|History of Manchuria|
|Not based on timeline|
|Yan (state) | Gija Joseon|
|Han Dynasty | Xiongnu|
|Donghu | Wiman Joseon|
|Wuhuan | Sushen | Buyeo|
|Xianbei | Goguryeo|
|Jin Dynasty (265-420)|
|Mohe | Shiwei|
|Khitan | Kumo Xi|
|Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)|
|Far Eastern Republic (USSR)|
|Republic of China|
|Northeast China (PRC)|
|Russian Far East (RUS)|
The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: 契丹; pinyin: Qìdān) were a nomadic people, located in modern Manchuria (Northeast China) from the 4th century, dominating much of it by the 10th century under the Liao Dynasty, and eventually collapsing by 1125 (or 1211). Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom considered the first proper nation of the Korean people. Yan ( was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. Gija Joseon (? - 194 BC describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in northern (or in the northwest of Korean peninsula. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes Donghu ( literally "eastern hu" was an ancient nomadic tribe or tribal union in Northeast China Wiman Joseon (194 - 108 BC was the part of the Gojoseon period (2333 BC - 108 BC of Korean history. The Wuhuan ( were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality Sushen was an ancient ethnic group or people who dwelt in the northeastern part of China and the Russian Maritime Province. Buyeo, Puyŏ, or Fuyu was an ancient Korean kingdom located from today's Manchuria to northern North Korea, from around the 2nd The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and Cao Wei ( was one of the empires that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties The Yuwen ( is a Chinese compound surname first originated from the a pre-state Clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms The Former Yan ( 337 - 370) was a State of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. The Former Qin ( 351 - 394) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. The Later Yan ( 383 - 407 or 409) was a Murong - Xianbei state locate in north-east of current China during the era of Sixteen The Northern Yan ( 407 or 409 - 436) was a State of Han Chinese during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. The Mohe (or Malgal, Mogher) were a Tungusic people in ancient Manchuria. Shiwei (Chinese 室[[wikt 韦|韦]] is one Ethnic groups in Chinese history, who once reside at the eastern part of Mongolia and Manchuria The Khitan (or Khitai,) were a Nomadic people, located in Mongolia and modern Manchuria (Northeast China from the 4th century dominating much of it The Kumo Xi ( called the Xi since the Sui dynasty) were a Steppes people located in current Manchuria (north East China The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Alternate meaning Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926 ( Bohai in Chinese, Пархэ in Russian) was an The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Far Eastern Republic (Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика ДВР romanised: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika DVR) sometimes called the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Manchukuo (ja [[wikt満州国 満州国]] Manshūkoku lit "State of Manchuria " was a Puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Northeast China ( is a geographical region of China. It is separated from Russia largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers from Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Russian Far East (Да́льний Восто́к Росси́и ˈdalʲnʲɪj vʌˈstok rʌˈsʲiɪ is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria
From Xianbei origins, they were part of the Kumo Xi tribe until 388, when the Kumo Xi-Khitan tribal grouping was roundly defeated by the newly established Northern Wei, allowing the Khitan to resume their own tribe and entity, and beginning the Khitan written history. The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. The Kumo Xi ( called the Xi since the Sui dynasty) were a Steppes people located in current Manchuria (north East China Events By Place Roman Empire The rebellion of Magnus Maximus is put down at the Battle of the Save, and Valentinian II The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or 
From the 5th to the 8th centuries, they were dominated by the steppe power to their West (Turks, then the Uyghurs, during the 8th and 9th centuries) and the Chinese to their south (Northern dynasties or Tang, respectively during the 5th and 6th, and 7th to 10th centuries), and in some cases under Korean domination (from the East, mainly Goguryeo), according to the balance of power at any given time. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Uyghur This article is about the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Under this triple domination and oppression, the Khitan started to show growing power and independence. This rise was, compared to other cases, slow. Slow because it was frequently crushed by its neighbouring powers, each using the Khitan warriors when needed, but each ready to crush them when the Khitan rose too much and became powerful, close to becoming an independent fourth regional power. The 696-697 Li-Shun Rebellion is really instructive on this "2 adults and 1 teenager" game : the Khitan were encouraged by the Turks to take all the risks and revolt against the Tang, which they successfully accomplished, before being attacked at their rear by the Turks, to the great advantage of the newly-reborn Turkish empire (2d, 682-745). Events Births Deaths Prince Takechi of Japan Map-bms696 Events By Place Asia Emperor Mommu succeeds Empress Jitō on the throne of Japan Events By Place Europe The first entry is made in the Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion. The New 745 Bio Sunnyland Ill - 745 — “Turning your wildest dreams into nightmares 
