The human history of the west coast of North America is believed to stretch back to the arrival of the earliest people over the Bering Strait, or alternately along a now-submerged coastal plain, through the development of significant pre-Columbian cultures and population densities, to the arrival of the European explorers and colonizers. The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив Beringov proliv) is a sea Strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43' The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. The west coast of North America today is home to some of the largest and most important companies in the world, as well as being a center of world culture.
As used in this article, the term west coast of North America means the portions of English-speaking North America, including all or parts of the U.S. states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, and all or parts of British Columbia and the Yukon in Canada, as well as the regions bordering the Pacific Ocean in Spanish-speaking North America, from the Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas in Mexico, to Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama in Central America. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Yukon (ˈjuːkɒn is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three territories. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. Baja California Sur (pron BAH-hah kahl'-ee-FORE-nyah SOOR is one of the 31 States of Mexico. Sonora is one of the 31 federal states of Mexico and is located in the northwest of the country Sinaloa is one of the 31 states of Mexico. Geography Sinaloa is bordered to the north by Sonora and Chihuahua; to the south Nayarit is one of Mexico’s 31 states and is located on the central west coast bordering the Pacific Ocean. Jalisco is a state in Mexico. The capital of Jalisco is the city of Guadalajara. For the state capital of the same name see Colima Colima. There is also a volcano named Colima, and a spider genus Colima ( Zodariidae Michoacán formally Michoacán de Ocampo (from Nahuatl Michhuacān "place of the fishermen" is one of the 31 constituent states The State of Guerrero is a state in the southern meridional region of Mexico. The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), in Spanish phonemically /oa'xaka/ named for its largest city, is one of the Chiapas is the southernmost state of Mexico, located towards the southeast of the country The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America.
This region of North America likely saw the first sustained arrival of people to the continent. There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Although there are other theories, most scientists believe that the first significant groups of people came from Asia, through today's Bering Strait area, then through modern Alaska, and from there spread throughout North America and to South America. The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив Beringov proliv) is a sea Strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43' South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a
Although the cultures on the west coast of today's Canada and United States are not known to have developed substantial urban centers and sophisticated writing or scientific systems, it is likely that, before European contact, the population density along the west coast of today's Canada and United States was significantly higher than in the rest of the northern part of the continent. For example, it has been estimated that in 1492, one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in California. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States 
In the western half of Mesoamerica (that is, western portions of today's Mexico and northern Central America), among the oldest settlements are those which date to approximately 2000 B. Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined C. E.  A succession of cultures started with the very early Capacha culture, which appeared on the Pacific coast of modern Mexico about 1450 B. Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into a number of named successive eras or periods from the earliest evidence of human habitation C. E. and spread into the interior.  The following cultures developed into "high civilizations" in Mesoamerica, with extensive urban areas, writing, astronomy and fine arts:
Farther south, Panama was home to some of the earliest pottery-making, such as the Monagrillo culture dating to about 2500–1700 B. C. E. ; this culture evolved into significant populations best known for spectacular burial sites (dating to c. 500–900 C. E. ) and polychrome pottery of the Coclé style. Coclé is a province of central Panama on the nation's southern coast
Each of these cultures rose, flourished, and was then conquered by a more militarily-developed culture. While not all of these civilizations had large settlements along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, their influence extended to the Pacific coast. 
In 1513, Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to reach the west coast of North America, on the Pacific coast of the Panama isthmus. The History of Spain spans the period from Prehistoric Iberia, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spain's current position From the point of view of European powers in the age of sailing ships, the west coast of North America was among the most distant places in the world. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The arduous journey around Cape Horn at the tip of South America and then north meant nine to twelve months of dangerous sailing. Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. These practical difficulties discouraged all but the Spanish Empire from making regular visits and establishing settlements and ports until the second half of the 1700s—some 200 years after Europeans first reached the west coast of North America. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries
Explorers flying the flag of Spain reached the New World beginning in 1492. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Spanish explorers then followed up on the grants of the Pope (contained in the 1493 papal bull Inter caetera) and rights contained in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas; these two formal acts gave Spain the exclusive rights to colonize all of the Western Hemisphere (excluding Brazil), including the exclusive rights to colonize all of the west coast of North America. Inter caetera ("Among other " was a Papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 4 May 1493, which granted to Spain The Treaty of Tordesillas ( Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas) signed at Tordesillas (now in |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The first European expedition to actually reach the west coast of North America was led by the Spaniard Vasco Núñez de Balboa, which achieved the Pacific coast of Panama in 1513. Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475&ndash January 15, 1519 was a Spanish Explorer, Governor, and Conquistador. In an act of enduring historical importance, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean for the Spanish Crown, as well as the lands touching it, including all of the west coast of North America. This action of Balboa further solidified the Spanish claim of exclusive control over the entire west coast of North America.
