The Holocene extinction event is the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. An extinction event (also known as mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE is a sharp decrease in the number of Species in a relatively short period In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The Holocene is a Geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago (about 8000 BC The geologic time scale is a chronologic schema (or idealized Model) relating Stratigraphy to time that is used by Geologists and other The large number of extinctions span numerous families of plants and animals including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and arthropods; a sizeable fraction of these extinctions are occurring in the rainforests. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches This extinction event is sometimes referred to as the sixth extinction following the previous five extinction events. Since 1500 CE, 784 extinctions have been documented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.  However, since most extinctions are likely to go undocumented, scientists estimate that during the last century, between 20,000 and two million species have become extinct, but the precise total cannot be determined more accurately within the limits of present knowledge. Up to 140,000 species per year (based on Species-area theory) may be the present rate of extinction based upon upper bound estimating. In Ecology, the species-area curve is a Graph showing the number of Species found in a defined Area of a particular habitat or of habitats
In broad usage, the Holocene extinction event includes the notable disappearance of large mammals, known as megafauna, by the end of the last glacial period 9,000 to 13,000 years ago. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Megafauna are species of large Animals ( Greek μεγας large + modern Latin fauna animal "Last glacial" redirects here For the period of maximum glacier extent during this time see Last Glacial Maximum The last glacial period Such disappearances have been considered as either a response to climate change, a result of the proliferation of modern humans, or both. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus These extinctions, occurring near the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, are sometimes referred to as the Pleistocene extinction event or Ice Age extinction event. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period However the Holocene extinction event continues through the events of the past several millennia and includes the present time.
The observed rate of extinction has accelerated dramatically in the last 50 years. There is no general agreement on whether to consider more recent extinctions as a distinct event or merely part of a single escalating process. Only during these most recent parts of the extinction have plants also suffered large losses. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Overall, the Holocene extinction event is most significantly characterised by the presence of man-made driving factors and its very short geological timescale (tens to thousands of years) compared to most other extinction events. The geologic time scale is a chronologic schema (or idealized Model) relating Stratigraphy to time that is used by Geologists and other
The ongoing extinction event seems more outstanding if we follow tradition and separate the recent extinction (approximately since the industrial revolution) from the Pleistocene extinction near the end of the last glacial period. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the A glacial period is an interval of time within an Ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and Glacier advances The latter is exemplified by the extinction of the woolly mammoth and, incorrectly, the Neanderthal people. A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from
However, modern climatology suggests the current Holocene epoch is no more than the latest in a series of interglacial intervals. Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically An interglacial is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature that separates Glacial periods within an Ice age. Furthermore, there is a continuum of extinctions between 13,000 years ago and now. If only considering human impact, the vulnerability and extinction rate of species simply rises with the increase in human population, so there would be no need to separate the Pleistocene extinction from the recent one. Nevertheless, the Pleistocene extinction event is large enough and has not been resolved completely.
The Ice Age extinction event is characterised by the extinction of many large mammals weighing more than 40 kg. In North America around 33 of 45 genera of large mammals became extinct, in South America 46 of 58, in Australia 15 of 16, in Europe 7 of 23, and in Subsaharan Africa only 2 of 44. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries The South American extinction witnessed the aftermath of the Great American Interchange. The Great American Interchange was an important paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central Only in South America and Australia did the extinction occur at family taxonomic levels or higher.
There are two main hypotheses concerning the Pleistocene extinction:
There are some inconsistencies between the current available data and the prehistoric overkill hypothesis. For instance, there are ambiguities around the timing of sudden extinctions of marsupial Australian megafauna. Marsupials are an Infraclass of Mammals characterized by a distinctive pouch (called the marsupium) in which females carry their young through Australian megafauna is a term used to describe a number of comparatively large Animal Species in Australia, often defined as species with body Biologists note that comparable extinctions have not occurred in Africa, where the fauna evolved with hominids. Post-glacial megafaunal extinctions in Africa have been spaced over a longer interval.