Enjoying the departure of Uyghur people for West, and the collapse of the Tang Dynasty in early 10th, they established the Liao Dynasty in 907. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Events By Place Asia Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople (see Rus'-Byzantine The Liao Dynasty proved to be a significant power north of the Chinese plain, continuously moving south and West, gaining control over former Chinese and Turk-Uyghur's territories. They eventually fell to the Jin Dynasty of the Jurchen in 1125, who submit and absorb Khitans to their military benefit. This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu
Following the fall of the Liao Dynasty, many moved further west and established the state of Kara Khitai. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria This article refers to the Khitan Khanate. For the Turkic state see Kara-Khanid Khanate. Their name survived in the Russian word for China (Китай, Kitay), as well as the archaic English (Cathay), Portuguese (Catai), and Spanish (Catay) appellations of the country. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Cathay is the Anglicized version of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. They has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (simplified Chinese: 东胡族; traditional Chinese: 東胡族; pinyin: Dōnghú zú). China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. Donghu ( literally "eastern hu" was an ancient nomadic tribe or tribal union in Northeast China Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use
References to the Khitan in Chinese sources date back to the fourth century. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Ancestors of the Khitan were the Yuwen clan of the Xianbei, an ethnic group situated in the area covered by the modern Liaoning province. The Yuwen ( is a Chinese compound surname first originated from the a pre-state Clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ( is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. After their regime was conquered by the Murong clan, the remnants scattered in the modern-day Inner Mongolia and mixed there with the original Mongolic population. Murong ( is a Chinese compound surname. It is mostly known as the family name of the Chinese/ Xianbei states Former Yan, Later Yan, Western Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia.
They had been identified as a distinct ethnic group since paying tribute to the Northern Wei Dynasty in the mid-6th century. The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
During the time of the Tang Dynasty in China, the Khitan people oscillated between vassality to Tang or to Turks, according to the moment balance of power, or under the Uyghurs when they replaced the Turks as the main steppe power. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. However, once the Uyghurs left their home in the Mongolian Plateau in 842, enough of a power vacuum was create that gave the Khitan the opportunity to make their rise. Events By Place Europe February 14 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty The Khitan invaded the areas vacated by the Uyghurs, bringing them under their control.
Recorded notable Khitans' raids on Chinese Empire occurred several times as early as the seventh century. In 605, moving and raiding south, they were crushed by a Sui General leading 20,000 Turkish cavalry. For the car see Peugeot 605. Events By Place Asia As a result of a quarrel between Numan III the Lakhmid The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on
Under Tang Taizong (r. Emperor Taizong of Tang ( January 23, 599 &ndash July 10 649) personal name Lǐ Shìmín ( was the second emperor of the 626-649), Khitans became vassals of Tang. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantines defeat the Avars and Slavs, who were besieging Constantinople Events By Place Europe Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths.
Despite some occasional clashes, Khitans remained Chinese vassals until these 690's.  According to the « Loose rein policy », the Khitan area of this time was under control of Tang by the Governor-general of Yingzhou, Zhao Wenhui, assisted by local Khitans' chieftains, namely the Khitan chieftain and regional governor of Songmo, Li Jinzhong, and his brother-in-law, the Khitan chieftain and prefect of Guicheng Sun Wanrong. The Jimi system ( Chinese: 羁縻制 or Jimifuzhou (羁縻府州 was a self-rule administrative and political organization system used in China between Li Jinzhong (李盡忠 (d September 23, 696) titled Wushang Khan (無上可汗 literally "the khan that had no superior" was a Sun Wanrong (孫萬榮 (d 697 was a khan of the Khitan people who along with his brother-in-law Li Jinzhong, rose against Chinese hegemony in 696 with Li Jinzhong
Opposition raise according to Zhao Wenhui behaviour, who firstly looked at local chieftains as servant and humiliated them on many occasions, provoking an associated resentment, and secondly because of the 696's famine occurred in this Khitan area. Events Births Deaths Prince Takechi of Japan Map-bms696 The Loose rein policy ask to the unsuccessful Tang Governor-general to pay relief, what Zhao Wenhui failed to do, worsening the situation (by not finding solution and not providing relief), and launching the Khitan rebellion (696, fifth month). 