The commonly held belief at the time was that the west coast of North America and Asia were within a modest sailing distance, and were actually physically connected, or perhaps separated only by a narrow Northwest Passage, known as the Strait of Anián, which was believed to reach the Pacific Ocean at 42° north latitude (the latitude of today's border between Oregon and California) and connected to the Atlantic Ocean at the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Northwest Passage is a sea route through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways amidst the Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Northwest Passage is a sea route through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways amidst the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French golfe du Saint-Laurent) the world's largest Estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint Confirmation of the land connection, and discovery of this Strait of Anián, were viewed as very important elements in Spain's desire to establish direct trade routes with China and other cultures in Asia. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
The Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America was not especially conducive to economic development during this era. Coastal northern Mexico (including the Baja California Peninsula) was largely too dry for substantial agriculture or ranching that would support settlements, and south of the deserts, the jungles and tropical diseases of the Pacific Coast of central and southern Mexico and of Central America were also an impediment to large-scale development. The Baja California peninsula ( English: Lower California peninsula) is a Peninsula in western Mexico.
Important exceptions were the development of major Spanish ports at Puerto de Navidad and Acapulco in today's Mexico. Barra de Navidad is a small town located on the western coast-line of the Mexican state of Jalisco. Acapulco (Officially Acapulco de Juárez) is a City and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast While Navidad faded in importance, Acapulco became the primary port of the Spanish Empire on the west coast of North America, was used as a base for exploratory expeditions north and trade routes with the Far East. 
From 1533–1535, Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés personally sponsored and financed exploratory sailing voyages north from Acapulco, in a search for legendary riches reported to be in the site of today's California. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2, In the third of these voyages, Cortés accompanied the voyage, and likely reached the site of today's La Paz on the Baja California peninsula. La Paz (Spanish for "The Peace" is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California 
In 1539, another voyage financed and sponsored by Cortés, and led by Francisco de Ulloa, embarked on an expedition in three small vessels, sailing north from Acapulco to explore the Pacific Coast, and to seek the Strait of Anián. See also Francisco Ulloa (accordionist Francisco de Ulloa (died 1540 was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of Acapulco (Officially Acapulco de Juárez) is a City and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast The expedition sailed northwards along the west coast of the Mexican mainland, and reached the Gulf of California six weeks later. " Sea of Cortez " redirects here For the book by John Steinbeck, see The Log from the Sea of Cortez. Ulloa named the Gulf the "Sea of Cortés" in honor of his patron. When one of his ships was lost in a storm, Ulloa paused to repair the other two ships, and then resumed his voyage, eventually reaching the northern end of the Gulf. Unable to find the Strait of Anián, Ulloa turned south and sailed along the eastern coast of the Baja California peninsula, landing at the Bay of La Paz. The Baja California peninsula ( English: Lower California peninsula) is a Peninsula in western Mexico. After taking on supplies of wood and water, Ulloa rounded the tip of the peninsula with great difficulty and sailed northward along the western shore of the peninsula, in the Pacific Ocean. The progress of his small ships was hampered by the fierce winds and high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to Acapulco. The voyage eventually reached 28° north latitude (near the Isla de Cedros). Cedros Island ( Isla de Cedros, "island of cedars" in Spanish, also called in English Cerros Island in former times is a Mexican island
Voyages in 1540 and 1541 to Baja California were sponsored by Cortés's rival, the Viceroy of New Spain. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, These voyages were led by Hernando de Alarcón (1540) and by Francisco de Bolanos (1541). Hernando de Alarcón, a Spanish navigator of the 16th century, noted for having led an early expedition to the peninsula of Baja California, meant to be The voyage by Alarcón was meant to be coordinated with Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's overland expedition; Alarcón penetrated the lower Colorado River, perhaps as far as the modern California-Arizona boundary (but did not meet up with Coronado's expedition). Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (Born in 1510 &ndash Died on September 22 1554 was a Spanish Conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other The voyage of Bolanos provided little new information not already known in New Spain. Application of the name California to this part of the west coast of North America is attributed by some to Bolanos, however other insist that the name first appears in work written by Alarcón. The Toponym California is currently used by three North American entities — in the United States, by the state of California 
The governor of Guatemala also determined to build a Pacific fleet on the west coast of Guatemala, for use in an attempt to cross the Pacific to Asia. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer sailing for Spain, had shown in 1521 that the Pacific Ocean could be crossed from South America. Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães fɨɾˈnɐ̃ũ dɨ mɐgɐˈʎɐ̃ĩʃ Fernando de Magallanes (Spring 1480 &ndash April 27 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu Hence, beginning in 1536, using hardware from Spain (such as anchors) hauled across the isthmus of Central America, and local hardwoods, a flotilla of some thirteen ships was built over the next four years. After much difficulty, the larger number of these ships (under the command of Ruy López de Villalobos) was ordered to make the first crossing of the Pacific Ocean from North America to the Philippines. Ruy López de Villalobos (b 1500 - d 1544 was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Pacific from Mexico ( New Spain) to establish a The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP A smaller number was placed under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator sailing for the Spanish Crown. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (ca 1499 &ndash January 3 1543 was a Portuguese explorer known as João Rodrigues Cabrilho in Portuguese noted for his exploration Cabrillo was ordered north along the west coast of North America to explore the expected coastal route to reach the Asian mainland, as well as attempt to find the Strait of Anián. 