Evidence supporting the prehistoric overkill hypothesis includes the persistence of certain island megafauna for several millennia past the disappearance of their continental cousins. The giant sloth survived on Cuba, Haiti, and Puerto Rico long after North American sloths were extinct. The disappearance of the island species coincides with the habitation of these islands by humans. Similarly the disappearance of woolly mammoths on the remote Wrangel Island did not occur until 7,000 years after their mainland extinction.
An alternative to the theory of human responsibility is Alexander Tollmann's bolide theory, a more controversial hypothesis which claims that the Holocene was initiated by an extinction event caused by bolide impacts. Alexander Tollmann's bolide, proposed by Kristen-Tollmann and Tollmann (1994 is a hypothesis presented by Austrian Geologist Dr The Holocene is a Geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago (about 8000 BC An extinction event (also known as mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE is a sharp decrease in the number of Species in a relatively short period
(circa 15,000 years ago)
(by 9000 years ago)
During the last 50,000 years, including the end of the last glacial period, approximately 33 genera of large mammals have become extinct in North America. "Last glacial" redirects here For the period of maximum glacier extent during this time see Last Glacial Maximum The last glacial period Of these, 15 genera extinctions can be reliably attributed to a brief interval of 11,500 to 10,000 radiocarbon years before present, shortly following the arrival of the Clovis people in North America. Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a Radioactive isotope of Carbon discovered on February 27, 1940, by Before Present (BP years are a time scale used in Archaeology, Geology, and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture) is a Prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological Most other extinctions are poorly constrained in time, though some definitely occurred outside of this narrow interval.  Contrary to this, only about half a dozen small mammals disappeared during this time. Previous North American extinction pulses had occurred at the end of glaciations, but not with such an imbalance between large mammals and small ones. The megafaunal extinctions include twelve genera of edible herbivores (H), and five large, dangerous carnivores (C). North American extinctions included
The survivors are as significant as the losses: bison, moose (recent immigrants through Beringia), elk, caribou, deer, pronghorn, muskox, bighorn sheep, mountain goat. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior The Stag-moose or Stag moose ( Cervalces scotti) was a large Moose -like Deer of North America of the Pleistocene epoch The Giant Beaver ( Castoroides ohioensis) was a huge species of rodent with a length up to 2 Ground sloths are a diverse group of Extinct Sloths Mammals in the edentate Superorder Xenarthra. Arctodus simus, also known as the giant short-faced bear is an extinct species of Bear. The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives The Cave Bear ( Ursus spelaeus) was a Species of Bear which lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct at The terms saber-toothed cat, sabertooth, and saber-toothed tiger describe numerous species mainly in the families Felidae (subfamily Machairodontinae The American lion (Panthera leo atrox also known as the North American lion, American Cave lion,or Panthera is an Extinct The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. The Bering land bridge was a Land bridge roughly 1000 miles (1600 km north to south at its greatest extent which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia The American cheetahs (genus Miracinonyx) were at least two species of feline, morphologically similar to the modern Cheetah, The Dire Wolf ( Canis dirus) is an extinct carnivorous Mammal of the genus Canis, and was most common in North A mammoth is any Species of the Extinct Genus Mammuthus. These Proboscideans are members of the elephant family and Mastodons or Mastodonts (from Greek μαστός and οδούς, meaning " Nipple tooth" are members of the extinct This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. Tapirs (ˈteɪpɚ as in "taper" or /təˈpɪər/ as "ta-pier" are large browsing Mammals, roughly pig-like in shape with short This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. The Bering land bridge was a Land bridge roughly 1000 miles (1600 km north to south at its greatest extent which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America and Siberia with large horns which can weigh up to. The Mountain Goat ( Oreamnos americanus) also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. All save the pronghorns descended from Asian ancestors that had evolved human predators. 
The culture that has been connected with the wave of extinctions in North America is the paleo-Indian culture associated with the Clovis people (q. The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture) is a Prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological v. ), who were thought to use spear throwers to kill large animals. An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl; in English pronounced or) or spear-thrower is a Tool that uses Leverage to achieve greater velocity The chief opposition to the "prehistoric overkill hypothesis" has been that population of humans such as the Clovis culture were too small to be ecologically significant. Other generalized evocations of climate change fail under detailed scrutiny.
Lack of tameable megafauna was perhaps one of the reasons why Amerindian civilizations evolved differently than Old World ones. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century  Critics have disputed this by arguing that llama, vicuña, and bison were domesticated
At the Pleistocene Holocene transition South America, which had remained largely unglaciated except for increased mountain glaciation in the Andes, saw an extinction wave, which carried off many large species. The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes The vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna) is one of two wild South American Camelids along with the Guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Today there is no wild land mammal left on this continent weighing more than a modern tapir.
The sudden spate of extinctions occurred earlier than in the Americas. Most evidence points to the period immediately after the first arrival of humans — thought to be a little under 50,000 years ago — but scientific argument continues as to the exact date range. The Australian extinctions included:
Some extinct megafauna, such as the bunyip-like diprotodon, may be the sources of ancient cryptozoological legends. __FORCETOC__ Diprotodon was the largest known marsupial that ever lived Marsupials are an Infraclass of Mammals characterized by a distinctive pouch (called the marsupium) in which females carry their young through Tapirs (ˈteɪpɚ as in "taper" or /təˈpɪər/ as "ta-pier" are large browsing Mammals, roughly pig-like in shape with short A kangaroo is a Marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods meaning 'large foot' A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales. Thylacoleo ("Pouch Lion" is an Extinct Genus of carnivorous Marsupials that lived in Australia from the late Pliocene Megalania ("great roamer" Greek Μέγας "great" + ἀλαίνω "roam" the giant goanna is an Extinct giant This article is about a mythical creature There is also a town called Bunyip Victoria The bunyip (usually translated as "devil" Cryptozoology (from Greek κρυπτός kruptos, "hidden" + Zoology; literally "study of hidden animals" is the study of and search
c. AD 1500, several species became extinct after Polynesian settlers arrived, including:
Recent research, based on archaeological and paleontological digs on 70 different islands, has shown that numerous species went extinct as people moved across the Pacific, starting 30,000 years ago in the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands (Steadman & Martin 2003). Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and part of Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands It is currently estimated that among the bird species of the Pacific some 2000 species have gone extinct since the arrivial of humans (Steadman 1995). Among the extinctions were:
Starting with the arrival of humans c. 2000 years ago, nearly all of the island's megafauna became extinct, including:
Starting c. The Giant Aye-aye ( Daubentonia robusta) is an Extinct relative of the Aye-aye. Archaeoindris fontoynonti is an extinct Species of Malagasy Lemur that was the largest Primate to evolve on Madagascar Megaladapis is the Genus of three extinct species of Primates that once inhabited the island of Madagascar. Giant tortoises are characteristic reptiles of certain tropical islands The hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibius) from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος ( hippopotamos, ιππος hippos meaning "horse" 500 years ago, a number of species became extinct upon human settlement of the islands, including:
Significantly, the rate of species extinctions at present is estimated at 100 to 1000 times "background" or average extinction rates in the evolutionary time scale of planet Earth;. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001
Megafaunal extinctions continue to the present day. Modern extinctions are more directly attributable to human influences. Extinction rates are minimized in the popular imagination by the survival of captive trophy populations of animals that are merely "extinct in the wild," (Père David's Deer, etc) and by marginal survivals of highly-publicized megafauna that is "ecologically extinct" (Giant Panda, Sumatran Rhinoceros, the North American Black-Footed Ferret, etc. Père David's Deer, Elaphurus davidianus, known as Milu in Chinese (麋鹿 is a Species of Deer known only in captivity The Giant Panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca, "black-and-white cat-foot" is a Mammal classified in the Bear family ( Ursidae) native to Hairy rhinoceros redirects here For the Extinct Megafauna, see Wooly rhinoceros. The Black-footed Ferret ( Mustela nigripes) is a small carnivorous North American Mammal closely related to the Steppe Polecat of Russia ) and by unregarded extinctions among arthropods. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " Some notable examples of modern extinctions of "charismatic" mammal fauna include:
Many birds have become extinct as a result of human activity, especially birds endemic to islands, including many flightless birds (see a more complete list under extinct birds). The aurochs or urus ( Bos taurus primigenius) was a very large type of cattle that was prevalent in Europe until its Extinction in 1627 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian Wild horse. The last specimen of this species died in captivity in Ukraine in 1876 The Thylacine (ˈθaɪləsaɪn -iːn ( Thylacinus cynocephalus Latin wolf-headed pouched dog was the largest known carnivorous Marsupial of modern The quagga is an extinct subspecies of the Plains zebra, which was once found in great numbers in South Africa 's Cape Province and the southern Steller's sea cow ( Hydrodamalis gigas) is an Extinct, large Sirenian Mammal formerly found near the Asiatic coast of the Bering Sea The Falkland Islands Wolf ( Dusicyon australis) also known as the Warrah and occasionally as the Falkland Islands Dog, Falkland Islands Fox Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year 1500 A Notable extinct birds include:
Most biologists believe that we are at this moment at the beginning of a tremendously accelerated anthropogenic mass extinction. The dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) was a Flightless bird endemic to the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Great Auk, Pinguinus impennis, formerly of the Genus Alca, is a Bird that became extinct in the mid-19th century The passenger pigeon ( Ectopistes migratorius) or wild pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common Bird in North America The Moa were ten species (in six genera of flightless Birds endemic to New Zealand. The Carolina Parakeet ( Conuropsis carolinensis)was the only Parrot species native to the eastern United States. E.O. Wilson of Harvard, in The Future of Life (2002), estimates that at current rates of human disruption of the biosphere, one-half of all species of life will be extinct in 100 years. Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( In 1998 the American Museum of Natural History conducted a poll of biologists that revealed that the vast majority of biologists believe that we are in the midst of an anthropogenic mass extinction. Numerous scientific studies since then—such as a 2004 report from Nature, and those by the 10,000 scientists who contribute to the IUCN's annual Red List of threatened species—have only strengthened this consensus. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869 The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List) created in 1963 is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global
Peter Raven, past President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, states in the foreword to their publication AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment: "We have driven the rate of biological extinction, the permanent loss of species, up several hundred times beyond its historical levels, and are threatened with the loss of a majority of all species by the end of the 21st century. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (or AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between Scientists defends scientific freedom encourages " The reasons for the current mass extinction are all human related and include deforestation and other habitat destruction, hunting and poaching, the introduction of non-native species, pollution and climate change.
Evidence for all previous extinction events is geological in nature, and the shortest scales of geological time are in the order of several hundred thousand to several million years. Even those extinction events that were caused by instantaneous events — the Chicxulub asteroid impact being currently the demonstrable example — unfold through the equivalent of many human lifetimes, due to the complex ecological interactions that are unleashed by the event. The Chicxulub Crater (tʃikʃuˈlub is an ancient Impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Asteroids, sometimes called Minor planets or planetoids', are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System —that are smaller than planets but
There was a limited debate as to the extent to which the disappearance of megafauna at the end of the last glacial period can also be attributed to human activities, directly, by hunting, or indirectly, by decimation of prey populations. Megafauna are species of large Animals ( Greek μεγας large + modern Latin fauna animal A glacial period is an interval of time within an Ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and Glacier advances While climate change is still cited as another important factor, anthropogenic explanations have become predominant. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences
There is still hope, argue some, that humanity can eventually slow the rate of extinction through proper ecological management. Current socio-political and overpopulation trends, others argue, indicate that this idea is overly optimistic. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Many hopes are set on sustainable development and conservation. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including 189 countries which are signatory to the Rio Accord have committed to preparing a Biodiversity Action Plan, a first step at identifying specific endangered species and habitats, country by country. The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international Treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation.