Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior or attraction between people of the same sex, or to a sexual orientation. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Sexology is the study of sexual interests behavior and function Asexuality is a Sexual orientation that describes individuals who do not experience Sexual attraction. Autosexuality refers to Sexual orientation and sexual behavior of attraction or romance that one holds exclusively and expresses towards oneself Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation Pansexuality or anthrosexuality ( anthro- literally meaning human human sexual (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality) is a Sexual orientation Pomosexual, or undefined sexual orientation, is a Neologism used to describe a person who shuns Sexual orientation labels (such as heterosexual and homosexual Zoophilia Zoosexuality is a term used to describe a Sexual orientation towards non-human animals In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their Gender, Sexual identity or Sexual orientation. The Kinsey scale attempts to describe a person's sexual history or episodes of their sexual activity at a given time The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid attempts to further measure Sexual orientation by expanding upon the earlier Kinsey scale which categorizes sexual history from 0 Biology and sexual orientation is research into possible biological influences on the development of human Sexual orientation. Measurement difficulties Measuring the prevalence of various Sexual orientations is difficult because there is a lack of Reliable data. Intersexuality is the state of a living thing of a gonochoristic species whose Sex chromosomes, Genitalia, and/or Secondary sex characteristics Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals is the attraction between people which leads to Friendships and romantic Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes As a sexual orientation, homosexuality refers to "an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affectional, or romantic attractions primarily to" people of the same sex; "it also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them. "
While "sexual orientation ranges along a continuum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual," homosexuality is often contrasted with heterosexuality (primary or exclusive opposite-sex attraction) and bisexuality (a significant degree of attraction to both sexes). 
Homosexuality is also distinguished from other aspects of sexuality, "including biological sex (the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being male or female), gender identity (the psychological sense of being male or female), and social gender role (adherence to cultural norms defining feminine and masculine behavior). An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces males produce male gametes (spermatozoa or Sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova or Egg cells; individual Gender identity (or core gender identity) is a person's own sense of Identification as Male or Female. A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated particularly with Males or Females in a given social group or system "
Etymologically, the word homosexual is a Greek and Latin hybrid with homos (often confused with the later Latin meaning of "man", as in Homo sapiens) deriving from the Greek word for same, thus connoting sexual acts and affections between members of the same sex, including lesbianism. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women  In a narrow sense, gay refers to male homosexuality, but it often is used in its broadest sense, especially in media headlines and reports, to refer to homosexuality in general. Lesbian, however, always denotes female homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women
Homosexual behavior occurs among numerous non-human animals and particularly among social animals. 
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Homosexuality has been a feature of human culture since earliest history (see History section below). LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual " Queer studies " is the study of issues relating to Sexual orientation and Gender identity. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives LGBT history refers to the History of Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgender peoples and cultures around the world dating back Timeline of Lesbian, Gay, bisexual and Transgender ( LGBT) history Homosexual rights during the 20th century Gay Liberation is the name used to describe the radical Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian This is a Timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980 Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade Gay community or LGBT community is a term used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender subculture LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood or by the slang gayborhood) is an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and Lesbian studies and feminist studies the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender ( LGBT) communities have adopted certain Symbols and symbolates for Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their Gender, Sexual identity or Sexual orientation. The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals Most Western military forces have now removed policies excluding sexual Hate crimes (also known as bias motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain Social group, usually defined The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Heterosexism is a term that applies to attitudes, Bias, and Discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity toward Lesbian women as individuals as a couple or as a social group Biphobia is a term used to describe the fear of aversion to or discrimination against Bisexuality or LGBT people who are bisexual or perceived to be bisexual Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Generally, and most famously in ancient Greece, certain forms of erotic attraction and sexual pleasure between males were often an ingrained, accepted part of the cultural norm. In Classical antiquity, writers such as Herodotus, Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus and many others explored aspects of same-sex love in However, particular sexual activities (such as anal sex in some cultures, or oral sex in others) were disapproved of, even as other aspects were admired. Anal sex most often refers to the sex act involving insertion of the Penis into the Rectum. Oral sex refers to sexual activities involving the use of the Mouth, and may include use of the Tongue, Teeth, and Throat, in order In cultures under the sway of Abrahamic religions, the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law, a "crime against nature" practiced by choice, and subject to severe penalties, up to capital punishment—often inflicted by means of fire so as to purify the unholy action. A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse For the book by Robert Kennedy Jr see Crimes Against Nature. Crime against nature is a legal term used in published cases in the United Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The condemnation of penetrative sex between males, however, predates Christian dogma, as it was frequent in Ancient Greece, whence the theme of action "against nature," traceable to Plato, originated. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece 
In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Karl-Maria Kertbeny coined the term homosexual in 1869 in a pamphlet arguing against a Prussian anti-sodomy law. Karl-Maria Kertbeny or Károly Mária Kertbeny (born Karl-Maria Benkert) (1824 &ndash 1882 was born in Vienna, the son of a writer and a painter The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse  Richard von Krafft-Ebing's 1886 book Psychopathia Sexualis elaborated on the concept. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist 
In 1897, British physician Havelock Ellis published similar views in his influential book Sexual Inversion. Henry Havelock Ellis ( February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939) was a British sexologist, physician and social reformer  Although medical texts like these (written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details) were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific Humanitarian Committee, which campaigned from 1897 to 1933 against anti-sodomy laws in Germany, as well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds. Magnus Hirschfeld ( May 14, 1868 - May 14, 1935) was a German- Jewish physician sex researcher, and early Gay rights The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (, WhK was founded in Berlin on the 14th or 15th of May 1897 to campaign for social recognition of homosexual and transgender Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision Also see Ed Carpenter. Edward Carpenter ( 29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English John Addington Symonds ( October 5 1840 - April 19, 1893) was an English poet and literary critic
In the course of the twentieth century, homosexuality became a subject of considerable study and debate in Western societies, especially after the modern gay rights movement began in 1969. Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Once viewed by authorities as a pathology or mental illness to be cured, homosexuality is now more often investigated as part of a larger impetus to understand the biology, psychology, politics, genetics, history and cultural variations of sexual practice and identity. Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as Biology and sexual orientation is research into possible biological influences on the development of human Sexual orientation. Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology The legal and social status of people who engage in homosexual acts or identify as gay or lesbian varies enormously across the world and in places remains hotly contested in political and religious debate. The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women
Affinity • Attachment • Bonding • Boyfriend • Casual • Cohabitation • Compersion • Concubinage • Consort • Courtship • Divorce • Domestic partnership • Dower, dowry, and bride price • Family • Friendship • Girlfriend • Husband • Infatuation • Intimacy • Jealousy • Limerence • Love • Marriage • Monogamy • Nonmonogamy • Passion • Pederasty • Platonic love • Polyamory • Polyfidelity • Polygamy • Psychology of monogamy • Relationship abuse • Romance • Separation • Sexuality • Serial monogamy • Sexual orientation • Significant other • Soulmate • Wedding • Widowhood • Wife
The adjective homosexual describes behavior, relationships, people, etc. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people Affinity in terms of Sociology, refers to " Kinship of Spirit " interest and other interpersonal commonalities. Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships Human bonding refers to the development of a close Interpersonal relationship between family members or friends NOTICE*************** Casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a Sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally- and/or physically- Intimate relationship. Compersion is a term used by practitioners of Polyamory or Swingers to describe the experience of taking pleasure that one's partner is with another person Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status CONSORT is the name of the combined Integrated library system shared by the CONSORT Colleges. Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Not to be confused with Dowry, or with Dour. Dower or morning gift ( Latin doarium, or Latinized A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage Bride price also known as bride wealth is an amount of Money or Property or Wealth paid by the groom or his family to the Parents of Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more beings Girlfriend is a term that can refer to either a Female partner in a non- marital romantic relationship or a female non-intimate Friend A husband is a Male spouse (participant in a Marriage, Civil union or Civil partnership. Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoned passion or Love; addictive love The meaning of intimacy varies from relationship to relationship and within a given relationship Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary Cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. Nonmonogamy is a Blanket term covering several different types of Interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, Passion (from the Latin patior, meaning to suffer or to endure is an emotion of feeling very strongly about a person Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Amor Platonicus The term amor platonicus was coined as early as the 15th century by the Florentine scholar Marsilio Ficino Polyamory (from Greek el πολυ meaning many or several and Latin la amor “love” is the desire practice or acceptance of having more than one Polyfidelity is a form of polyamorous Group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts feelings and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships Abuse refers to the use or treatment of something (a person item substance concept or vocabulary that is harmful NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Serial monogamy is characterized by a series of long- or short-term exclusive Sexual relationships entered into consecutively over the lifespan Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Soulmate (or soul mate) is a term sometimes used to designate someone with whom one has a feeling of deep and natural affinity Friendship, Love, Intimacy A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 A wife is a Female spouse or participant in a Marriage, or Civil union or Civil partnership. See also List of terms for gay in different languages The terminology of homosexuality has been a contentious issue since the emergence of homosexual Social In Greek Mythology, the Anemoi (in Greek, Άνεμοι &mdash " winds " were Wind gods who were each ascribed In Greek mythology, Hyacinth or Hyacinthus (in Greek, Ὑάκινθος &mdash Hyakinthos) was a divine hero the son of Attica (Αττική Attikí;) is a periphery (subdivision in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting. Tarquinia, formerly Corneto and in Antiquity Tarquinii, is an ancient city in the Province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy. The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the largest museums in the United States attracting over one million visitors a year The adjectival form literally means "same sex", being a hybrid formed from the Greek prefix homo- ("same"), and the Latin root sex. A hybrid word is a word which etymologically has one part derived from one language and another part derived from a different language Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Many modern style guides in the U.S. recommend against using homosexual as a noun, instead using gay man or lesbian. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Similarly, some recommend completely avoiding usage of homosexual as having a negative and discredited clinical history and because the word only refers to one's sexual behavior, and not to romantic feelings.  Gay and lesbian are the most common alternatives. The first letters are frequently combined to create the initialism LGBT (sometimes written as GLBT), in which B and T refer to bisexuals and transgender people. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives These style guides are not always followed by mainstream media sources. 
The first known appearance of homosexual in print is found in an 1869 German pamphlet by the Austrian-born novelist Karl-Maria Kertbeny, published anonymously. Karl-Maria Kertbeny or Károly Mária Kertbeny (born Karl-Maria Benkert) (1824 &ndash 1882 was born in Vienna, the son of a writer and a painter  The prevalence of the concept owes much to the work of the German psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and his 1886 work Psychopathia Sexualis. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing ( August 14 1840 &ndash December 22 1902) was an Austro-German sexologist and Psychiatrist  As such, the current use of the term has its roots in the broader 19th century tradition of personality taxonomy. These continue to influence the development of the modern concept of sexual orientation, gaining associations with romantic love and identity in addition to its original, exclusively sexual meaning. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Sexual identity is a term that like sex, has two distinctively different meanings
Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context (such as an all-girls' school), today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction and activity. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual. In Sociology, homosociality describes same-sex relationships that are not of a romantic and/or Sexual nature There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.
Other terms include men who have sex with men or MSM (used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity), homoerotic (referring to works of art), heteroflexible (referring to a person who identifies as heterosexual, but occasionally engages in same-sex sexual activities), and metrosexual (referring to a non-gay man with stereotypically gay tastes in food, fashion, and design). Men who have sex with men or males who have sex with males ( MSM) refers to men who engage in sexual activity with other men whether Homoeroticism refers to the representation of same-sex love and desire most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the Visual arts and Literature. Bi-curious is a term used to refer to someone who does not identify as Bisexual or Homosexual but feels or shows some interest in a relationship or sexual activity Metrosexual is a Neologism generally applied to heterosexual men with a strong concern for their appearance or whose lifestyles display attributes stereotypically seen among
Pejorative terms in English include queer, faggot, fairy, poof, and homo. Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. A fairy (also fay, fey, fae, faerie; collectively wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair Beginning in the 1990s, some of these have been "reclaimed" as positive words by gay men and lesbians, as in the usage of queer studies, queer theory, and even the popular American television program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. " Queer studies " is the study of issues relating to Sexual orientation and Gender identity. Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and Lesbian studies and feminist studies Queer Eye is an Emmy award-winning American Reality television series that premiered on the Bravo cable television network on July 15 However, as with ethnic slurs and racial slurs, the misuse of these terms can still be highly offensive; the range of acceptable use depends on the context and speaker. The following is a list of ethnic slurs that are or have been used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given Ethnicity or to refer to them in a derogatory (critical The following is a list of ethnic slurs that are or have been used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given Ethnicity or to refer to them in a derogatory (critical
Conversely, gay, a word originally embraced by homosexual men and women as a positive, affirmative term (as in gay liberation and gay rights), has come into widespread pejorative use among young people. Gay Liberation is the name used to describe the radical Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality.
The lives of many historical figures including Socrates, Alexander the Great, Lord Byron, Edward II, Hadrian, Julius Caesar, Michelangelo, Donatello, Leonardo DaVinci, and Christopher Marlowe included or were centered upon love and sexual relationships with people of their own sex. LGBT history refers to the History of Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgender peoples and cultures around the world dating back Timeline of Lesbian, Gay, bisexual and Transgender ( LGBT) history Homosexual rights during the 20th century SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Terms such as gay or bisexual have been often applied to them. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Some, such as Michel Foucault, regard this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times, a view that is increasingly challenged. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. A social construction or social construct is any phenomenon "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular Culture or Society 
A common thread of constructionist argument is that no one in antiquity or the Middle Ages experienced homosexuality as an exclusive, permanent, or defining mode of sexuality. John Boswell has criticized this argument by citing ancient Greek writings by Plato, which he says indicate knowledge of exclusive homosexuality.
Though often ignored or suppressed by European explorers and colonialists, homosexual expression in native Africa was also present and took a variety of forms:
In North American Native Society, the most common form of same-sex sexuality seems to center around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many Such people seem to have been recognized by the majority of tribes, each of which had its particular term for the role. Typically the two-spirit individual was recognized early in life, was given a choice by the parents to follow the path, and if the child accepted the role then the child was raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen. Two-spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life would be with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex. Male two-spirit people were prized as wives because of their greater strength and ability to work.
Homosexual and transgender individuals were also common among other pre-conquest civilizations in Latin America, such as the Aztecs, Mayans, Quechas, Moches, Zapotecs, and the Tupinambá of Brazil. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc The Tupi people is one of the main Ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guaraní. 
The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover "sodomy" openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches (as the Spanish called them) under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution and burning. Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many In a famous example of cruelty against homosexuals, in 1513 the conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa
discovered that the village of Quarequa [in modern-day Panama] was stained by the foulest vice. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475&ndash January 15, 1519 was a Spanish Explorer, Governor, and Conquistador. The king’s brother and a number of other courtiers were dressed as women, and according to the accounts of the neighbours shared the same passion. Vasco ordered forty of them to be torn to pieces by dogs. The Spaniards commonly used their dogs in fighting against these naked people, and the dogs threw themselves upon them as though they were wild boars on timid deer. 
In East Asia same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history. Early European travelers were taken aback by its widespread acceptance and open display. None of the East Asian countries today have specific legal prohibitions against homosexuality or homosexual behavior.
Homosexuality in China, known as the pleasures of the bitten peach, the cut sleeve, or the southern custom, has been recorded since approximately 600 BCE. The situation of Homosexuality in Chinese culture is relatively ambiguous in the contemporary context although many instances have been recorded in the dynastic These euphemistic terms were used to describe behaviors, but not identities (recently Chinese society has adapted the term "brokeback," 斷背 duanbei, from the success of Taiwanese director Ang Lee's film Brokeback Mountain). Taiwanese people ( may refer to individuals who either claim or are imputed Cultural identity focused on the island of Taiwan and/or the lands and territories which have Ang Lee ( (born October 23, 1954) is an Academy Award -winning Film director from Taiwan. Brokeback Mountain ( 2005) is a romantic - Drama film that depicts the complex romantic and sexual relationship between two men in the  The relationships were marked by differences in age and social position. However, the instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the Hong Lou Meng (Dream of the Red Chamber, or Story of the Stone) seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexuals during the same period. Cao Xueqin ( ca 1724? —1763? is the author of Dream of the Red Chamber, believed by many to be the greatest Novel written in the Chinese
This same-sex love culture gave rise to strong traditions of painting and literature documenting and celebrating such relationships.