In 1542, Cabrillo became the first European to explore the west coast of today's United States, leading the expedition that landed at San Diego Bay, and continued north. San Diego Bay is a natural harbor adjacent to San Diego California. But Cabrillo died during this voyage, and the remainder of the exploration was led by Bartolomé Ferrelo, who sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's western coast of Oregon. Bartolomé Ferrelo, also known as Bartolomé Ferrer born 1499 in Bilbao Spain died 1550 in Mexico. The Rogue River in the southwestern part of the US state of Oregon flows from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. 
Importantly beginning in 1565, Acapulco was a home of the vital Manila Galleons. The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons ( Galeones de Manila-Acapulco) were Spanish trading Ships that sailed once or twice The Manila Galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean to the Spanish possession of the Philippines, laden with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP There, the wealth was used to purchase Asian trade goods such as spices, silk, and porcelain. A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures These goods were then carried across the Pacific by the Manila Galleons to Acapulco; from there, the goods were transshipped across Mexico, for delivery to the Spanish treasure fleet, for shipment to Spain. Beginning in the 16th century the Spanish treasure fleets (or simply West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias) transported various metal resources and agricultural The income provided to Spain by the Manila Galleons was essential to the Spanish Crown and to the Spanish economy of the era. 
When Miguel López de Legazpi completed the conquest of the Philippines in 1565, he sent his flagship, the San Pedro, back to New Spain, with orders to survey and chart a practicable route for ships returning from the Islands. Miguel López de Legazpi ( 1502 &ndash August 20, 1572) also known as El Adelantado (The Governor and El Viejo (The Elder The San Pedro sailed from Cebu, headed roughly northeast, followed the Kuroshio Current (also known as the Japan Current), and made landfall on the coast of California about the latitude of Cape Mendocino. Cebu is one of the Provinces of the Philippines. It lies to the east of Negros Island; to the west of Leyte and to the southeast is Bohol Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County California, USA is the westernmost point on the coast of California. A sail of two thousand five hundred miles down the coasts of California and New Spain brought the voyagers to the port of Acapulco. This route was charted by the Basque navigator and friar Andrés de Urdaneta, on board the San Pedro, and for nearly three centuries was the one followed by the galleons of Spain sailing from Manila to Acapulco. Andrés de Urdaneta ( Ordizia, November 30[[ 498]] - June 3, 1568, Mexico City) was an Augustinian Friar, sail-captain This return voyage across the Pacific could take up to seven months. A harbor on the coast of California in which ships could find shelter and repair damage was greatly desired. A survey of the unknown northern Pacific coast of North America was ordered, and it was also suggested that the explorations be extended north of 42° north latitude. 
In 1585, Captain Francisco de Gali, on the return voyage from the Philippines, was directed to sail as far north as the weather would permit, and then east, and upon reaching the coast of California to make maps on his journey south. However, Gali accomplished only limited chart-making. He reached the California coast at latitude 37° 30' (Pillar Point—just south of today's San Francisco), and noted that the land was high and fair; that the mountains were without snow, and that there were many indications of rivers, bays, and havens along the coast. Pillar Point Harbor is a boat Harbor created by a Riprap Jetty in San Mateo County California immediately north of Half Moon Bay. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city 
In 1594, Captain Sebastian Cermeñon, a Portuguese sailor in the service of Spain, sailed from the Philippines in the San Agustin with orders similar to those of Gali. In this attempt, Cermeñon's ship became wrecked and was beached in Drake's Bay, north of San Francisco. Drakes Bay is a small bay on the coast of northern California in the United States, approximately 30 miles (48 km northwest of San Francisco Using salvaged and local materials, the crew constructed an open boat, and the ship's company of more than seventy persons continued the homeward voyage. This open vessel reached Acapulco in early 1596—a remarkable voyage of nearly twenty-five hundred miles in an open boat. With the loss of the San Agustin, exploration of the California coast by ships loaded with cargo from the Philippines came to an end. 
In 1602, the Basque captain Sebastián Vizcaíno, sailing for Spain, explored the coastline from Mexico as far north as Monterey Bay in today's California, where he went ashore. Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624 was a Spanish soldier entrepreneur explorer and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja This article is about the bay near Monterey CA For other uses see Monterey Bay Aquarium, California State University Monterey Bay He ventured inland south along the coast, and recorded a visit to what is likely Carmel Bay. Carmel-by-the-Sea, usually called simply Carmel, is a small town endowed with a rich artistic history situated on the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey His major contributions were the glowing reports of the Monterey area as an anchorage and as land suitable for settlement, as well as the detailed charts he made of the coastal waters (which were used for nearly 200 years); however no settlements in today's California were established for the next 150 years. 
