempt to locate the French and had returned to Naples to re-provision.  He sailed again, intending to search the seas off Cyprus, but decided to pass close to Alexandria again for a final check. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía In doing so his force captured a French merchant, which provided the first news of the French, that they had passed south-east of Crete a month before, heading to Alexandria.  Nelson hurried to Alexandria, but again found it empty of the French. Searching along the coast, he finally discovered the French fleet in Abu Qir Bay on 1 August 1798. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
Nelson immediately prepared for battle, repeating a sentiment he had earlier expressed at the battle of Cape St. The Battle of the Nile or Aboukir Bay (August 1-2 1798 saw a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson defeat a French Vincent, declaring that "Before this time tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey. " The French had anchored in a strong position, their combined fire power greater than Nelson's fleet. It was late by the time the British arrived and the French did not expect them to attack.  Nelson instead ordered his ships into the attack. The French had anchored close to a line of shoals, believing that this would secure their port side from attack. Port is the nautical term (used on Boats and Ships) that refers to the left side of a ship as perceived by a person on board the ship and Brueys had assumed the British would follow convention and attack the centre from the starboard side. Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board a vessel and facing the bow (front Instead, Captain Thomas Foley aboard HMS Goliath discovered there was room between the shoals and the French ships for a British ship to pass, and took his ship down the gap. Sir Thomas Foley, GCB ( 1757 - January 9 1833) was a British Admiral and "Hero of the Battle of the Nile " The unprepared French found themselves attacked on both sides, as the British fleet split, some following Foley, others passing down the starboard side. 
The rest of the fleet were soon in action, passing down the line and engaging the French one by one. Nelson aboard the Vanguard engaged the Spartiate, coming under fire fromthe Aquilon as he did so. He was with Berry on the quarter-deck at about eight o'clock when he was struck on the forehead by a piece of French shot. He fell to the deck, a flap of skin covering his good eye. Blinded and half stunned, he felt sure he would die. He cried out "I am killed. Remember me to my wife. " He was taken below to be seen by the surgeon.  After an examination the wound was pronounced non-threatening and was temporarily patched up. Meanwhile the French van, pounded by British fire from both sides had begun to surrender. The British ships continued to move down the line, bringing Brueys's 118-gun flagship Orient under constant fire. The Orient caught fire and later exploded. The remaining French ships attempted to escape and the battle was won. Nelson, who had come up on deck to continue directing the battle and had witnessed the end of the Orient was taken below again. 
The Battle of the Nile was a major blow to Napoleon's ambition's in the east. The fleet had been destroyed; Orient had been burnt, three 74s had been captured and burnt, four 74s and two 80s had been captured and only two ships of the line and two frigates had managed to escape. The forces Napoleon had brought to Egypt were stranded.  Napoleon attempted to march north along the Mediterranean coast but his army was defeated at the Siege of Acre by Captain Sir Sidney Smith. The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French Siege of the Ottoman -defended walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel Sir William Sidney Smith KCB ( 21 June 1764 &ndash 26 May 1840) usually known as Sir Sidney Smith, was the British Napoleon then left his army and sailed back to France, evading detection by British ships. Given its huge strategic importance, some historians regard Nelson's achievement at the Nile as the most significant of his career, Trafalgar notwithstanding. 