Similarly, in Thailand, Kathoey, or "ladyboys," have been a feature of Thai society for many centuries, and Thai kings had male as well as female lovers. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj While Kathoey may encompass simple effeminacy or transvestism, it most commonly is treated in Thai culture as a third gender. Effeminacy is a trait in males that generally contradicts traditional male ( masculine) Gender roles It is a derogatory term frequently applied to Femininity This article deals with the history of the word 'transvestite' The Culture of Thailand is heavily influenced by Buddhism. Other influences have included Hinduism, conflict and trade with Southeast Asian neighbors such as The terms third gender and third sex describe individuals who are considered to be neither women nor men as well as the social category present in those societies who recognize They are generally accepted by society, and Thailand has never had legal prohibitions against homosexuality or homosexual behavior.
The earliest Western documents (in the form of literary works, art objects, as well as mythographic materials) concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece. In Classical antiquity, writers such as Herodotus, Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus and many others explored aspects of same-sex love in Within the spectre of Sexuality in ancient Rome, sources for Ancient Roman homosexual practice and attitudes and acceptance of it are abundantly available Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Greek Pederasty, as idealised by the Greeks from archaic times onward was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside They depict a world in which relationships with women and relationships with youths were the essential foundation of a normal man's love life. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder. Plato praised its benefits in his early writings, but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece 
In Ancient Rome the situation was reversed. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Though the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, free boys were off limits as sexual partners. All the emperors with the exception of Claudius took male lovers. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinous, but the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on August 6, 390, condemning passive males to be burned at the stake. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after For the constellation see Antinous (constellation; for the Asteroid, see 1863 Antinous; for the mythological figure see Antinous son of Eupeithes Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Events By Place Roman Empire In response to the murder of his general Butheric Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Justinian, towards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well (in 558), warning that such conduct can lead to the destruction of cities through the "wrath of God". Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Notwithstanding these regulations, taxes on brothels of boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in 518. For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. Flavius Anastasius (Φλάβιος Ἀναστάσιος or Anastasius I (Ἀναστάσιος Β΄ (c
During the Renaissance, rich cities in northern Italy, Florence and Venice in particular, were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the  But even as many of the male population were engaging in same-sex relationships, the authorities, under the aegis of the Officers of the Night court, were prosecuting, fining, and imprisoning a good portion of that population. The Officers of the Night ( Ufficiali di notte e conservatori dell'onestà dei monasteri) were a Florentine court that focused particularly on Sodomy, and The eclipse of this period of relative artistic and erotic freedom was precipitated by the rise to power of the moralizing monk Girolamo Savonarola. Girolamo Savonarola ( September 21, 1452 &ndash May 23, 1498) was an Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from In northern Europe the artistic discourse on sodomy was turned against its proponents by artists such as Rembrandt, who in his Rape of Ganymede no longer depicted Ganymede as a willing youth, but as a squalling baby attacked by a rapacious bird of prey. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher.
The relationships of socially prominent figures, such as King James I and the Duke of Buckingham, served to highlight the issue, including in anonymously authored street pamphlets: "The world is chang'd I know not how, For men Kiss Men, not Women now;. . . Of J. the First and Buckingham: He, true it is, his Wives Embraces fled, To slabber his lov'd Ganimede;" (Mundus Foppensis, or The Fop Display'd, 1691. )
Love Letters Between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr. Wilson was published in 1723 in England and was presumed to be a novel by some modern scholars. The 1749 edition of John Cleland's popular novel Fanny Hill includes a homosexual scene, but this was removed in its 1750 edition. John Cleland ( baptised 24 September 1709 &ndash 23 January 1789) was an English Novelist most famous and infamous Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, popularly known as Also in 1749, the earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified, written by Thomas Cannon, was published, but was suppressed almost immediately. Thomas Cannon was a possible literary collaborator with John Cleland, author of Fanny Hill, as well as the writer of what may be the earliest published It includes the passage, "Unnatural Desire is a Contradiction in Terms; downright Nonsense. Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts. " Around 1785 Jeremy Bentham wrote another defense, but this was not published until 1978. Jeremy Bentham ( IPA: or) (15 February 1748&ndash6 June 1832 was an English Jurist, Philosopher, and legal and Social reformer  Executions for sodomy continued in the Netherlands until 1803, and in England until 1835.
Between 1864 and 1880 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. for the (unrelated periodical directory see Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs weiner ( Aurich, 28 August In 1867 he became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws.
Sir Richard Francis Burton's Terminal Essay, Part IV/D appendix in his translation of The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885–86) provided an effusive overview of homosexuality in the Middle East and tropics. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis, published in 1896, challenged theories that homosexuality was abnormal, as well as stereotypes, and insisted on the ubiquity of homosexuality and its association with intellectual and artistic achievement. Henry Havelock Ellis ( February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939) was a British sexologist, physician and social reformer Appendix A included A Problem in Greek Ethics by John Addington Symonds, which had been privately distributed in 1883. John Addington Symonds ( October 5 1840 - April 19, 1893) was an English poet and literary critic Beginning in 1894 with Homogenic Love, Socialist activist and poet Edward Carpenter wrote a string of pro-homosexual articles and pamphlets, and "came out" in 1916 in his book My Days and Dreams. Also see Ed Carpenter. Edward Carpenter ( 29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English
In 1900, Elisar von Kupffer published an anthology of homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur. Elisar von Kupffer (1872 in Tallinn, Estonia – 1942 was an artist anthologist poet historian translator and playwright Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur is an Anthology of Poetry about Homosexuality, compiled by the German Artist His aim was to broaden the public perspective of homosexuality beyond it being viewed simply as a medical or biological issue, but also as an ethical and cultural one.
Among many Middle Eastern Muslim cultures egalitarian or age-structured homosexual practices were, and remain, widespread and thinly veiled. Islamic views on homosexuality have always been influenced by the rulings prescribed by the Qur'an and the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammed. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The prevailing pattern of same-sex relationships in the temperate and sub-tropical zone stretching from Northern India to the Western Sahara is one in which the relationships were—and are—either gender-structured or age-structured or both. In recent years, egalitarian relationships modeled on the western pattern have become more frequent, though they remain rare.
A tradition of art and literature sprang up constructing Middle Eastern homosexuality. Muslim—often Sufi—poets in medieval Arab lands and in Persia wrote odes to the beautiful wine boys who served them in the taverns. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. In many areas the practice survived into modern times, as documented by Richard Francis Burton, André Gide, and others. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer
In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafez (d. Khwāja Šamsu d-Dīn Muḥammad Hāfez-e Šīrāzī, or simply Hāfez ( was a Persian mystic and Poet. 1389), and Jami (d. Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami (نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی ( August 18, 1414 &ndash November 19, 1492) was one of the greatest 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and the bacchás, and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of god. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives The köçek phenomenon (plural köçekler in Turkish is one of the significant features of Ottoman Empire culture. In the settled oasis region of Central Asia ( Turkestan) entertainers known as bacchá (a Turkic term borrowed from Persian bacche بچه Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Some crossed over from the idealized chaste form of the practice to one in which the desire is consummated.
In the Turkic-speaking areas, one manifestation of this same-sex love was the bacchá, adolescent or adolescent-seeming male entertainers and sex workers. The Turkic languages constitute a Language family of some thirty languages spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the In the settled oasis region of Central Asia ( Turkestan) entertainers known as bacchá (a Turkic term borrowed from Persian bacche بچه In other areas male love continues to surface despite efforts to keep it quiet.
Today, governments in the Middle East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexuality. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, during his famous 2007 speech at Columbia University, asserted that there were no gay people in Iran. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (محمود احمدینژاد; born October 28, 1956) is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (محمود احمدینژاد; born October 28, 1956) is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Gay people do live in Iran, but most keep their sexuality a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families. 