In the late 1600s, Spain sent the first missionaries into today's Baja California, founding the first mission there in 1683 at San Bruno on the east coast of the Baja peninsula (San Bruno was abandoned as unsuccessful after two years). The Baja California peninsula ( English: Lower California peninsula) is a Peninsula in western Mexico. The Spanish Missions in Baja California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans Jesuits The short-lived Jesuit mission of San Bruno was established in 1683 on the Gulf coast of Baja California Sur, about 20 kilometers north of the later site of the In 1697, the first "permanent" mission was established at Loreto, about 20 miles away from San Bruno, also on the east coast of the peninsula. Mission Loreto was founded on October 25 1697 at the Monqui settlement of Conchó in the present city of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico During this period (until 1750), some 16 missions were established on the peninsula—mostly on the east coast of the peninsula, with a handful on the Pacific coast, in the northwestern part of the peninsula. 
In 1579, the west coast of North America was visited by the English explorer and privateer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of today's San Francisco and claimed the area for England, calling it "New Albion. A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This article is about the area claimed by Francis Drake For the region named by Sir Edmund Plowden, see New Albion (colony, and for the town in western New " The exact location of Drake's landing has never been determined, and the extent of Drake's claim is unknown. The most commonly accepted location is at Drake's Estero (also known as "Drake's Bay," just north of San Francisco), however, other candidates include Bolinas Bay and Campbell Cove at the entrance of Bodega Harbor in Northern California, as well as sites in Oregon and British Columbia. Drakes Estero is an expansive Estuary in Marin County on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States, approximately Bolinas Bay is a small bay approximately 5 miles (8 km wide on the Pacific coast of California in the United States. Bodega Harbor is a small shallow natural Harbor on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States, approximately 40 mi (64 Northern California is the northern portion of the US state of California. Despite the facts that no permanent settlements were ever established by Drake, and that the next official visit by the British would be some two hundred years later, Drake's action was the foundation of British claims to portions of the west coast of North America in the late 1700s.
While the Spanish had dominated development on the west coast of North America for over 200 years since the early 1500s, beginning in the mid-1700s, this period saw the advent of British and Russian rivals, and the establishment of the California missions, followed by the independence of Mexico and the Central American countries. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between Much later in this period, the United States started on its path to become the dominant power on the west coast of North America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In the 1760s, a decision was made to create a harbor at San Blas (in today's Mexican state of Nayarit), for the purpose of building ships, supplying them, and being the expeditionary base for voyages north along the west coast of North America, from Baja California to Alaska. San Blas is both a municipality and municipal seat located on the Pacific coast of Mexico Today it remains unclear exactly why the Viceroy of New Spain decided to create an entirely new shipbuilding port along the west coast of Mexico, when the port at Acapulco already existed. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, It has been speculated that the reasons San Blas was chosen included that it was a week's sailing closer than Acapulco to the intended destination sites in California, that it was not far from the capital of New Spain, and perhaps more importantly, it had ready access to tropical hardwoods that would be needed to build the ships for the strenuous voyages as far north as today's Alaska. San Blas built the ships and was the home port for these exploration and supply voyages beginning in 1769 and continuing to 1820. 
It was not until 1769, that the first missions were established in today's California (then called Alta California), including the first mission, at San Diego in 1769, the mission at Monterey in 1770, and the mission at San Francisco in 1776. Mission San Diego de Alcalá, also known as the San Diego Mission Church, was founded on July 16, 1769, the first in the twenty-one Alta California Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, also known as the Carmel Mission, is a historic Roman Catholic mission church in Carmel-by-the-Sea California Mission San Francisco de Asís is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions These missions eventually stretched from the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula to Sonoma, California, north of San Francisco. The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County California, USA. The purpose of the missions, which typically had an accompanying pueblo (town) and presidio (military outpost), was to solidify the 250-year old Spanish claim to the region. This need became more urgent as the Russians and British were encroaching on the far northern part of the west coast of North America. In addition, there continued the long-standing interest in creating a safe anchorage for seaworn Manila Galleons on their return to Acapulco. The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons ( Galeones de Manila-Acapulco) were Spanish trading Ships that sailed once or twice Acapulco (Officially Acapulco de Juárez) is a City and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast
Explorers and fur trappers from the Russian Empire (beginning with the Vitus Bering expedition of 1741) arrived on the Pacific coast of today's Alaska, and after establishing settlements there (beginning in 1784), expanded hunting and trading down the west coast of North America. Russian Alaska was the period between 1733 and 1867 in which Russia controlled the territory that today is the The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Vitus Jonassen Bering (also less correctly Behring) ( August 1681 &ndash December 19, 1741) was a Danish -born navigator in the In the early 1800s, fur trappers of the Russian Empire explored the west coast of North America, hunting for sea otter pelts as far south as San Diego. In 1812, the Russian-American Company set up a fortified trading post at Fort Ross, near present day Bodega Bay some sixty miles north of San Francisco. The Russian-American Company ( Under His Imperial Majesty's Protection Russian-American Company)was a state-sponsored Trading company begun by Grigory and Natalia Bodega Bay is a shallow rocky Inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of northern California in the United States.
In the late 1700s, Spain reacted to the expanding Russian and British presence in the Pacific Northwest by sending exploratory expeditions along the coast as far north as Alaska. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean In 1775, a two-ship exploration expedition led by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta landed on the coast of today's Washington—the first European to have sailed this far north along the coast. Bruno de Heceta (Hezeta y Dudagoitia (1744-1807 was a Spanish Basque explorer of the Pacific Northwest. The expedition re-asserted Spanish claims to all the coastal lands, including to the Russian settlements in the north. The two ships sailed together as far north as Point Grenville, Washington, named Punta de los Martires (or "Point of the Martyrs") by Heceta in response to an attack by the local Quinault Indians. Point Grenville is a headland of Washington State. The point was named Punta de los Martires ("Point of the Martyrs " during the He was the first European to sight the mouth of the Columbia River.
By design, the two vessels separated with one continuing to what is today the border between Washington state and Canada. The other (now with second officer Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra at the helm) moved up the coast according to its orders, ultimately reaching a position at 59° north latitude on August 15, 1775, entering Sitka Sound near the present-day town of Sitka, Alaska. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (baptized 3 June, 1743 &ndash 26 March, 1794) was a Peruvian naval officer born in Sitka Sound is a large body of water near the city of Sitka, Alaska. It is there that the Spaniards performed numerous "acts of sovereignty," naming and claiming Puerto de Bucareli (Bucareli Sound), Puerto de los Remedios, and Mount San Jacinto (renamed Mount Edgecumbe by British explorer James Cook three years later). Mount Edgecumbe is the current name of a long- Dormant volcano located at the southern end of Kruzof Island, Alaska, USA, of which it is
In 1790, Spanish explorer Salvador Fidalgo led an expedition that included visits to the sites of today's Cordova, Alaska and Valdez, Alaska, where acts of sovereignty were performed. Salvador Fidalgo ( 6 August 1756 – 27 September 1803) was a Spanish explorer who commanded an exploring expedition for Spain Fidalgo went as far as today's Kodiak Island, visiting the small Russian settlement there. Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the US state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. Fidalgo then went to the Russian settlement at Alexandrovsk (today's English Bay or Nanwalek, Alaska), southwest of today's Anchorage on the Kenai Peninsula, where again, Fidalgo re-asserted the Spanish claim to the area by conducting a formal ceremony of sovereignty. Nanwalek (nan-WAH-leck formerly English Bay, is Census-designated place (CDP in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska, United States Kenai1jpg|thumb|Kenai Peninsula Outer Coast]]The Kenai Peninsula is a large Peninsula jutting from the southern coast of Alaska in the United States.
In 1791, Alessandro Malaspina undertook a search for the Northwest Passage. Alessandro Malaspina (also spelled Alexandro and Alejandro; November 5, 1754 - April 9, 1810) was an Italian The Northwest Passage is a sea route through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways amidst the Canadian Arctic Archipelago He surveyed the Alaska coast from Yakutat Bay to Prince William Sound. Yakutat Bay is a 29-km-wide (18 mi bay in the US state of Alaska, extending southwest from Disenchantment Bay to the Gulf of Alaska. Prince William Sound is a sound of the Gulf of Alaska on the south coast of the U At Yakutat Bay, the expedition made contact with the Tlingit. Not to be confused with the Turkic Telengit people The Tlingit (ˈklɪŋkɪt in English also /-gɪt/ or Tlinkit /ˈtlɪŋkɪt/ which The expedition's scientists made a study of the tribe, recording information on social mores, language, economy, warfare methods, and burial practices. Artists with the expedition, Tomas de Suria and José Cardero, produced portraits of tribal members and scenes of Tlingit daily life. José Cardero (also Josef Cardero) ( 1766 &ndash after 1811 was a Spanish Draughtsman and Artist. A glacier between Yakutat Bay and Icy Bay was subsequently named after Malaspina. The botanist Luis Née also accompanied the expedition, on which he collected and described numerous new plants. Luis Née ( fl 1734-1803 was a Franco - Spanish Botanist, who accompanied the Malaspina expedition to the Pacific Ocean
During the return to Mexico, Malaspina's expedition spent a month at the Spanish outpost in Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island (see below). For other uses of the word Nootka see Nootka (disambiguation. Vancouver Island is a large Island in British Columbia, Canada, one of several North American regions named after George Vancouver, the British The expedition made a study of the Nootka. The two ships then sailed south to Mexico, stopping at the Spanish settlement and mission at Monterey, California on the way. Simultaneously an expedition under Francisco de Eliza, exploring the Strait of Juan de Fuca, discovered an entrance to the Strait of Georgia, which prompted further investigation. Francisco de Eliza y Reventa (1759 &ndash February 19, 1825) was a Spanish naval officer Navigator, and Explorer. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (also called Juan de Fuca Strait) is a large body of water about long forming the principal outlet for the Georgia Strait and Puget The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait (also known as the Gulf of Georgia) is a Strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby In Acapulco, Malaspina took over two schooners, the Sutil and Mexicana, placed them under the command of one of his officers, Dionisio Alcalá Galiano, and had them sail north to explore the Strait of Georgia. Acapulco (Officially Acapulco de Juárez) is a City and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast Dionisio Alcalá Galiano ( October 8, 1760 &ndash October 21, 1805) was a Spanish naval officer cartographer and explorer Galiano's expedition took place in 1792 at the same time as that of George Vancouver. Captain George Vancouver The two expeditions met in the Strait of Georgia and worked together to map the waters and establish the insularity of Vancouver Island. 
Today, Spain's legacy endures as dozens of Spanish place names. In Alaska these include the Malaspina Glacier and Cordova Glacier, the towns of Valdez, Cordova and Port Gravina, as well as Orca Bay and Cordova Peak. The Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is the largest Piedmont glacier this far south in North America. Valdez ( is a city in Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the US state of Alaska. Cordova is a small city located near the mouth of the Copper River in the Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska, United States, at the head of Canucks Sports and Entertainment is a sports and entertainment company in Vancouver British Columbia.  In British Columbia some of the better-known Spanish names (of many) include Quadra Island, Galiano Island, Gabriola Island and Haro Strait. Quadra Island is an island off the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, part of the Discovery Islands. Galiano Island is one of the Southern Gulf Islands between Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland South Coast of British Columbia, Canada Gabriola Island is one of the Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia, in British Columbia (BC Canada. Haro Strait, often referred to as the Haro Straits because it is really a series of straits is one of the main channels connecting the Strait of Georgia to the
In 1778, the British seafaring Captain James Cook, midway through his third and final voyage of exploration, sailed along the west coast of North America, mapping the coast from California all the way to the Bering Strait. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and The northern stretch of the west coast of North America was claimed by the British, but the region was not settled by any British subject until 1788, when the first small trading post was established on Nootka Island in today's British Columbia. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Nootka Island is an island near Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada.
Spain established its own competing fortified trading post at Nootka Sound (Santa Cruz de Nutka, maintained between 1789 and 1795) on Vancouver Island, in today's British Columbia, and sought forcibly to remove British traders by seizing ships, triggering the Nootka Crisis. For other uses of the word Nootka see Nootka (disambiguation. Vancouver Island is a large Island in British Columbia, Canada, one of several North American regions named after George Vancouver, the British The Nootka Crisis was a political dispute between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain, triggered by a series of events that took place during
War between Spain and Great Britain over control of the Pacific Northwest was averted by the three Nootka Conventions, signed in 1790, 1793, and 1794. For other uses of the word Nootka see Nootka (disambiguation. Spain gave up its claim that it alone could establish settlements in the Pacific Northwest (a claim which dated back to the 1493 papal bull and Balboa's actions in 1513), and conceded the British right to establish settlements in any area nominally claimed by Spain but never occupied. This agreement effectively allowed a greatly expanded British presence in the Pacific Northwest, including today's British Columbia, Oregon, and Washington. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean
The primary beneficiary of this agreement was the Hudson's Bay Company which, in 1825, established a major trading post at Fort Vancouver across the Columbia River just north of today's Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company in the company's Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers From this headquarters, British-employed fur trappers spread throughout the Pacific Northwest, extending as far east as the Rocky Mountains and, by using the Siskiyou Trail, as far south as California's Central Valley. Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. The Siskiyou Trail stretched from California's Central Valley to Oregon's Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U
After the Spanish possession now known as Mexico (first known as "América Septentrional" or "Northern America") won its War of Independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico initially retained Spain's missions and settlements along the Pacific coast, and continued Spain's claims to territory as far north as today's border between California and Oregon. The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America ( Spanish: Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional The Mexican War of Independence (1810 - 1821 was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities which started on September 16 1810 In the 1830s, Mexico ended Church control of the missions in California and opened the land to secular development, particularly ranching. By the 1840s, there were small Mexican settlements at San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the territorial capital at Monterey. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West These settlements primarily traded cattle hides and tallow with American and European merchant vessels which came to call. Tallow is a rendered form of Beef or Mutton Fat, processed from Suet.
During the 1820s, the Central American possessions of Spain gained their independence, and the boundaries of the young nations shifted in alliances and configurations. For example, what was to became the nation of Panama was simply a province of Colombia, and Guatemala was variously part of a confederation with Mexico, and part of the United Provinces of Central America, before becoming a separate nation in 1838. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Central Provinces of America, was a short-lived American State in Central America Almost all of these Central American nations saw continuing political strife throughout this period (and into the 20th century), as struggles continued between indigenous peoples and elites, and among factions of the elites.
In 1786, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse led a group of French scientists and artists on a voyage of exploration ordered by Louis XVI and were welcomed in Monterey, California. Jean François de Galaup comte de La Pérouse (23 August 1741&ndash1788? was a French Navy officer and Explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania. They compiled an account of the California mission system, the land and the people.
The leader of a further French scientific expedition to California, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, wrote in 1840 "…it is evident that California will belong to whatever nation chooses to send there a man-of-war and two hundred men. " In 1841, the Mexican military commander in Northern California, General Mariano Vallejo, wrote "there is no doubt that France is intriguing to become mistress of California. Don Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo ( 4 July 1807 - 18 January 1890) was a Californian military commander politician and rancher "
In 1805, the first official party of Americans to arrive on the west coast of North America, the fabled expedition of Lewis and Clark, came down the Columbia River to the river's mouth on the border between today's Oregon and Washington. The Columbia River (known as Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. In 1819, the United States acquired the Spanish claims to the Pacific Northwest (as negotiated in the Nootka Convention) in the Adams-Onís Treaty. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The United States argued that it acquired the Spanish rights to exclusive ownership of the Pacific Northwest as far north as Alaska, even though Spain had in fact relinquished any claim to exclusive rights as a result of the Nootka Conventions. For other uses of the word Nootka see Nootka (disambiguation. This position led to a dispute with Britain known as the Oregon boundary dispute, remembered for the slogan "54-40 or fight!". The Oregon boundary dispute (or Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Pacific Northwest of The two countries agreed to defer resolution of the dispute, and to allow settlement by both British and American immigrants in what became known in the United State as the Oregon Country (today's Oregon, Washington, and Idaho; much of today's British Columbia; and parts of Montana and Wyoming). Oregon Country or Oregon (to be distinguished from the American State also called Oregon) was a predominantly American term referring to The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States.
In 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited the west coast of North America by ship, and sent an overland party down the Siskiyou Trail, from the site of today's Portland, Oregon, to San Francisco. The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean ("the Southern Seas" conducted by the United States Navy from The Siskiyou Trail stretched from California's Central Valley to Oregon's Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city
Americans began arriving on the west coast of North America in significant numbers in the mid-1830s. They first came overland along the Oregon Trail, settling primarily in the rich Willamette Valley south of today's Portland. Pioneers traveled across the Oregon Trail, one of the main overland migration routes on the North American Continent, in wagons in order to settle new parts of the The Willamette Valley () is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence By 1841, the first overland party of American settlers reached California along what became the California Trail, and by the mid-1840s significant numbers of Americans were arriving in California. The California Trail was a major overland Emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th
In addition, the long-standing dispute between the United States and Great Britain over the Oregon Country was resolved in 1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty; the Oregon Treaty divided the disputed territory along what later became the current international boundary between Canada and the United States. The Oregon Treaty, officially known as the Treaty with Great Britain in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, Buchanan-Packenham
This era saw the transformation of much of the west coast of North America from an area still largely populated by indigenous peoples to widespread population of non-natives. In particular, the west coast of the United States showed the most dramatic change, beginning with the California Gold Rush and the subsequent opening of the transcontinental railroads, through the development of Hollywood in Southern California, and increased industry and agriculture in the U. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California Southern California, or So Cal, is defined as the southern portion of the U S. Pacific Northwest. Canadian and Mexican development also proceeded during this time, but at a slower pace.
The American immigrants in California rebelled against Mexico, and in 1846 established the short-lived California Republic. The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14 1846, in the town of Sonoma However, the Mexican-American War had already been declared, and the American military quickly took control of California. At the end of the war, Mexico ceded control of California to the United States. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish) is the Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to Things began to change dramatically in 1848 with the California Gold Rush which saw an overwhelming influx of immigrants from around the world. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California While few found much gold, many stayed, founding communities and turning to farming and other practices. Despite these increases in population the west coast was still on the periphery. The American Civil War had little effect. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South This began to change as the first transcontinental railroads (completed in 1869) stretched across the United States. Transcontinental Railroad is a Railroad that crosses a Continent from "coast-to-coast" For the first time, it was relatively cheap and easy to move to the west coast.
In 1867, the United States acquired Alaska from the Russian Empire, capping American westward expansion on the North American continent.
The next 75 years saw monumental change on the west coast of the United States. Successive booms of agriculture, oil, entertainment, and industry greatly increased California's population. Logging, fishing, and industry drove the economies of Oregon and Washington.
The gold rush fever spread progressively north; in 1858, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush began in British Columbia, and at the end of the century, the Klondike Gold Rush saw the Yukon hit by masses of prospectors. The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush) occurred in 1858 after Gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia The Klondike Gold Rush, infrequently referred to as the Yukon Gold Rush or Alaska Gold Rush, was a frenzy of Gold rush Immigration to and for Yukon (ˈjuːkɒn is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three territories.