For the spectacular victory of the Nile, Nelson was granted the title of Baron Nelson of the Nile. George Romney ( December 26, 1734 – November 15, 1802) Public collections of works Abbot Hall Art Gallery (Kendal (Nelson felt cheated that he was not awarded a more prestigious title; Sir John Jervis had been made Earl of St. Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent GCB PC RN ( 9 January 1735 &ndash 14 March 1823 Vincent for his part in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, but the British Government insisted that an officer who was not the commander-in-chief could not be raised to any peerage higher than a barony). Nelson felt throughout his life that his accomplishments were not fully rewarded by the British government, a fact he ascribed to his humble birth and lack of political connections as compared during his lifetime to the Earl of St Vincent or after his death to the Duke of Wellington. Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent GCB PC RN ( 9 January 1735 &ndash 14 March 1823 Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS ( c Not content to rest on his laurels, Nelson then rescued the Neapolitan royal family from a French invasion in December 1797. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory During his time in Naples he fell in love with Emma Hamilton, who became his mistress. Emma Lady Hamilton (born 1761 baptised 26 April 1765 &ndash 15 January 1815 is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George
In 1799 Nelson was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Red, the seventh highest rank in the Royal Navy. Please see “ Admiral ” for other nations which use this rank He was then assigned to the new third-rate Foudroyant. In the British Royal Navy, a third-rate was a Ship of the line mounting 64 to 80 guns typically built with two Gun decks (thus the related term Service History Foudroyant had a long and successful career and although she was not involved in any major fleet action she did provide invaluable service to numerous In July he aided Admiral Ushakov with the reconquest of Naples after the Parthenopaean Republic, and was made Duke of Bronte by the Neapolitan king. See also Admiral Ushakov (warship Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (Фёдор Фёдорович Ушако́в (February 24 1744&ndash Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the The Parthenopaean Republic (Italian Repubblica Partenopea) was a French -supported Republic in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, formed Bronte is a town and commune of Sicily (in the Province of Catania, Italy) near Mount Etna. Some have suggested that a head wound Nelson received at Aboukir Bay was partially responsible for his personal conduct and for the way he managed the Neapolitan campaign. He was accused of allowing the monarchists to kill prisoners contrary to the laws of war. Perhaps Nelson's zeal was due simultaneously to his English hatred of Jacobins and his status as a Neapolitan royalist (as the Duke of Bronte). This page describes the political term "Jacobin" For discussion of the political organization of the French Revolution era see Jacobin Club. Bronte is a town and commune of Sicily (in the Province of Catania, Italy) near Mount Etna. The Neapolitan campaign is now considered something of a disgrace to his name.
Personal problems and some upper-level disappointment at his professional conduct caused him to be recalled to Britain. He, Emma and William meandered back to Britain via Central Europe (hearing the Missa in Angustiis by Haydn that now bears Nelson's name in Vienna in 1800), and eventually arrived in Britain later in 1800 to a hero's welcome. The Missa in Angustiis ("Mass for troubled times" or "Nelson Mass" ( Hob Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. (Also in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich, though he failed to become the town's MP. ) The three then lived together openly, and Emma had Nelson's child, Horatia, in 1801. However, public knowledge of Nelson's affair with Lady Hamilton eventually induced the Admiralty to send him back to sea, if only to get him away from her.
On 1 January 1801 Nelson was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue (the sixth highest rank). New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Please see “ Admiral ” for other nations which use this rank Within a few months he took part in the Battle of Copenhagen (2 April 1801) which was fought in order to break up the armed neutrality of Denmark, Sweden, and Russia. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending During the action, his commander, Sir Hyde Parker, signalled to Nelson to break off the action. For others of the same name see Hyde Parker Admiral Sir Hyde Parker (1739-1807 second son of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker 5th Baronet This was to allow Nelson to retreat if he needed to – he could not legally do so without Parker's command – whilst Parker knew that Nelson would disregard the signal if he could continue the battle.  Nelson ordered that the signal be acknowledged, but not repeated. Legend has it that Nelson turned to his flag Captain, Sir Thomas Foley, and said "You know, Foley, I only have one eye – I have the right to be blind sometimes," and then holding his telescope to his blind eye, said "I really do not see the signal!". Sir Thomas Foley, GCB ( 1757 - January 9 1833) was a British Admiral and "Hero of the Battle of the Nile "  His action was approved in retrospect, following a successful outcome to the battle, and in May he became commander-in-chief in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. As a reward, he was created Viscount Nelson, of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe in the County of Norfolk, on 22 May 1801. In addition, on 18 August 1801, he was created Baron Nelson, of the Nile and of Hilborough in the County of Norfolk, this time with a special remainder to his father and sisters. 
Meanwhile, Napoleon was massing forces to invade Great Britain. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Napoleon 's planned Invasion of England at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out was a major influence Nelson was placed in charge of defending the English Channel in order to thwart any such invasion. However, on 22 October 1801 an armistice was signed between the British and the French, and Nelson – in poor health again – retired to Britain where he stayed with his friends, Sir William and Lady Hamilton. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Sir William Hamilton, KB ( 13 December 1730 &ndash 6 April 1803) was a Scottish diplomat, Antiquarian The three embarked on a tour of England and Wales, culminating in a stay in Birmingham. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um They visited Matthew Boulton on his sick bed at Soho House and toured his Soho Manufactory. Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer. Soho House, Matthew Boulton 's home (from 1766 until he died in 1809 in Handsworth, Birmingham, England, is now a Museum (opened The Soho Manufactory ( not to be confused with the Soho Foundry, was an early Factory which pioneered Mass production on the Assembly line In 1802 Nelson bought Merton Place, a country estate in Merton, Surrey (now south-west London) where he lived briefly with Emma Hamilton. The historic Parish of Merton contributed its name to the London Borough of Merton, although Merton itself is no longer a clearly defined area within the borough The historic Parish of Merton contributed its name to the London Borough of Merton, although Merton itself is no longer a clearly defined area within the borough Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties.
During this period Nelson, who had never succeeded in his aspirations to enter the House of Commons, spoke in support of the Addington government in the House of Lords, although he never held government office. At that time it was not uncommon for military figures to be involved in politics and even hold office (e. g. Wellington, who was briefly Chief Secretary for Ireland).
The Peace of Amiens was not to last long and Nelson soon returned to duty. The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended the hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was appointed commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. Assigned to HMS Victory in May 1803, Nelson joined the blockade of Toulon, France. Construction In December 1758 the commissioner of Chatham Dockyard was instructed to prepare a Dry dock for the construction of a new First-rate Toulon ( Provençal Occitan: Tolon in classical norm or Touloun in Mistralian norm is a city in southern France and a large He would not set foot on dry land again for more than two years.
Nelson was promoted to Vice Admiral of the White (the fifth highest rank) while still at sea, on 23 April 1804. Please see “ Admiral ” for other nations which use this rank Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The French fleet slipped out of Toulon in early 1805 and headed for the West Indies. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting (See Battle of Cape Finisterre (1805) for a summary of this campaign. In the Battle of Cape Finisterre ( 22 July 1805) off Galicia (Spain, the British fleet under Admiral Calder prevented the ) A fierce chase failed to turn them up and Nelson's health forced him to retire to Merton in the UK. The historic Parish of Merton contributed its name to the London Borough of Merton, although Merton itself is no longer a clearly defined area within the borough Within two months Nelson returned to sea. On 13 September 1805 he was called upon to oppose the French and Spanish fleets which had managed to join up and take refuge in the harbour of Cádiz, Spain. Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
On 21 October 1805 Nelson engaged in his final battle, the Battle of Trafalgar. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the Napoleon Bonaparte had been massing forces once again for an invasion of the British Isles, but he decided that his navy was not adequate to secure the Channel for the invasion barges. This is a list of Invasions ordered by date An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by Thus, Napoleon had started moving his troops for a campaign elsewhere in Europe. On 19 October the French and Spanish fleet set sail from Cádiz, probably because Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, the French commander, had learned that he was to be replaced. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve ( 31 December 1763 &ndash 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Nelson, with twenty-seven ships, engaged the thirty-three opposing ships.
Nelson's last dispatch, written on the 21 October, read:
|“||"At daylight saw the Enemy's Combined Fleet from East to E. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. S. E. ; bore away; made the signal for Order of Sailing, and to Prepare for Battle; the Enemy with their heads to the Southward: at seven the Enemy wearing in succession. May the Great God, whom I worship, grant to my Country, and for the benefit of Europe in general, a great and glorious Victory; and may no misconduct in any one tarnish it; and may humanity after Victory be the predominant feature in the British Fleet. For myself, individually, I commit my life to Him who made me, and may his blessing light upon my endeavours for serving my Country faithfully. To Him I resign myself and the just cause which is entrusted to me to defend. Amen. Amen. Amen. "||”|
As the two fleets moved towards engagement, Nelson ran up a thirty-one flag signal to the rest of the fleet, spelling out the famous phrase "England expects that every man will do his duty". "England expects that every man will do his duty" was a signal sent by Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson from his Flagship The original signal that Nelson wished to make to the fleet was Nelson confides that every man will do his duty (meaning 'is confident that he will'). The signal officer asked Nelson if he could substitute the word 'expects' for 'confides' as 'expects' was included in the code devised by Sir Home Popham, whereas 'confides' would have to be spelled out letter by letter. Sir Home Riggs Popham KCB ( 12 October 1762 &ndash 2 September 1820) was a British Admiral who saw service Another officer suggested that "England" would be more powerful than "Nelson. " Nelson agreed, and the signal was run up Victory's mizzenmast. The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical or near vertical Spar, or arrangement of Spars which supports the Sails Large ships have several masts
After crippling the French flagship Bucentaure, Victory moved on to the Redoutable. For the Venetian vessel see Bucentaur. The two ships became entangled, at which point snipers in the fighting tops of Redoutable were able to pour fire down onto the deck of Victory. Nelson was hit from a range of about fifty feet: a bullet entered his left shoulder, pierced his lung, and came to rest at the base of his spine. Nelson retained consciousness for four hours, but died soon after the battle ended with a British victory. (See Last words. ) The bullet that killed Nelson was removed from his body and is now on public display in Windsor Castle.
Victory was towed after the battle to Gibraltar, with Nelson's body preserved in a barrel of brandy. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Legend has it that it was French brandy that had been captured during the battle. There was a rumour that on the voyage home to England, sailors drank the contents of the barrel, using tubes of macaroni as straws and then topped it up with wine, as they were toasting to their Admiral. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This wasn't the case. The barrel was kept under armed guard and according to eyewitnesses, when it was opened in Portsmouth it seemed well topped up. However the legend was the origin of the Navy phrase "Tapping the Admiral" for the secret consumption of rum.  Upon the arrival of his body in London, Nelson was given a state funeral (one of only eight non-royal Britons to receive the honour – others include the Duke of Wellington) and entombment in St. Paul's Cathedral. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS ( c St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. He was laid to rest in a wooden coffin made from the mast of L'Orient which had been salvaged after the Battle of the Nile, within a sarcophagus originally carved for Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (when Wolsey fell from favour, it was confiscated by Henry VIII and was still in the royal collections in 1805). The Battle of the Nile or Aboukir Bay (August 1-2 1798 saw a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson defeat a French A sarcophagus is a Funeral receptacle for a Corpse, most commonly carved or cut from stone Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of
Nelson's final words (as related by Victory's Surgeon William Beatty, based on the accounts of those who were with Nelson when he died) were "Thank God I have done my duty. Sir William Beatty (1773 - 1842 was an Irish surgeon who served in the Royal Navy. " According to Beatty, he repeated these words several times until he became unable to speak.
In his dying hours, Nelson was also attended by his chaplain, Alexander Scott; his steward, Chevalier; and the purser, Walter Burke. A ship's purser (also purser or pusser) is the person on a Ship responsible for the handling of Money on board Their accounts have been available to Nelson's modern biographers. In those accounts, Nelson's last words were "Drink, drink. Fan, fan. Rub, rub. " This was a request to alleviate his symptoms of thirst, heat, and the pains of his wounds.  Nelson's steward stood by to fan him and feed him lemonade and watered wine, whilst Dr Scott massaged his chest to ease the pain. 
It is a common misconception that Nelson's last words were, "Kiss me, Hardy", spoken to the captain of HMS Victory, Thomas Hardy. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy 1st Baronet GCB ( 5 April 1769 &ndash 20 September 1839) was a British Nelson did, in fact, say these words to Hardy a short time before his death. Eyewitnesses testified that Hardy kissed the admiral twice: once on the cheek and once on the forehead, as Nelson struggled to remain conscious.  Prior to this Nelson asked his flag-captain not to throw him overboard and to look after 'poor Lady Hamilton'. He then said "kiss me Hardy". After Hardy's first kiss Nelson said, "now I am satisfied". After the second, "who is that?". When he saw it was Hardy he said, "God bless you Hardy. " However they were not his last words as Hardy was not present at his death, having been called back on deck.  Some have speculated that Nelson actually said "Kismet, Hardy", but this is unlikely, since the word kismet did not enter the English language until much later, although he may have heard the word used by a Turk. Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events It may be conceived as a predetermined future whether in general or of an individual In Nelson's time, the word "kiss" also meant "touch" in the sense of any physical contact, as when two ships come very lightly into contact and are said to kiss each other. Nelson may therefore simply have wanted Hardy to shake his hand or make some other physical gesture. Shortly after "God bless you Hardy", Nelson said, "Thank God I have done my duty", and then finally, "Drink, drink. Fan, fan. Rub, rub. " He lost consciousness, the surgeon was called, and Nelson was declared dead at 16:30. 