In many societies of Melanesia, especially in Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were, until the middle of the last century, an integral part of the culture. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. The Etoro are a tribe in Papua New Guinea. Their territory comprises the southern slopes of Mt In many traditional Melanesian cultures a pre-pubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. 
Measuring the prevalence of homosexuality presents a number of difficulties:
Reliable data as to the size of the gay and lesbian population would be valuable by informing public policy.  For example, demographics would help in calculating the costs and benefits of domestic partnership benefits, of the impact of legalizing gay adoption, and of the impact of the U. A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people S. military's Don't Ask Don't Tell policy. "Don't ask don't tell" is the common term for the policy about homosexuality in the U  Further, knowledge of the size of the "gay and lesbian population holds promise for helping social scientists understand a wide array of important questions—questions about the general nature of labor market choices, accumulation of human capital, specialization within households, discrimination, and decisions about geographic location. "
Estimates of the incidence of exclusive homosexuality range from >1% to 10% of the population (though the accepted figure hovers closer to the middle of that range), usually finding there are slightly more gay men than lesbians. 
Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships vary over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death. Societal attitudes towards homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods as do attitudes toward sexual desire activity and relationships in general
Most nations do not impede consensual sex between unrelated persons above the local age of consent. While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal Statutes when used with in relation to sexual activity, the age of consent is the minimum age at Some jurisdictions further recognize identical rights, protections, and privileges for the family structures of same-sex couples, including marriage. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same Some nations mandate that all individuals restrict themselves to heterosexual relationships; that is, in some jurisdictions homosexual activity is illegal. Offenders face up to the death penalty in some fundamentalist Muslim areas such as Iran and parts of Nigeria. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal There are, however, often significant differences between official policy and real-world enforcement. See Violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and the transgendered. Violence against LGBT people queer identifying and the same-sex attracted are actions which may occur either at the hands of
In many cultures, gay and lesbian people are frequently subject to prejudice and discrimination. BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Heterosexism is a term that applies to attitudes, Bias, and Discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT stereotypes are conventional formulaic Generalizations opinions or images about persons based on their Sexual orientation Like many other minority groups that are the objects of prejudice, they are also subject to stereotyping. A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group Gay men are seen as effeminate and fashionable, often identified with a lisp or a female-like tone and lilt. A gay lisp is not a technical Lisp, but refers to stereotypical speech attributes assigned to and sometimes heard in Gay Males The phenomenon  They are stereotyped as being promiscuous and unsuccessful in developing enduring romantic relationships, despite research to the contrary. Promiscuity refers to sexual behavior of a man or woman who casually has sex with many partners  Gay men are also often alleged as having pedophiliac tendencies and more likely to commit child sexual abuse than the heterosexual male population, a view rejected by mainstream psychiatric groups and contradicted by research.  Lesbians are seen as butch, and sometimes "man-haters" or radical feminists. Radical feminism is a "current" within Feminism that focuses on the theory of Patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex 
Homosexuality has at times been used as a scapegoat by governments facing problems. scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times For example, during the early 14th century, accusations of homosexual behavior were instrumental in disbanding the Knights Templar under Philip IV of France, who profited greatly from confiscating the Templars' wealth. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order In the 20th century, Nazi Germany's persecution of homosexual people was based on the proposition that they posed a threat to "normal" masculinity as well as a risk of contamination to the "Aryan race". Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers After World War I, in the period known as the Weimar Republic, gay men in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance The " Aryan race " is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
In the 1950s, at the height of the Red Scare in the United States, hundreds of federal and state employees were fired because of their homosexuality in the so-called Lavender Scare. Red Menace redirects here For the 2007 Wildstorm Productions comic book series see Red Menace (comics. The Lavender Scare refers to the fear and persecution of Homosexuals in the fifties that paralleled the anti-communist (Ironically, politicians opposed to the scare tactics of McCarthyism tried to discredit Senator Joseph McCarthy by hinting during a televised Congressional committee meeting that McCarthy's top aide, Roy Cohn, was homosexual, as he in fact was. McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U Roy Marcus Cohn ( February 20, 1927 &ndash August 2, 1986) was an American conservative Lawyer of Jewish )
A recent instance of scapegoating is the burning of 6,000 books of homoerotic poetry of 8th c. Persian-Arab poet Abu Nuwas by the Egyptian Ministry of Culture in January 2001, to placate Islamic fundamentalists. Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami ( 750 &ndash 810) known as Abū-Nuwās ( Arabic: ابونواس) was one of the greatest of classical Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the 
In the United States, the FBI reported that 15. Violence against LGBT people queer identifying and the same-sex attracted are actions which may occur either at the hands of The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 6% of hate crimes reported to police in 2004 were based on perceived sexual orientation. Sixty-one percent of these attacks were against gay men.  The 1998 murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay student, is one of the most notorious incidents in the U. Matthew Wayne Shepard (December 1 1976 – October 12 1998 was a gay American student at the University of Wyoming who was murdered near Laramie S.
Homosexual acts are punishable by death in some present-day countries including Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya 
Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world, such as in Denmark in 1933, in Sweden in 1944, in the United Kingdom in 1967, and in Canada in 1969, it was not until the mid-1970s that the gay community first began to achieve actual, though limited, civil rights in some developed countries. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Gay rights in Denmark are generally extensive and Danish society is very tolerant of Homosexuality. Sweden is considered to be one of the most Gay -friendly countries in Europe and possibly the world when it comes to laws surrounding Homosexuality. British attitudes towards LGBT rights and Homosexuality are regarded as some of the most liberal in the world Canada has provided more legal rights for LGBT people than many other liberal nations Gay community or LGBT community is a term used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender subculture The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors A turning point was reached in 1973 when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, thus negating its previous definition of homosexuality as a clinical mental disorder. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as In 1977, Quebec became the first state-level jurisdiction in the world to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes
Since the 1960s, in part due to their history of shared oppression, many LGBT people in the West, particularly those in major metropolitan areas, have developed a so-called gay culture. LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade To many, gay culture is exemplified by the gay pride movement, with annual parades and displays of rainbow flags. LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Yet not all LGBT people choose to participate in "queer culture", and many gay men and women specifically decline to do so. To some it seems to be a frivolous display, perpetuating gay stereotypes. To some others, the gay culture represents heterophobia and is scorned as widening the gulf between gay and non-gay people. Heterophobia is a term used to describe irrational fear of aversion to or discrimination against Heterosexuals Heterophobic is the adjective form of this term used
With the outbreak of AIDS in the early 1980s, many LGBT groups and individuals organized campaigns to promote efforts in AIDS education, prevention, research, patient support, and community outreach, as well as to demand government support for these programs. Gay Men's Health Crisis, Project Inform, and ACT UP are some notable American examples of the LGBT community's response to the AIDS crisis. The Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC is a Non-profit, Volunteer -supported and community-based AIDS service organization that has led the United States ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, "is a diverse non-partisan group of individuals.