The formal delineation of the international border had not completely allayed Canada's fears of losing its western region, especially as it continued to lag behind the western United States in population and development. With British Columbia's joining Canadian Confederation in 1871, the Canadian government began the monumental task of building its own railroad to the west to break the American monopoly. Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885 and firmly cemented the north-south divide of the region. The Canadian Pacific Railway (
While the Pacific Coast of Mexico remained relatively undeveloped economically, exceptions were tobacco cultivation in the coastal territory of Nayarit, tourism at Acapulco, and local-scale fishing all along the coast. Nayarit is one of Mexico’s 31 states and is located on the central west coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.
The countries of Central America continued to struggle politically during this time (with perhaps the notable exception of Costa Rica), and began to expand agriculture, particularly in coffee and bananas with investment and substantial control by the United States. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in The establishment in 1903 of the newly-independent nation of Panama (under pressure from the United States) led to the creation of the Canal Zone and opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá was a 553 square mile (1432 km² territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally The Panama Canal is a man-made Canal in Panama which joins the The opening of the Canal benefited the region economically as trade with the Eastern United States and Europe became far easier.
Both the gold rushes and the building of the railroads required vast amounts of labor. One available source that was used on both sides of the border were immigrants from East Asia, largely from China and Japan. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. These immigrants were willing to work for very little and played a crucial role in building the infrastructure of the west coast. However, they faced constant discrimination. Asians were deprived of their civil rights in both the United States and Canada. There was also pressure to restrict Asian immigration, opinions that were acted on with quotas, head taxes, and finally a complete ban in both nations in the 1920s. A quota share is a specified number or percentage of the allotment as a whole ( Quota) that is prescribed to each individual entity (see Non-tariff barriers to trade A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a Tax of a uniform fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income Because of discrimination, and also a desire to remain a community, Chinatowns developed in all the major cities along the west coast. A Chinatown is a section of an urban area with a large number of Chinese outside the majority-Chinese countries of Greater China.
The rise of the Japanese economy also benefited the region as the ability to trade across the Pacific continued to show its great potential.
However, only a few decades later, Japan would become a major threat. During World War II, there were few attacks against North America, but the occasional Japanese submarine lurked off the shores. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Japan tried to damage the region by sending over hundreds of balloon bombs in an attempt to light forest fires. The term " fire balloon " can mean a small unmanned Hot air balloon for festivities this is also called a Sky lantern. These were generally ineffective; a few landed in either Canada or the United States but they caused no great destruction. More destructive was the internment of ethnic Japanese, who were expropriated and sent into internal exile merely for their descent. Japanese American internment refers to the forcible relocation and Internment of approximately 110000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing
The post-war years would be ones of great prosperity and growth on the west coast of North America. The quick reemergence of Japan and its stunning growth over the next decades meant great wealth for the west coast ports. Japan became the second largest trading partner of both Canada and the United States, and this trade was almost entirely based in the west coast. Later the other Asian economies would add to this trade. Throughout the northwest the primary extractive activities of logging, mining, and fishing remained the central industries. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. California, however, became a cultural centre to rival the northeast due to the film industry as well as becoming a centre of music, literature, and cooking. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible The area became home to some of the continent's greatest universities.
Unlike the east, the western economies were not based upon manufacturing and the great deindustrialization of the 1970s and 1980s did little to hurt the region—creating an imbalance between rapid growth in the west and stagnation or decline in the east. Deindustrialization (also spelled deindustrialisation) is a process of Social and Economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial
During this period, the west coast became the bastion of conservatism with the population favouring low taxes and small government. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined In the United States, this manifested itself in support for the Republican Party, especially for the two Republican California-based presidents Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. In British Columbia, the right wing Social Credit Party governed for over thirty years. The British Columbia Social Credit Party, whose members are known as Socreds, was the governing Political party of British Columbia, Canada Nonetheless, the great port cities of San Francisco and Vancouver both fostered alternative views, acting as centres for environmentalism, unions, feminism, and gay rights.
The general economic revival of North America in the late 1990s brought the East back to health, but even greater growth in Northern California due to the high-tech industry. The region was, hurt, however, by the decade-long economic slump of Japan beginning at the same time. This was made up for by the rapid growth of Southeast Asia, South Korea, and especially China. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The entire region shifted quite dramatically politically, however. Westerners diverged from conservatism over social issues such as gay rights, abortion, and the legalization of soft drugs. Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian An Hard and soft drugs are loose categories of non-prescription Psychoactive drugs This distinction is used in both official and casual discourse In 1991, British Columbia threw out Social Credit electing the social democratic British Columbia New Democratic Party. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left The New Democratic Party of British Columbia (NDP is a Political party in British Columbia, Canada that has Democratic socialist roots California, Washington, and Oregon were pivotal in Bill Clinton's two victories and Al Gore and John Kerry's near wins in 2000 and 2004. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Albert Arnold Gore Jr (born March 31 1948 is an American environmental Activist, author Businessperson, former Politician, and former } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator This change was mainly in the urban coastal areas. Inland, rural regions of California remained stauchly Republican, and the interior of British Columbia has voted solidly for the Reform Party and its successors. The Reform Party of Canada ( Parti réformiste du Canada) was a Canadian federal Political party that existed from 1987 to 2000