Li Jinzhong lead the rebellion, and according to Khitan abilities at war, Yingzhou was soon captured, allowing him to declare himself "Wushang Kehan" (無上可汗: paramount khaghan). Sun Wanrong assisted him as general, successfully leading tens of thousands of troops southward.
The first major response of Tang came in the form of a twenty-eight generals force, promptly defeated by Khitans in the Xiashi Gorge battle (near modern Lulong County of Hebei Province, 696, eighth month). ( Postal map spelling: Hopeh) is a northern province of the People's Republic of China. Events Births Deaths Prince Takechi of Japan Map-bms696 Tang were astonished by the announcement of the defeat, and Empress Wu Zetian quickly issued decrees to launch a new offensive and encourage participations, but the battlefield staid a place of Khitan's victories until Li Jinzhong died of disease. Wu Zetian ( (625 – December 16, 705 In 705 she was overthrown in a coup and Emperor Zhongzong was returned to the throne But this Khitans awakening displease to Turks and their Newly reborn Empire too (682-745), with Ashina Mochuo khaghan asking to Tang to be allow to allied himself to Chinese efforts in exchange of an imperial marriage for his daughter, to be son of empress Wu (diplomatic adoption), the return of Turks in Chinese territories (Hexi), and the return of Khitans as Turkish vassals. Events By Place Europe The first entry is made in the Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion. The New 745 Bio Sunnyland Ill - 745 — “Turning your wildest dreams into nightmares Qapaghan Khaghan (or Ashina Mo-ch'o, Ashina Mochuo r 694-716 was the second Khaghan of the Second Gokturk Empire, and brother of 
The second major Chinese offensive came on the tenth month of 696, Tang attacking from south while Türks did from north, enjoying the recent death of Li Jingzhong. Khitans were in a dangerous situation, suffering heavy lost, but Sun Wanrong took the lead and restored good order and motivation in Khitan's troops. They continuously stormed into Jizhou and Yingzhou, shaking the whole region of Hebei (current north of Huanghe). This opposition was inconclusive.
Also, the powerful Wang Xiaojie assisted by Su Honghui and some others Chinese generals lead a third 170,000 troops strong army to the area of the Xiashi Gorge, but were also crushed by Khitan, who mastered in battlefield and ambuscades. Wang Xiaojie (王孝傑 (d February 8, 697) formally the Duke of Geng (耿公 was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty Wang Xiaojie was killed while Su Honghui fled, Khitan were allowed to capture the following frontier garrison of Youzhou, south of Yingzhou. 
In a fourth campaign (fifth month, 697), Empress Wu sent Lou Shide and Shatuo Zhongyi leading a 200,000 troop strong army northward to stop Sun Wanrong who was advancing southward. Lou Shide (婁師德 (630-699 Courtesy name Zongren (宗仁 formally Viscount Zhen of Qiao (譙貞子 was an official and general of the Chinese Despite previous victories on battlefields, Turks refused the proposed Khitan-Turk alliance a launch a massive attack on Xincheng, while the helpful (Kumo) Xi betrayed Khitan to support China. Khitan populations were now facing devastating Turkish plunders on north, while successful Khitan army was now facing Chinese 200,000 troops plus Xi troops on south. In such critical situation, cohesion in Khitan headquarters collapsed, ending by the assassination of Sun Wanrong by one of his own subordinates. The Khitan troops, without clear leader and in such critical situation collapsed too, while the reman Khitan, together with Xi, gave allegiance to Turks, as formerly planned between Mochou khaghan and empress Wu Zetian in early 696, while a new chieftain was proclaim : Li Shihuo (697-717, [李]失活). 
Consequently, Khitan, together with Xi and both under Turkish leadership, remained time by time aggressive toward Chinese, with the Tang launching several punitive campaigns against them from 700 to 714. 
Turks played a major role in crushing this rebellion, on military actions and on strategic role as well (attacking on the rear!). It is to understand the Turkish situation. Turks were submit to China in 630, crushing their first Turkish Empire. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Serbs settle in the Balkans having been invited by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius In 679, enjoying Chinese internal political turmoil, they revolted. Events By Topic Religion Adamnan becomes Abbot of the monastery on Iona. They were bloodily defeated by Tang troops in 681 in a Pyrrhic victory, also, the remnant Eastern Turks reunited under Ashina Guduolu (d. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty which A Pyrrhic victory (ˈpɪrɪk is a victory with devastating cost to the victor 691), who was able to proclaimed the reborn of the Turkish empire (682-745), without Tang's reaction. Events By Place Europe The first entry is made in the Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion. The New 745 Bio Sunnyland Ill - 745 — “Turning your wildest dreams into nightmares 
At his death, his brother Mochuo replaced him, and engaged Turks in an aggressive policy of "plunder to strengthen" as the best way to revitalize his Empire. Turks plundered all their neighbour, Khitan and Chinese as well, but encouraged Khitans to rebel against Tang rule. But almost as soon as Khitan rebelled and were successful, Turks proposed China an alliance. Actually, Turks, in war against China, were just asking for a diversion on east, allowing them to be more free on their front. When Khitans unexpectedly appeared to be so successful, they both were surprised and afraid, seeing a new power born on their East, but also, seeing Khitan fighting hard against Chinese, seen the perfect occasion to take advantage of both busied Khitan and crying Tang. By attacking Khitan on their rear, they provided a inestimable help to Tang, while working for themselves too by crushing eastern raising power. 
Even more, while the fourth Chinese campaign was still not launch and despite previous propositions of alliance, Turks attacked Chinese territories to show clearly their strong (third month, 697). Events By Place Asia Emperor Mommu succeeds Empress Jitō on the throne of Japan Also, along with the final victory, they eventually got back the Turkish population held in six Chinese northern border prefectures since 670-674, the submission of both Khitan and Xi, plus large amount of seed-grain, silk, farming implements, iron, noble titles for Mochou khaghan (General, Khaghan, noble's rank) and the asked imperial marriage. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 
In the 710's, the Khitan military chief Ketuyu (可突于) was so valiant and beloved by Khitan's commoners that the Khitan King Suogu (李娑固 Li Suogu, r. Ketuyu (可突于 d 734) was a Khitan military chief notable for his Ketuyu rebellion. 718-720) became both jealous and in fear. Accordingly, he plotted to assassinate Ketuyu. As often the case, the plot was disclosed, and Ketuyu's troops attacked the King, who fled to Yingzhou to get Chinese support. 
Xu Qinzhan (許欽?), the Chinese Governor-General of Yingzhou immediately called for a punitive military campaign, ordering General Xue Tai, assisted by 500 valiant soldier, Xi troops, and Suogu troops to walk northward. The Chinese-loyalist army was crushed, both Suogu (Khitan King) and Li Dapu (Xi King) were killed, while Xue Tai was kindly captured (and not executed) by Ketuyu, in hope to resume good relations with Chineses, sending an envoy to humbly apologize, while he enthroned Suogu's cousin Yuyu (李鬱于, 720-722/724). 
Indeed, peaceful relations were restored, and when Ketuyu made a second coup to face new king Tuyu suspicions, Tang court peacefully confirmed the newly enthronized king Shaogu (李邵固 Li Shaogu, 725-730), displaying the respective Tang's will of appeasement. Events By Place Europe Bede publishes On the reckoning of time ( De temporum ratione) calculating dates Events By Place Europe Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons 
In 730, Ketuyu went to present tributes to Chang'an and was then mistreated by the chancellor Li Yuanhong. Events By Place Europe Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. The chancellor of the Tang Dynasty (唐朝宰相 was an office that was semi-formally designated for a number of high level officials at one time during the Chinese Li Yuanhong (李元紘 (d 733 Courtesy name Dagang (大綱 formally Baron Wenzhong of Qingshui (清水文忠男 was an official of the Chinese Back to Khitan territories, Ketuyu assassinated the pro-Tang Shaogu (fifth month, 730) and switched the allegiance of his subjects and of the Xi tribes from Tang to Türks, sending a clear message to Tang. Events By Place Europe Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons Ketuyu then attacked Pinglu (part of Yingzhou) where a preventive Tang's army was stationed.
The Chang'an officials were panicked by the vision of a new Khitan rebellion. They ordered Prince of Zhong Jun -as commander in chief- assisted by 18 generals to go north with warriors recruited from as far as Guannei, Hedong, Henan and Hebei to crush this Khitan-Xi rebellion. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country ( Postal map spelling: Hopeh) is a northern province of the People's Republic of China.  In 732 (third month) Khitan-Xi troops were defeat by the Prince of Xin'an, Ketuyu had to fled away while Li Shi Suogao, the Xi king, betrayed to submit back to Tang with his 5,000 subjects, getting by the way the titles of the Prince of Guiyi (allegiance and righteousness) and prefect of Guiyi Zhou, with the Xi allowed to settle in Youzhou, under Chinese protection. For the area code see Area code 732. Events By Place Europe October 10 — Battle of
A second major campaign came in 733 (fourth month), Guo Yingjie being ordered to lead 10,000 troops assisted by Xi warriors to crush Khitan. Events By Place Europe Leo III the Isaurian withdraws the Balkans, Sicily and Calabria from the jurisdiction But Ketuyu came first with Turkish support, putting Chinese-Xi troops in difficulty, thus, Xi fled to save themselves. As predictable, Guo Yingjie and his men, alone to face Khitan-Turkish troops, lost with heavy causalities: Guo along most of his men being killed on the battlefield. While one year later the Khitan were defeated by Zhang Shougui, regional commander of Youzhou (second month, 734). 
Ketuyu, seeing Khitan forces exhausted by repetitive Tang campaigns, pretended to surrender (twelfth month, 734) and was eventually was murdered together with his puppet King, Qulie (李屈列 Li Qulie 730-734), by his subordinate Li Guozhe (李過折). Li Guozhe being soon himself assassinate in favor of a Ketuyu's clan restoration.
While traditional scholars explain this Ketuyu Rebellion as a typical barbarian reaction, modern historians are more cautious. Both the Chinese Liao expert Shu Fen and the Japanese Matsui Hitoshi are incline to think that Chinese lenient policy encouraged Ketuyu's arrogance.
On contrary, Xu Elian-Qian support that the Chinese interferences in Khitan internal changes caused the aggressive Ketuyu's reactions. That true for the conflict of 720 and the aggressive Chinese ingerence tentative. But this opinion don't explain the 725's Chinese appeasement policy, Chinese letting Ketuyu kill the Khitan king and enthrone a new one. Actually, when Ketuyu was personally mistreated in Chang'an (730), this resentment lead him to choice the huge of consequences diplomatic opposition by turning his submission to Turk. Events By Place Europe Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons This turn was predictably understand by Chang'an as a first magnitude treason which can't be tolerate, leading to the following 5 years of war to submit them back. Shu and Matsui don't see this Chinese reaction as an aggressive interference, but as a predictable interference, caused by Ketuyu arrogant turn face to the recent lenient policy. 
Xu explain that Khitans were in a turning point, the Dahe family being collapsing as an after-shock of the Li-Sun Rebellion, while the Yaonian family was raising by organizing a new confederation (web of alliances). Accordingly, this period was rich in turmoils. The opposition may have came from the respective perceived definition of the « Loose rein » agreement. The Jimi system ( Chinese: 羁縻制 or Jimifuzhou (羁縻府州 was a self-rule administrative and political organization system used in China between In time of weakness of the central power, like in the 680's, this Loose rein policy means large independence for submitted population, who choice their own chief, etc. In time of strong central power —as under Tang Xuanzong reign (712-756)— the central Chinese power is incline to impose his pro-Chinese choices, including in choice of Kings and major chiefs, despite the previous Loose rein agreement. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang ( ( September 8, 685 Background Li Longji was born at the Tang Dynasty eastern capital Luoyang Events By Place Europe Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short defeats the Lombards of northern Italy, who have threatened Pope Stephen Also, in prosperous revitalizing time such Xuanzong's reign and face to the 720's coup, Tang official immediately sent an army to support the dethroned pro-Tang king, clearly interfering in Khitan internal affairs. 
Also, the 730-734 war seems to have been the consequences of both Chinese revitalized foreign policy, Khitan internal turmoil and associated oppression on Ketuyu, and following miscalculations from Ketuyu.
By the 730's, Regional commander already add large autonomy of initiative to face neighbouring threats, accordingly, boundary wars and rebellions are understand by many scholars as the full responsibility of local general commanders.
In 736 (third month), Zhang Shougui, the general commander of Youzhou sent his protected, the smart An Lushan (an officer of the Pinglu Army 平盧軍, based in modern Chaoyang, he was said to know 6 languages out of Chinese), to attack Khitan and Xi rebels, but An Lushan made a too-much audacious attack with cost him almost all his troops. Events By Place Asia The scholar-priest Rōben invites Shinshō to give lectures on the Avatamsaka Sutra at Kinshōsen-ji Background and Name An Lushan's mother was of Tujue ethnicity from the Ashide clan and served as a sorceress He escape usual execution for such disobedience cases in part because of Zhang affection for him, and in part thanks to Emperor Xuanzong who -overviewing death penalty cases- believed that his audacious and mid-barbarian character should not be pay by death. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. .
Back to Youzhou, he soon became the Bingmashi (兵馬使) of Pinglu Army (741, seventh month), cultivating carefully relationships with other officials and generals to earn praises, and bribing Imperial messengers to advantageously include him in their reports. This article is about the year 741 For the 741 Integrated circuit, see Operational amplifier. As the consequence of this systematic bride, he was promote commandant at Yingzhou (Ying prefecture) and Jiedushi (military governor) of the Pinglu army in 742 to face and defeat northern threat (Khitans, Xi, Bohai, and Heishui Mohe). The Jiedushi ( were regional military governors in China during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. Events By Place Asia Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court (approximate date The Heishui Mohe or Heuksoo Malgal or Black-Water Mohe (黑水靺鞨 Hangul: 흑수말갈 pinyin Hēishuǐ Mòhé Jurchen / Manchu  and military governor of Fanyang Circuit (范陽, headquartered in modern Beijing) in 744, plundering Khitan and Xi villages to display his military abilities. For the aircraft see Boeing_747-400 Events By Place Europe February — Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand This continuous harassment of Khitan is understand by some scholars as volunteer provocation to up the Khitan aggressiveness and threat, in the aim to get more troops from Chang'an for his future rebellion, and as the reason of the 745's Khitan-Xi rebellion. 
When commander on northeatern frontier (744-755), it seems that An Lushan was used to attack or trap Khitan-Xi nomads with the final idea to get praises from the Tang court for his victories and probably also the idea to get more troops for later campaigns, what ever to defeat the enormous threat that -according to An Lushan's rapport- constituated the Northeastern "babarians", on which list Khitan were the most noticeable, or in preparation of his futur rebellion (755-763). For the aircraft see Boeing_747-400 Events By Place Europe February — Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand Events By Place Europe Abd-ar-Rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty Events By Place Europe Abd-ar-Rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty Events By Place Europe Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts.
In 745 (third month), several Tang's princess were married to Khitan's leaders in sign of appeassment. But for some reason, Khitans soon (745, ninth month) turned into an open rebellion against Tang, killing the princess and starting military operations. Huge previous pressions from An Lushan combine with Chang'an court praise for him may have display to Khitan a impasse visions against which they eventually revolted. Khitans were quickly defeated by An Lushan's toops by a dual of punitive expeditions and traps. Sources repports that Banquets for peace declaration were set up by An Lushan and offered to Khitan and Xi, whom, happy to get both peace and free provisions rushed to the buffet and drunk heavely these food and wine poisoned by some narcotics. An Lushan then led his warriors to kill all of them, who were sleeping on the ground or drunk enough to be easy to kill, and the Chiefs' heads were send to Tang court for displaying. Sources says that each of such Banquet ended by the death of thousand warriors, but this claims stay difficult to believe : can Khitan be that naive to let An Lushan kill thousands of them -several times- in the same kind of "free food traps" ? The difficulty is that Chinese sources seems also biased against An Lushan, depicting him by this story as a trerrible untrustable ennemy. The final result stay : Khitan's 745 rebellion was hardly crushed.
In 751-752, following An Lushan's provocations a harassments, the Khitans moved south to attack the Chinese Tang Empire. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the Events By Place Europe Cuthred of Wessex leads a successful rebellion against Aethelbald of Mercia at Battle Edge, Background and Name An Lushan's mother was of Tujue ethnicity from the Ashide clan and served as a sorceress Accordingly, Khitan were soon subject to a Chinese campaign (751, eighth month) : An Lushan assisted by 2,000 Xi guides leading 60,000 Chinese troops into Khitan's territories. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the But when the fights seriously started, Xi suddenly turned their support to Khitan, the Khitan-Xi army then quickly squeeze on hampered-by-rains Tang armies and killed almost all soldiers while An Lushan escapaded to Shizhou with just twenty cavalrymen. The defending general Su Dingfang, a Tang's general was eventualy able to stop Khitan pursuit troops, which retreated : they had their battlefield victory, not the wished An Lushan's head. So they laid a siege on the city, and only Shi Siming (one An Lushan's general) was able to end this event. One of his generals was killed in action, and, after retreating, he blamed and executed two other for the defeat.
In 752, to punish this audaces and insult, a 200,000 strong army including both Chinese and bararian infantry and cavalry went northward to meet Khitan. Events By Place Europe Cuthred of Wessex leads a successful rebellion against Aethelbald of Mercia at Battle Edge, But while he An Lushan requested that the ethnically Tujue general Li Xianzhong (李獻忠) accompany him, Li, feared An and, when compelled to, rebelled, thus putting a halt to An's campaign.  After three years (755, month fourth), An annouced his victory, about which historical reccords are not really clear. By this time, An Lushan was already engage into a opposition to the Yang clan locate in Chang'an, this turned his system of alliances. Put into an impasse, he rose into rebellion and had to walk southward to conquest quickly the unprotected hearth of the Tang territories. The An Shi Rebellion ( took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16 755 to February 17 763. In this movement, he then looked for assisatance from northern nomades : Tujue, Uighurs, Khitan, Xi, Shiwei. All, in some extend, assisted his troops and his rebellion. Khitan principaly by his previously-took-prisonniers' warriors. But the Khitan, exhausted, take a little part in these campaigns.
The continuous agitation of Khitans on the northeast of the Empire, maintant by An Lushan actions, provided An Lushan more and more support troops from Chang'an for his own power and ambitions, growing to 160,000-200,000 men. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. This was allow by several factors:
Accordingly, An Lushan power strenghened with associated pressions on Khitan.
The turn point came when An became worry about the post Xuanzong-Li Linfu (An Lushan add get their favor, but to the cost of relations with other officials). Noticing that the heart of the empire was without defenses, An considered to plan a rebellion. He selected some 8,000 soldiers among the surrendered Khitan, Xi, and Tongluo (同羅) tribesmen, organizing them into an elite corps known as the Yeluohe (曵落河, "the brave") and a dozen of able generals. Tongluo (銅鑼 is a rural township in Miaoli County, Taiwan. 
When Li Linfu died and Yang Guozhong —a Yang clan member— replaced him as high chancellor, An Lushan rose in rebellion with his composed armies, and attacked the central power, with some Khitan, Xi, and Turkish supporters. Yang Guozhong ( d July 15 756 né Yang Zhao (楊釗 was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor late Then only leaving Khitan.
Khitans were concentrating themselves on their own development and were relatively peaceful.
The Liao Dynasty was founded in 907 when Abaoji, posthumously known as Emperor Taizu was named the leader of the Khitan nation. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Events By Place Asia Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople (see Rus'-Byzantine Taizu of the Liao Dynasty was emperor of the Khitan Empire (907-926 Taizu of the Liao Dynasty was emperor of the Khitan Empire (907-926 Even though the Great Liao Dynasty was not declared until the 947, it is generally said to have begun with the elevation of Abaoji. Events By Place Asia The Later Jin Dynasty falls to the Later Han Dynasty (founded by Gaozu of Later Han) in
Though Abaoji died in 926, the dynasty would last nearly two more centuries. Taizu of the Liao Dynasty was emperor of the Khitan Empire (907-926 Events By Place Asia Balhae is conquered by the Khitan. An historic meeting takes place between Later Tang Five cities were designated as capitals during that dynasty. In addition to the Supreme Capital in the heartland of Khitan Territory, there were four regional capitals. One of which was Beijing, which became a capital in the first time in its history, though it was not the principle capital of the Dynasty, but rather was designated as the Southern Capital after the Khitan acquired the contentious Sixteen Prefectures in 935. The Sixteen Prefectures are a region in northern China stretching from present-day Beijing westward to Datong. Events By Place Europe Estimation Córdoba, capital of Al-Andalus, becomes the largest city of the world taking the lead
Abaoji introduced a number of innovations, some more successful than others. He divided the empire into two parts, one of which was governed based on nomadic models while the sedentary population was government largely in accordance with Chinese techniques.
Less successful was the attempted introduction of primogeniture in succession to the throne. Although he designed his eldest son to be heir, he did not succeed Abaoji.
Abaoji was "afraid that their use of Chinese advisers and administrative techniques would blur their own ethnic identity, the Khitan made a conscious effort to retain their own tribal rites, food, and clothing and refused to use the Chinese language, devising a writing system for their own language instead. Khitan script was the writing system of Khitan people. Afraid that the popularity of Chinese language and writing would blur their distinct identity the Khitan people "  The first of these two scripts was created in 920. 920 AD was a year in the 10th century Events By Place Africa The golden age of the Ghana Empire begins in Africa. The second, based on alphabetic principles, was created five years later.
The Khitans were absorbed by Jurchens, and widely use in the following years of war to conquest the north of Song territories. This article refers to the Khitan Khanate. For the Turkic state see Kara-Khanid Khanate. In the other hand, a number of the nobility of the Liao Dynasty escaped the area westwards towards Western Regions, establishing the short-lived Kara-Khitan or Western Liao dynasty, they were in turn absorbed by the local Turkic and Iranic populations and left no influence of themselves. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria The Western Regions or Xiyu ( was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to 8th century that referred to the regions west of Jade This article refers to the Khitan Khanate. For the Turkic state see Kara-Khanid Khanate. This article refers to the Khitan Khanate. For the Turkic state see Kara-Khanid Khanate. As the Khitan language is still almost completely illegible, it is difficult to create a detailed history of their movements. The Khitan language (also known as Liao Kitan 639-3 is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people.
For a while after the invention of the Korean Hangeul script in the mid-15th century, the name of the Khitans continued to appear in Korean texts as 거란 (Georan/Kǒran). This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system A writing system is a type of Symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in Language. The ethnonym eventually fell out of use, however, and vanished along with the distinct ethnic identity of the Khitan people. An ethnonym ( Gk έθνος ethnos, 'tribe' + όνομα onoma, 'name' is the name applied to a given Ethnic group. Khitans had both a « small script », alphabetic, and « large script » based on Chinese characters. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
The Khitan are also said to have learned from history. On the one hand, they observed the fearsome effect that steppe cavalry had on the Chinese, through their use by the Uyghurs, Shatuo Turks, Kyrgyz, and later themselves. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The Shatuo (沙陀 (also Seyanto, Xueyantuo, Sha-t'o) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. On the other, they also noted the effect that the adoption of Chinese writing and other tools of administration had on their cultural integrity. The Korean kingdom of Silla was known by the Khitan to refer to themselves as a “little China. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ” While their situation was not akin to that of Silla in a number of ways, they also did not want to fall into the same situation. Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
There is no clear evidence of there being any descendant ethnic groups of the Khitan in modern-day Northeast China, but some recent genetic studies have tended to support the hypothesis that the Daur ethnic group of Inner Mongolia contains at least some direct descendants of the ancient Khitan. Northeast China ( is a geographical region of China. It is separated from Russia largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers from This arcticle is about the Daur people and their language For the Daur region of Pakistan see Daur region ---- The Daur people ( Traditional Chinese Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol  Some Yunnan Han Chinese are descendants of the Khitan. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. 
Asia 1100ad. jpg
See also Ethnic groups in Chinese history
See also List of the Khitan rulers