The bewildering death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Major American motion pictures from this period that dramatized the response of individuals and communities to the AIDS crisis include An Early Frost (1985), Longtime Companion (1990), And the Band Played On (1993), Philadelphia (1993), and Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt (1989), the last referring to the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt, last displayed in its entirety on the Mall in Washington, D.C., in 1996. An Early Frost was the first major Film to deal with the topic of HIV / AIDS. Longtime Companion is a 1990 film with Bruce Davison, Campbell Scott, Patrick Cassidy, and Mary-Louise Parker. And the Band Played On Politics People and the AIDS Epidemic is a best-selling work of nonfiction written by San Francisco Chronicle Journalist Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Common Threads Stories from the Quilt is a 1989 Documentary film that tells the story of the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt. The AIDS Memorial Quilt is an enormous Quilt made as a memorial to and celebration of the lives of people who have died of AIDS -related causes The National Mall is an open-area National park in Downtown Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
During the 1980s and 1990s, most developed countries enacted laws decriminalizing homosexual behavior and prohibiting discrimination against lesbians and gays in employment, housing, and services. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Yet as LGBT people slowly gained legal protection and social acceptance, gay bashing and hate crimes also increased due to heterosexism and homophobia (See Violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and the transgendered). Gay bashing is an expression used to designate verbal confrontation with denigration of or physical violence against people thought to be Lesbian, Gay Hate crimes (also known as bias motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain Social group, usually defined Heterosexism is a term that applies to attitudes, Bias, and Discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Violence against LGBT people queer identifying and the same-sex attracted are actions which may occur either at the hands of
Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws or outright mass murder of gays in their recent past. A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. After World War I, in the period known as the Weimar Republic, gay men in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance
Gay British politicians include former UK Cabinet ministers Chris Smith (now Lord Smith of Finsbury who is also a rare example of an openly HIV positive statesman) and Nick Brown, and, most famously, Peter Mandelson, a European Commissioner and close friend of Tony Blair. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. Christopher Robert "Chris" Smith Baron Smith of Finsbury PC (born 24 July 1951 is a British Labour Party politician and former Member of Finsbury is a small district in the south of the London Borough of Islington and north of the City of London. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Nicholas Hugh "Nick" Brown (born June 13 1952 Hawkhurst, Kent) is a British Labour Party Politician and Member of Peter Benjamin Mandelson (born 21 October 1953 called "Mandy" by much of the British News media, is a British Labour Politician who is the serving The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Openly gay Per-Kristian Foss was the Norwegian Minister of Finance until September 2005. Per-Kristian Foss (born 19 July 1950 in Oslo) is a Norwegian politician for the Conservative Party. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The finance minister is a Cabinet position in a Government. A minister of Finance (also called financial affairs the treasury the economy or economic PortalCurrent events News collections and sources WikipediaNews collections and sources.
Many people who feel attracted to members of their own sex have a so-called "coming out" at some point in their lives. Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity Generally, coming out is described in three phases. The first phase is the phase of "knowing oneself," and the realization or decision emerges that one is open to same-sex relations. This is often described as an internal coming out. The second phase involves one's decision to come out to others, e. g. family, friends, and/or colleagues. This occurs with many people as early as age 11, but others do not clarify their sexual orientation until age 40 or older. The third phase more generally involves living openly as an LGBT person.  In the United States today, people often come out during high school or college age. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Sometimes their own parents are not even informed.
Outing is the practice of publicly revealing the sexual orientation of a closeted person. In the late twentieth century outing became a common term for taking someone "out of The closet "—that is publicising that someone is Gay.  Notable politicians, celebrities, military service people, and clergy members have been outed, with motives ranging from malice to political or moral beliefs. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether, while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people. 
Government recognition of same-sex marriage is presently available in six countries and two U. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same The current status of same-sex marriage changes nearly on a daily basis as legislation and legal action takes place around the world S. states. The Netherlands was the first country to authorize same-sex marriage in 2001 and they are now also recognized in Belgium, Canada, South Africa, Spain, and the U.S. states of Massachusetts, California and Iowa, though Iowa's issuance of marriage licenses is on hold until a Supreme Court appeal is heard. The Netherlands has allowed Same-sex marriage since 1 April 2001, the first nation in the world to do so On January 30, 2003, Belgium became the second country in the world to legally recognise Same-sex marriage, with some restrictions On July 20, 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide with the approval of the Civil Marriage Act. Same-sex marriage became legal in South Africa on 30 November 2006 when the Civil Unions Bill was enacted after having been passed Same-sex marriage in Spain was legalized in 2005 In 2004 the nation's newly elected Socialist government led by President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Same-sex marriage in the US state of Massachusetts began on May 17, 2004, as a result of the Supreme Judicial Court Same-sex marriage in the United States - editing that article for size and clarity Same-sex marriage in the US state of Iowa was allowed for a short time from August 30 to August 31, 2007, The states of New York, Rhode Island and New Mexico do not allow same-sex marriages to be performed, but do recognize such marriages performed elsewhere. Same-sex marriage cannot legally be performed in New York. While one intermediate appellate court in New York has held that the state must recognize foreign same-sex Same-sex marriages cannot currently be performed under the laws of the state of Rhode Island. Same-sex marriages are not performed in the state of New Mexico, which also does not provide Civil unions or Domestic partnerships New Mexico Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other countries, although it is still illegal to perform them within the country. Same-sex marriage in Israel is currently unlikely since all marriages in Israel are performed under the auspices of the religious authority of the religion to which the couple belongs
Other countries, including the majority of European nations, have enacted laws allowing civil unions, designed to give gay couples similar rights as married couples concerning legal issues such as inheritance and immigration. A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. Most Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Finland, with the sole exception of the Faroe Islands) have enacted civil union laws. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage.
Jurisdictions in the U. S. that offer civil unions or domestic partnerships granting nearly all of the state-recognized rights of marriage to same-sex couples include California (2000), Vermont (2000), Connecticut (2005), New Jersey (2006), Oregon (2007), and New Hampshire (2008). A California domestic partnership is a legal relationship available to same-sex couples and to certain opposite-sex couples in which at least one party is at least 62 years In April and May 2007 following a previous attempt in 2005 the Oregon state legislature passed legislation to make virtually all of the rights afforded to married couples available Civil unions in New Hampshire are permitted under state law between unrelated same-sex individuals and are intended to provide the same "'rights responsibilities and obligations' States in the U. S. with domestic partnerships or similar status granting some of the rights of marriage include Hawaii (1996), Maine (1999), Washington (2007), as well as the District of Columbia (Washington, DC) (2001). In April 2004 the Maine Legislature passed a bill to establish Domestic Partnerships. The State Registered Domestic Partners Registry (SRDP was created on April 10, 2007, by the Washington Legislature. Washington DC, has recognized domestic partnerships since June 11, 1992, when the Health Benefits Expansion Act DC Law 9-114 was passed allowing
Many openly LGBT people are parents, often by way of adoption, donor insemination, foster parenting, or surrogacy. Many lesbian gay bisexual and transgendered people are parents In the 2000 U.S. Census, 33 percent of female same-sex couple households and 22 percent of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under the age of 18 living in the home. 
Gay and lesbian parenting enjoys broad support from a number of organizations, including the American Psychological Association, the Child Welfare League of America, the American Bar Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the National Association of Social Workers, the North American Council on Adoptable Children, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Psychoanalytic Association, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U The American Bar Association ( ABA) founded August 21 1878 is a voluntary Bar association of Lawyers and law students which is not specific The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the The National Association of Social Workers (NASW is a professional organization of Social workers in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics ( AAP) is an organization of Pediatricians physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants children and adolescents American Psychoanalytic Association is an association of psychoanalysts in the United States. The American Academy of Family Physicians ( AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine. 
The American Psychological Association in particular has stated that:
there is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children…research has shown that the adjustment, development, and psychological well-being of children is unrelated to parental sexual orientation and that the children of lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those of heterosexual parents to flourish…. The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U 
In some capitalist countries, large private sector firms often lead the way in the equal treatment of gay men and lesbians. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where In Economics, the private sector is that part of the economy which is both run for private Profit and is not controlled by the State. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business For instance, more than half of the Fortune 500 offer domestic partnership benefits and 49 of the Fortune 50 companies include sexual orientation in their non-discrimination policies (only ExxonMobil does not). Please do not add the complete list of fortune 500 companies The list is copyrighted by Fortune which makes money by selling the content A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes The Exxon Mobil Corporation, or ExxonMobil, is an American oil and gas Corporation and a direct descendant of John D 
Negative societal attitudes toward homosexuality are said to contribute to stress and related mental disorders, and even suicide, in the LGBT community. However, evidence indicates that the liberalization of these attitudes over the past few decades is associated with a decrease in such mental health risks among younger LGBT people. 
Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a "hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers". 
LGB youths are more likely to report psychological and physical abuse by parents or caretakers, and more sexual abuse. Suggested reasons for this disparity are that (1) LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and (2) "risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members. . . may lead to an increase in behaviors that are associated with risk for victimization, such as substance abuse, sex with multiple partners, or running away from home as a teenager. "
Crisis centers in larger cities and information sites on the Internet have arisen to help youth and adults.  The Trevor Helpline, a suicide prevention helpline for gay youth, was established following the 1998 airing on HBO of the Academy Award winning short film Trevor. The Trevor Project is an American non-profit organization that operates the only nationwide around-the-clock crisis and suicide prevention helpline for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Trevor is a 1994 short Comedy film directed by Peggy Rajski. It won an Academy Award in 1995 for Best
Some ancient and pre-modern societies, such as Greece and Japan, fostered erotic love bonds between experienced warriors and their apprentices. The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals Most Western military forces have now removed policies excluding sexual "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The written history of Japan begins with brief references in the 1st century AD Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts It was believed that a man and youth who were in love with each other would fight harder and with greater morale. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in A classic example of a military force built upon this belief is the Sacred Band of Thebes. The Sacred Band of Thebes ( Ancient Greek: Hierós Lókhos tón Thebón was a troop of picked soldiers numbering 150 age-structured pairs which formed
The adoption of Christianity by the Roman Emperor Constantine in the fourth century and subsequent predominance of Christianity led to a diminished emphasis on erotic love among military forces. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century By the time of the Crusades, the military of Europe had largely switched gears, asserting that carnal relations between males were sinful and therefore had no place in an army that served their perception of God's will. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The Knights Templar, a prominent military order, was destroyed by accusations (probably fabricated) of sodomy. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse
The United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, and Israel admit openly gay service members, and others—like the United States, and many nations in South America and the Caribbean—either quiet or discharge anyone found to be engaging in homosexual relations or openly identifying as gay; the United States is known for its 1993 "don't ask, don't tell" policy. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the "Don't ask don't tell" is the common term for the policy about homosexuality in the U The traditional justification for excluding openly gay service members is that it may lead to "harassment, discord, blackmail, bullying or an erosion of unit cohesion or military effectiveness".  The British military, which removed their restriction against gay service members in 2000, has not experienced any of these feared results. 
Religions have had differing views about love and sexual relations between people of the same sex. the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Presently, a large proportion of the Abrahamic sects views non-reproductive sexuality, including homosexuality, negatively, though there are groups within each faith that disagree with allegedly orthodox positions and challenge their doctrinal authority. Oppostion to homosexual behaviour ranges from quietly discouraging displays and activities to those who explicitly forbid same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively oppose social acceptance of homosexuality. Support of homosexual behavior is reflected in the acceptance of sexually heterodox individuals in all functions of the church, and sanctification of same-sex unions.
Partially because of religious reasons, some gay men and lesbians seek to change their sexual orientations through religious faith and practice. In a survey of 882 people who were undergoing conversion therapy, attending ex-gay groups or ex-gay conferences, 22. Conversion therapy has been defined by the American Psychological Association as therapy aimed at changing Sexual orientation, and by the American Psychiatric Ex-gay is a term sometimes used to refer to persons who once identified as Gay or Lesbian, but have since turned away from such identification for 9% reported they had not undergone any changes, 42. 7% reported some changes, and 34. 3% reported much change in sexual orientation.  Exodus International is the largest ostensibly ex-gay group. Exodus International is a nonprofit interdenominational Christian organization that promotes "the message of Freedom from Homosexuality through the power of A major ally of Exodus International is Focus on the Family, who works with Exodus International in their Love Won Out ministry. Love Won Out is an Ex-gay ministry launched by Focus on the Family in 1998.
The overall trend of greater acceptance of gay men and women in the latter part of the 20th century was not limited to secular institutions; it was also seen in some religious institutions. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Reform Judaism, the largest branch of Judaism outside Israel has begun to facilitate religious weddings for gay adherents in their synagogues. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently subjected to vandalism and the insertion of personal opinions Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same Jewish Theological Seminary, considered to be the flagship institution of Conservative Judaism, decided in March 2007 to begin accepting gay and lesbian applicants, after scholars who guide the movement lifted the ban on gay ordination.  In 2005, the United Church of Christ became the largest Christian denomination in the United States to formally endorse same-sex marriage. The United Church of Christ ( UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination principally in the United States,
On the other hand, the Anglican Communion encountered discord that caused a rift between the African (except Southern Africa) and Asian Anglican churches on the one hand and North American churches on the other when American and Canadian churches openly ordained gay clergy and began blessing same-sex unions. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches Other churches such as the Methodist Church had experienced trials of gay clergy who some claimed were a violation of religious principles resulting in mixed verdicts dependent on geography. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations
Some religious groups have even promoted boycotts of corporations whose policies support the LGBT community. In early 2005, the American Family Association threatened a boycott of Ford products to protest Ford's perceived support of "the homosexual agenda and homosexual marriage". The American Family Association (AFA is a 501(c(3 Non-profit organization that promotes conservative Christian values Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following " Homosexual agenda " (or " gay agenda " is a term used by social conservatives primarily in the United States, referring to 
The record of same-sex love has been preserved through literature and art. The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex Gender and Reproduction, often shortened to The Kinsey Institute, exists "to promote interdisciplinary research and scholarship Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Male homoerotic sensibilities are visible in the foundations of art in the West, to the extent that those roots can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Homer's Iliad is considered to have the love between two men as its central feature, a view held since antiquity. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Plato's Symposium also gives readers commentary on the subject, at one point putting forth the claim that male homosexual love is superior to heterosexual love. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The Symposium is a philosophical dialogue written by Plato sometime after 385 BC
The European tradition of homoeroticism was continued in the works of artists and writers such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Shakespeare. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all William Shakespeare ( baptised Since the Renaissance, both male and female homoeroticism has remained a common, if subtle and hidden, theme in the visual arts of the West.
In Islamic societies homoeroticism was present in the work of such writers as Abu Nuwas and Omar Khayyam. Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami ( 750 &ndash 810) known as Abū-Nuwās ( Arabic: ابونواس) was one of the greatest of classical For the Thoroughbred racehorse see Omar Khayyam (horse Ghiyās od-Dīn Abol-Fath Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūri (غیاث الدین A large corpus of literature, numbering in the hundreds of works, fostered the shudo tradition in Japan, together with a widespread tradition of homoerotic shunga art. is the Japanese tradition of age-structured Homosexuality prevalent in Samurai society from the Medieval period until the end of the 19th century For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a Japanese term for Erotic Pictures Most shunga are a type of Ukiyo-e, usually executed in woodblock print format 
In the Chinese literary tradition, works such as Bian er Zhai and Jin Ping Mei survivd th many purges to record the homoerotic climate of their time. The situation of Homosexuality in Chinese culture is relatively ambiguous in the contemporary context although many instances have been recorded in the dynastic The situation of Homosexuality in Chinese culture is relatively ambiguous in the contemporary context although many instances have been recorded in the dynastic Today, the Japanese anime subgenre yaoi centers on gay youths. (anime in Japanese, Japan is unusual in that the culture's male homoerotic art has typically been the work of female artists addressing a female audience, mirroring the case of lesbian eroticism in western art.
In the twentieth century, entertainers such as Noel Coward, Madonna, k.d. lang, and David Bowie have brought homoeroticism into the field of western popular music. Sir Noël Peirce Coward ( 16 December 1899 26 March 1973) was an English Actor, Playwright Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16 1958 known as Madonna, is an American kd lang, OC (born Kathryn Dawn Lang, November 2, 1961) is a Grammy Award -winning Canadian Singer and David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. It is through these and other modern songwriters and poets that female homoerotic work by women, rather than erotic art by men with lesbian themes, has had its greatest cultural impact in the West since the ancient Greek poet Sappho. Sappho (ˈsæfoʊ in English Attic Greek el Σαπφώ sapːʰɔː Aeolic Greek el Ψάπφω) was an Ancient Greek lyric
In the 1990s, a number of American television comedies began to feature homosexual themes, and characters who expressed same-sex attractions. The 1997 coming-out of comedian Ellen DeGeneres on her show Ellen was front-page news in America and brought the show its highest ratings. Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity Ellen Lee DeGeneres (born January 26 1958 is an eleven time Emmy Award -winning American stand-up comedian, Television host and actress Ellen (originally titled These Friends of Mine for season one is a U However, public interest in the show swiftly declined after this, and the show was cancelled after one more season. Immediately afterward, Will & Grace, which ran from 1998 to 2005 on NBC, became the most successful series to focus on male homosexuality. Will & Grace is a popular Emmy Award -winning American television sitcom that was originally broadcast on NBC from 1998 to 2006 The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's
Playwrights have penned such popular homoerotic works as Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Tony Kushner's Angels in America. Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26 1911 &ndash February 25 1983 better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical Cat on a Hot Tin Roof is a Tony -nominated play by Tennessee Williams. Tony Kushner (born July 16, 1956) is an award-winning American playwright most famous for his play Angels in America, for which Angels in America A Gay Fantasia on National Themes is a play in two parts by American Playwright Tony Kushner. Homosexuality has also been a frequent theme in Broadway musicals, such as A Chorus Line and Rent. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located A Chorus Line is a musical about seventeen Broadway Dancers auditioning for spots on a Chorus line. Rent is a Rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson based on Giacomo Puccini 's Opera La Bohème In 2005, the film Brokeback Mountain was a financial and critical success internationally. Brokeback Mountain ( 2005) is a romantic - Drama film that depicts the complex romantic and sexual relationship between two men in the Unlike most gay film characters, both the film's gay lovers were traditionally masculine and married. The movie's success was considered a milestone in the public acceptance of the American gay rights movement. The LGBT rights movement in the United States seeks to achieve equality for all Americans regardless of their Sexual orientation or Gender identity
Scholars who study the social construction of homosexuality investigate the various forms that same-sex relationships have taken in different societies, and look for patterns as well as differences. Their work suggests that the concept of homosexuality would best be rendered as "homosexualities". Anthropologists group these socio-historical variations into three separate categories:
|Egalitarian||Features two partners with no relevance to age. Additionally, both play the same socially accepted sex role as heterosexuals of their own sex. Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation This is exemplified by relationships currently prevalent in Western society between partners of similar age and sex.||Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures|
|Gender-structured||Features each partner playing a different gender role. Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated particularly with Males or Females in a given social group or system This is exemplified by traditional relations between men in the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and Central and South Asia, as well as Two-Spirit or shamanic gender-changing practices seen in native societies. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many In North America, this is best represented by the butch–femme practice.||Homosexuality and Islam, Two-Spirit, and Hijra|
|Age-structured||Features partners of different ages, usually one adolescent and the other adult. Islamic views on homosexuality have always been influenced by the rulings prescribed by the Qur'an and the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammed. Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many In the culture of the Indian subcontinent, a hijra ( Hindi: हिजड़ा Urdu: حجڑا is usually considered a member of "the Third This is exemplified by pederasty among the Classical Greeks or those engaged in by novice samurai with more experienced warriors; southern Chinese boy marriage rites; and ongoing Central Asian and Middle Eastern practices. Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca is the term for the military nobility of Pre-industrial Japan.||Shudo, Pederasty, Historical pederastic couples, and Homosexuality in China|
Usually in any society one form of homosexuality predominates, though others are likely to co-exist. is the Japanese tradition of age-structured Homosexuality prevalent in Samurai society from the Medieval period until the end of the 19th century Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Over the course of history there have been a number of pederastic relationships between adult men and adolescent boys which have become part of the historical record The situation of Homosexuality in Chinese culture is relatively ambiguous in the contemporary context although many instances have been recorded in the dynastic As historian Rictor Norton points out in his Intergenerational and Egalitarian Models, in ancient Greece egalitarian relationships co-existed (albeit less privileged) with the institution of pederasty, and fascination with adolescents can also be found in modern sexuality, both heterosexual and homosexual. Dr Rictor Norton (born 1945 is an American scholar of literary and cultural history particularly gay history Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Egalitarian homosexuality is the principal form present in the Western world, while age- and gender-structured homosexuality are less common. As a byproduct of growing Western cultural dominance, this egalitarian homosexuality is spreading from Western culture to non-Western societies, although there are still defined differences between the various cultures.
Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors. Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display  According to a 1990 study of The Social Organization of Sexuality, out of 131 women and 108 men who self-reported same-sex attraction, only 43 men (40%) and 42 women (32%) had participated in gay sex. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display  In comparison, a survey by the Family Pride Coalition showed that 50% of gay men had fathered children and 75% of lesbians had children, and even more have had straight sex without having children.
Lesbian sex can include tribadism, mutual masturbation, cunnilingus, and the use of sex toys for vaginal or oral penetration or clitoral stimulation. Tribadism or tribbing also known by the slang term scissoring is a form of Mutual masturbation in which a woman rubs her Vulva against her partner's Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Cunnilingus is the act of using the Mouth, Lips and Tongue to stimulate the female Genitals. A sex toy is an object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. For men, gay sex can include mutual masturbation, frot, intercrural sex, oral sex and anal sex. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Frot ( French frotter, to rub is male-male Non-penetrative sex, where male partners engage in the rubbing of erect Penis on erect penis typically Intercrural sex (from "inter-" and Latin "crura" legs also known as femoral / interfemoral sex / intercourse, is Fellatio, also called fellation, is Oral sex performed upon the Penis. Anal sex most often refers to the sex act involving insertion of the Penis into the Rectum. As with any sexual relationship, people may begin with various forms of foreplay such as fondling, caressing, and kissing, and may or may not experiment with other practices, as they see fit. In Human sexual behavior, foreplay is a set of intimate psychological and physical acts between two or more people meant to increase Sexual arousal.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has stated that "sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. The American Academy of Pediatrics ( AAP) is an organization of Pediatricians physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants children and adolescents "
The American Psychological Association has stated that "there are probably many reasons for a person's sexual orientation and the reasons may be different for different people". The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U It also stated that for most people, sexual orientation is determined at an early age. 
The American Psychiatric Association has stated that, "to date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse. "
The degree to which sexual orientation is determined by genetic or other prenatal factors plays a role in political and social debates about homosexuality, and also raises fears about genetic profiling and prenatal testing. Prenatal testing is Testing for diseases or conditions in a Fetus or Embryo before it is born 
In 1993, Dean Hamer found the genetic marker Xq28 on the X chromosome. Biology and sexual orientation is research into possible biological influences on the development of human Sexual orientation. Dr Dean Hamer (born 1951 is an American geneticist. Hamer is the director of the Gene Structure and Regulation Unit at the U Xq28 is a Genetic marker on the X chromosome found by Dean Hamer and others in 1993. Hamer's study found a link between the Xq28 marker and male homosexuality, but the original study's results have been disputed.  Several mutations have been identified in flies, such as changes in the fruitless gene, cause male flies to court and attempt to mate with other males; however, when a modified male fruit fly is isolated with only female fruit flies, then he will attempt to mate with them. The fruitless gene ( fru) is a Drosophila melanogaster Gene that encodes several variants of a putative Transcription factor 
Twin studies give indications that genes may predispose some men to seek partners of the same sex. Twin studies are one of a family of designs in Behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic Hamer commented "From twin studies, we already know that half or more of the variability in sexual orientation is not inherited. Our studies try to pinpoint the genetic factors, not to negate the psychosocial factors. " One common type of twin study compares the monozygotic (or identical) twins of people possessing a particular trait to the dizygotic (non-identical, or fraternal) twins of people possessing the trait. Twin studies are one of a family of designs in Behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic Twins are Offspring resulting from the same Pregnancy, either of the same or opposite Sex. Bailey and Pillard (1991) in a study of gay twins found that 52% of monozygotic brothers and 22% of the dizygotic twins were concordant for homosexuality.  Bailey, Dunne and Martin (2000) used the Australian twin registry to obtain a sample of 4,901 twins. 
The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal Sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the Sexual orientation
Recent studies have found notable differences between the physiology of gay people and non-gay people. There is evidence that:
Recent studies suggest the presence of subtle differences in the way gay people and non-gay people process certain kinds of information. Researchers have found that:
There is evidence from numerous studies that homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men, known as the "fraternal birth order effect. A correlation between fraternal birth order and sexual orientation has been suggested by recent research " One reported that each older brother increases the odds of being gay by 33%.  Peter Bearman found no association between sexual orientation and number of older brothers, and questions the data sampling methods of researchers who find a correlation. Peter Shawn Bearman, an American Sociologist, is Jonathan Cole Professor of the Social Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Columbia University and 
To explain this finding, it has been proposed that male fetuses provoke a maternal immune reaction that becomes stronger with each successive male fetus.  Male fetuses produce H-Y antigens which may be involved in the sexual differentiation of vertebrates.  It is this antigen which maternal H-Y antibodies are proposed to both react to and 'remember. ' With each successive male pregnancy, Blanchard posits that H-Y antibodies cross the placenta and affect aspects of sexual differentiation in the fetal brain, although no apparent empirical evidence yet exists to support this hypothesis. Interestingly, this relation seems to hold only for right-handed males.  There has been no observed equivalent for women.