Nelson was noted for his considerable ability to inspire and bring out the best in his men, to the point that it gained a name: "The Nelson Touch". Famous even while alive, after his death he was lionised like almost no other military figure in British history (his only peers are the Duke of Marlborough and Nelson's contemporary, the Duke of Wellington). Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS ( c Most military historians believe Nelson's ability to inspire officers of the highest rank and seamen of the lowest was central to his many victories, as was his ability to both strategically plan his campaigns and tactically shift his forces in the midst of battle. Certainly, he ranks as one of the greatest naval commanders in military history. Many consider him to have been one of the greatest warriors of the seas.
It must also be said that his "Nelson touch" also worked with non-seamen; he was beloved in Britain by virtually everyone. (The only people not affected by him were those offended by his affair with Lady Hamilton. ) Now as then, he is a popular hero, included in the top 10 of the 100 Greatest Britons poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public, and commemorated in the extensive Trafalgar 200 celebrations in 2005, including the International Fleet Review. Trafalgar 200 was a series of events in 2005 held mostly in the United Kingdom to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, where a For a full list of ships present see List of ships present at International Fleet Review 2005 The International Fleet Review Even today phrases such as "England expects" and "nelson" (meaning "111") remain closely associated with English sporting teams. "England expects that every man will do his duty" was a signal sent by Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson from his Flagship
A number of monuments and memorials were constructed across the country to honour his memory and achievements. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson KB ( 29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British The period of British dominance of the seas that his victories were considered to have ushered in led to a continued drive to create monuments in his name across the British Empire. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. These have taken many forms, the most famous being Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square. Nelson's Column is a Monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. Trafalgar Square is a square in central London, England. With its position in the heart of London it is a tourist attraction its trademark is Nelson's
Nelson's memory lives on in the Royal Navy in many ways. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Royal Navy celebrates Nelson every 21 October by holding Trafalgar Day dinners and toasting "The Immortal Memory" of Nelson. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. His flagship Victory is still kept on active commission in honour of Nelson — it is the flagship of the Second Sea Lord, and is the oldest commissioned Naval ship in the world. The Second Sea Lord and Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command ( 2SL/CNH) commonly just known as the Second Sea Lord ( 2SL) is one of the most senior She can be found in Number 2 Dry Dock of the Royal Naval Museum at the Portsmouth Naval Base, in Portsmouth, United Kingdom. The Royal Naval Museum is the Museum of the history of the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard section of HMNB Portsmouth Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Portsmouth ( HMS ''Nelson'') is one of three operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and History See also History of Portsmouth There have been settlements in the area since before Roman times mostly being offshoots of Portchester, which The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The bullet that killed Nelson is permanently on display in the Grand Vestibule of Windsor Castle. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of The uniform that he wore during the battle, with the fatal bullet hole still visible, can be seen at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. The National Maritime Museum (NMM in Greenwich, England is the leading Maritime museum of the United Kingdom and may be the largest museum A lock of Nelson's hair was given to the Imperial Japanese Navy from the Royal Navy after the Russo-Japanese War to commemorate the victory at the Battle of Tsushima. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September The Battle of Tsushima ( Japanese: 対馬海戦 tsushima-kaisen, Цусимское сражение Tsusimskoye srazheniye) commonly known as the It is still on display at Kyouiku Sankoukan, a public museum maintained by the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The, or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of the post- World War II American occupation of Japan
Nelson had no legitimate children; his daughter, Horatia, by Lady Hamilton (who died in poverty when their daughter was 13), subsequently married the Rev. Horatia Nelson, christened as Horatia Nelson Thompson ( January 29 1801, 23 Piccadilly, London - March 6 1881, Beaufort Emma Lady Hamilton (born 1761 baptised 26 April 1765 &ndash 15 January 1815 is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George Philip Ward who became clergyman at St Mildred's Church, Tenterden, Kent, and died in 1881. Tenterden is a small Town in the Ashford District of Kent, England. She and Ward had ten children: Horatio Nelson (born 8 December 1822); Eleanor Philippa (born April 1824); Marmaduke Philip Smyth (born 27 May 1825); John James Stephen (13 February 1827–1829); Nelson (born 8 May 1828); William George (born 8 April 1830); Edmund (10 July 1832); Horatio (born 24 November 1833), Philip (born May 1834) and Caroline (born January 1836). Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1822 (MDCCCXXII was a Common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Sunday of the Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
Because Lord Nelson died without legitimate issue, his viscountcy and his barony created in 1798, both "of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe in the County of Norfolk", became extinct upon his death. However, the barony created in 1801, "of the Nile and of Hilborough in the County of Norfolk", passed by a special remainder (which included Lord Nelson's father and sisters and their male issue) to Lord Nelson's brother, The Reverend William Nelson. William Nelson 1st Earl Nelson 2nd Duke of Bronté ( 20 April 1757 &ndash 28 February 1835) was the elder brother of Horatio Nelson 1st William Nelson was also created Earl Nelson and Viscount Merton of Trafalgar and Merton in the County of Surrey in recognition of his brother's services, which title is still extant. Earl Nelson, of Trafalgar and of Merton in the County of Surrey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Earl Nelson, of Trafalgar and of Merton in the County of Surrey is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. William Nelson also inherited the Dukedom of Bronté. Viscount Bridport is a title that has been created twice once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Nelson's titles, as inscribed on his coffin, were The Most Noble Lord Horatio Nelson, Viscount and Baron Nelson, of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe in the County of Norfolk, Baron Nelson of the Nile and of Hillborough in the said County, Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Vice Admiral of the White Squadron of the Fleet, Commander in Chief of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, Duke of Bronte in Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Knight Grand Cross of the Sicilian Order of St Ferdinand and of Merit, Member of the Ottoman Order of the Crescent, Knight Grand Commander of the Order of St. Joachim. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George Bronte is a town and commune of Sicily (in the Province of Catania, Italy) near Mount Etna. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish For the medieval Order of the Crescent see Ordre du Croissant. Although the Order of Saint Joachim is considered a " self-styled " Order of Knighthood its most famous member was Admiral Horatio Nelson.
He was a Colonel of the Royal Marines. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy He was voted a Freeman of Bath, Salisbury, Exeter, Plymouth, Monmouth, Sandwich, Oxford, Hereford, and Worcester. Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by some municipalities in Australia, Canada, Ireland, France, Italy, New Zealand Bath is a city in Somerset in the south west of England It is situated west of London and south-east of Bristol. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London. This is about the Welsh town of Monmouth For other uses see Monmouth (disambiguation. A sandwich is a food item made of two or more slices of Bread with one or more layers of a filling Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, Hereford ( ˈhɛrɨfəd is a city, Civil parish and County town of Herefordshire, England. Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England.
The University of Oxford, in full Congregation, bestowed the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law upon Nelson in 1802. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Some universities such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL
Nelson was created Duke of Bronte by the King of Naples in July 1799, and after briefly experimenting with the signature "Bronte Nelson of the Nile" signed himself "Nelson & Bronte" for the rest of his life. Viscount Bridport is a title that has been created twice once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian
Arms were originally granted and confirmed on 20 October 1797. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The original Nelson family arms were adapted by him to accommodate his naval victories. After the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1797 Nelson was crowned a Knight of the Bath and granted supporters of a sailor and lion with a rolled up union flag and red ensign in his mouthness.
Later modifications have, in the top of the shield, a palm tree in the centre separating a disabled ship on the left and a ruined fort on the right, indicating the Battle of the Nile in 1798.  
Nelson’s motto, Palmam qui meruit ferat, (‘let he who has earned it bear the palm’) is inscribed in a scroll along the bottom. 
Nelson appears, unnamed but recognisable, in Susan Sontag's novel The Volcano Lover: A Romance, which centres on Lady Hamilton's affair with him. Susan Sontag ( January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American Literary theorist, Philosopher, The Volcano Lover is a 1992 novel by Susan Sontag, set largely in Naples. Emma Lady Hamilton (born 1761 baptised 26 April 1765 &ndash 15 January 1815 is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George Nelson himself appears as a ghost in Amber Benson's and Christopher Golden's Ghosts of Albion. Amber Nicole Benson, born on January 8 1977 is an American Actress, Writer, Film director, and Film producer. Christopher Golden is an American author of horror, Fantasy, and suspense novels for adults teens and young readers Ghosts of Albion started as a Computer-animated web movie series on the BBC 's Website and has now spawned two book adaptations and two novels He appears several times in Dudley Pope's Ramage series, sending the young Ramage on a secret mission into France. Pope describes Nelson's voice as high pitched and nasally. He plays a supporting role in Sharpe's Trafalgar by Bernard Cornwell and is the object of the ardent admiration of Captain Jack Aubrey in Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey–Maturin series (brought to the screen in Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. Sharpe's Trafalgar is the 2000 Historical novel by Bernard Cornwell. Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English Historical novelist He is best known for his Rear Admiral Sir John Aubrey, KB, MP, JP, FRS, is a Fictional character in the Aubrey&ndashMaturin series Patrick O'Brian, CBE ( 12 December 1914 &ndash 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English The Aubrey–Maturin series is a sequence of Historical novels — 20 completed and one unfinished — by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic Master and Commander The Far Side of the World is a 2003 Film directed by Peter Weir and starring Russell Crowe as Jack Aubrey, with In the classic literary work Ulysses by James Joyce, he is referred to by the character Stephen Dedalus as the 'one-handled adulterer', when speaking of his namesake monument, Nelson's Pillar. Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Stephen Dedalus is James Joyce 's literary Alter ego, as well as the Protagonist of his first semi-autobiographical novel of artistic existence The Nelson Pillar (Colún Nelson known generally in Dublin as Nelson's Pillar or simply The Pillar, was a large granite pillar topped by a statue of Horatio In James A Michener's tome Caribbean, Nelson is the central character of the chapter entitled "A Wedding on Nevis". James Albert Michener ( February 3, 1907 – October 16, 1997) was an American author of more than 40 titles the majority of which The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Barry Unsworth's novel Losing Nelson depicts an obsessive man in the present day who reveres Nelson as an angel-like figure. Barry Unsworth (born 8 August 1930) is a British novelist who is known for Novels with historical themes In Naomi Novik's alternate history/fantasy Temeraire series, Nelson survives the Battle of Trafalgar, though burned by fire, is created a Duke, and serves in the Admiralty. Naomi Novik ( April 30, 1973 — is an American novelist She was born in New York in 1973 a second-generation American The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy.
Nelson was portrayed on film by Laurence Olivier in That Hamilton Woman (1941), about Nelson's affair with Emma, Lady Hamilton, played by Olivier's then-wife Vivien Leigh - reputedly Winston Churchill's favourite film - and also in the film The Young Mr. Pitt. Laurence Kerr Olivier Baron That Hamilton Woman ( 1941) -- the original British title was simply Lady Hamilton -- is a historical film drama produced and directed by Emma Lady Hamilton (born 1761 baptised 26 April 1765 &ndash 15 January 1815 is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George Vivien Leigh Lady Olivier (5 November 1913 &ndash 8 July 1967 was an English actress. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 The Young Mr Pitt is a 1942 Biopic of William Pitt the Younger. Peter Finch portrayed him, with Glenda Jackson playing Emma Hamilton, in a 1973 film adaptation of Terence Rattigan's 1970 stage play A Bequest to the Nation. This article is about the actor For the poet see Peter Finch (poet. Glenda May Jackson, CBE, (born 9 May, 1936) is a British actress and Politician, currently Labour Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan ( June 10 1911 – November 30 1977) was one of England 's most popular 20th century Dramatists A Bequest to the Nation is a 1970 play by Terence Rattigan, based on his 1966 television play Nelson (full title - Nelson - A Portrait in Miniature Nelson also appears as a minor character in Abel Gance's Austerlitz (1960). Abel Gance (25 October 1889 - 10 November 1981 was a French Film director, producer, Writer, Actor and editor best In the 1961 television series, Triton, Nelson was played by Robert James, and in a 1968 version of the same series, he was played by Terry Scully. Robert James (born Paisley, Scotland 28 March 1924 - died 31 July 2004) was a Scottish actor who was best Terry Scully (1936 &ndash 17 April 2001) was a British actor probably best known for his role as Vic Thatcher in the 1970s Television
|Peerage of Great Britain|
(of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe)
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
(of the Nile and of Hillborough)
|Titles of nobility|
|Duke of Bronté|
(in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)
|NAME||Nelson, Horatio, 1st Viscount Nelson|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Nelson, Horatio (without title)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British admiral|
|DATE OF BIRTH||29 September 1758|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, United Kingdom|
|DATE OF DEATH||21 October 1805|
|PLACE OF DEATH||at sea, west of Cape Trafalgar in south-west Spain|