Researchers have found childhood gender nonconformity to be the largest predictor of homosexuality in adulthood. Childhood gender nonconformity or CGN is pronounced behavior of the opposite Gender in children  Daryl Bem's Exotic Becomes Erotic theory suggests that some children will prefer activities that are typical of the other sex and that this will make a gender-conforming child feel different from opposite-sex children, while gender-nonconforming children will feel different from children of their own sex, which may evoke physiological arousal when the child is near members of the sex which it considers as being "different", which will later be transformed into sexual arousal. Daryl J Bem is a social psychologist at Cornell University, and the originator of the Self-perception theory of attitude change The Exotic Becomes Erotic theory presents one possible explanation as to what causes homosexuality Researchers have suggested that this nonconformity may be a result of genetics, prenatal hormones, personality, parental care or other environmental factors. Peter Bearman showed that males with a female twin are twice as likely to report same-sex attractions. Peter Shawn Bearman, an American Sociologist, is Jonathan Cole Professor of the Social Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Columbia University and He theorizes that parents of opposite-sex twins are more likely to give them unisex treatment, leading to less masculine influence on the males. Having an older brother decreases the rate of homosexuality. Bearman explains that an older brother establishes gendersocializing mechanisms for the younger brother to follow, which allows him to compensate for unisex treatment. 
From their research on 275 men in the Taiwanese military, Shu and Lung concluded that "paternal protection and maternal care were determined to be the main vulnerability factors in the development of homosexual males. " Key factors in the development of homosexuals were "paternal attachment, introversion, and neurotic characteristics. " Other researchers have also provided evidence that gay men report having had less loving and more rejecting fathers, and closer relationships with their mothers, than non-gay men.  Whether this phenomenon is a cause of homosexuality, or whether parents behave this way in response to gender-variant traits in a child, is unclear. Gender variance is a term that refers to those expressions of Gender ( Masculinity and Femininity) that do not conform to the dominant Gender norms 
Innate bisexuality (or predisposition to bisexuality) is a term introduced by Sigmund Freud (based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess) that expounds that all humans are born bisexual but through psychological development (which includes both external and internal factors) become monosexual, while the bisexuality remains in a latent state. Innate bisexuality (or predisposition to bisexuality) is a term introduced by Sigmund Freud (based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess) that expounds The Kinsey Reports are two books on Human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948 and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female Latent homosexuality is an Erotic inclination toward members of the same sex that is not Consciously experienced or expressed in overt action Innate bisexuality (or predisposition to bisexuality) is a term introduced by Sigmund Freud (based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess) that expounds Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Wilhelm Fliess ( 24 October 1858 &ndash 13 October 1928) was a German Otolaryngologist who practised in Berlin
Alfred Kinsey's studies, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, found that the majority of humans have had homosexual experiences or sensations and are bisexual. The Kinsey Reports found that approximately four percent of adult Americans were predominantly gay or lesbian for their entire lives, and approximately 10 percent were predominantly gay or lesbian for some portion of their lives. The Kinsey Reports are two books on Human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948 and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female  Some studies have disputed Kinsey's methodology and have suggested that these reports overstated the occurrence of bisexuality and homosexuality in human populations. 
Homosexuality is no longer regarded as a mental illness by the scientific community. Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a discrete phenomenon Conversion therapy has been defined by the American Psychological Association as therapy aimed at changing Sexual orientation, and by the American Psychiatric In 1973 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed homosexuality as a disorder from the Sexual Deviancy section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the DSM-II. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association  The World Health Organization's ICD-9 (1977) listed homosexuality as a mental illness, and in 1990, a resolution was adopted to remove it in the ICD-10 (1993). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings  The ICD-10 added ego-dystonic sexual orientation to the list, which refers to people who want to change their gender identities or sexual orientation because of a psychological or behavioral disorder (F66.1). Egodystonic sexual orientation is an Egodystonic condition The World Health Organization lists egodystonic sexual orientation in the ICD-10, under "Psychological Gender identity (or core gender identity) is a person's own sense of Identification as Male or Female. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes The 2007 version of the ICD is available online at http//wwwwho The largely religious groups who believe in conversion therapy do not accept the mainstream medical position. Conversion therapy has been defined by the American Psychological Association as therapy aimed at changing Sexual orientation, and by the American Psychiatric
The American Psychiatric Association has stated "some people believe that sexual orientation is innate and fixed; however, sexual orientation develops across a person’s lifetime. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the " In combination with other major American medical organizations, they have put out a statement which said: "Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime—different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual. " A report from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health states: "For some people, sexual orientation is continuous and fixed throughout their lives. The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH is a consortium of Mental health clinics at several sites in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time. " One study has suggested "considerable fluidity in bisexual, unlabeled, and lesbian women's attractions, behaviors, and identities. "
However, they have said "most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation. " American medical organization have further stated therapy cannot change sexual orientation, and have expressed concerns over potential harms.  The director of the APA's LGBT Concerns Office explained: "I don't think that anyone disagrees with the idea that people can change because we know that straight people become gays and lesbians. . . . the issue is whether therapy changes sexual orientation, which is what many of these people claim. " The American Psychiatric Association has stated "To date, there are no scientifically rigorous outcome studies to determine either the actual efficacy or harm of "reparative" treatments," and supports research to further determines risks versus its benefits. The American Psychiatric Association (APA is the main Professional organization of Psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the  Similarly, United States Surgeon General David Satcher issued a report stating that "there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed". Overview The Surgeon General is nominated by the US President and confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. David Satcher, MD, PhD (born March 2, 1941) was the 10th Assistant Secretary for Health from 1998 to 2001 and the 16th 
Homosexual sexual behavior occurs in the animal kingdom, especially in social species, particularly in marine birds and mammals, monkeys, and the great apes. Homosexual behavior has been observed among 1,500 species, and in 500 of those it is well documented. . This discovery constitutes a major argument against those calling into question the biological legitimacy or naturalness of homosexuality, or those regarding it as a meditated social decision. For example, male penguin couples have been documented to mate for life, build nests together, and to use a stone as a surrogate egg in nesting and brooding. Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost In a well-publicized story from 2004, the Central Park Zoo in the United States replaced one male couple's stone with a fertile egg, which the couple then raised as their own offspring. The Central Park Zoo is located in Central Park in New York City and run by the Wildlife Conservation Society. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
The genetic basis of animal homosexuality has been studied in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order  Here, multiple genes have been identified that can cause homosexual courtship and mating.  These genes are thought to control behavior through pheromones as well as altering the structure of the animal's brains. A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero "to bear" + ‘ορμόνη " Hormone " is a Chemical that triggers a natural  These studies have also investigated the influence of environment on the likelihood of flies displaying homosexual behavior. 
Georgetown University professor Janet Mann has specifically theorized that homosexual behavior, at least in dolphins, is an evolutionary advantage that minimizes intraspecies aggression, especially among males. Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D Dolphins are Marine mammals that are closely related to Whales and Porpoises There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera.  Studies indicating prenatal homosexuality in certain animal species have had social and political implications surrounding the gay rights debate. 
The Journal of Homosexuality is a long-standing Peer reviewed Academic journal (founding editor Charles Silverstein) published by The Haworth The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a Fortnightly British literary and political magazine Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Parent article List of gay lesbian or bisexual people Siblings This is a referenced overview list of notable Gay, Lesbian or bisexual The term romantic friendship refers to a very close but non- Sexual relationship between friends often involving a degree of physical closeness beyond Religious narrative has included stories interpreted by many as accounts of same-sex love and sexuality Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade