Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Scientists now believe that modern humans emerged from Africa 160,000 years ago. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Around 50,000 years ago these humans began to disperse from Africa reaching all the habitable continents. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, scientists conclude that music must have been present in the ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. Consequently music must have been in existence for at least 50,000 years and the first music must have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life.
A culture's music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization and experience, climate, and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods. "Music history" is the distinct subfield of musicology and history which studies music (particularly western art music) from a chronological perspective. This article is about the academic field of music history. For a chronological overview of music see History of music. Musicology ( Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason" is the scholarly study of Music History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural
|Ancient||(before AD 500)|
|Early||(500 - 1760)|
|Common practice||(1600 - 1900)|
|Modern and contemporary||(1900 - present)|
Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. In the History of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all Music produced in preliterate cultures ( Prehistory Ancient music is Music that developed in literate Cultures replacing Prehistoric music. Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. The common practice period, in the history of European Art music (broadly called Classical music) spanning the Baroque, Classical, and At the turn of the 20th century classical music was characteristically late Romantic in style while at the same time the Impressionist movement spearheaded by Claude Debussy Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to a period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism. In the History of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all Music produced in preliterate cultures ( Prehistory traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" Geological history describes geological events that account for the Stratigraphy, Petrology and structure (see Structural geology) seen in rocks or
Traditional Native American and Australian Aboriginal music could be called prehistoric, but the term is commonly used to refer to the music in Europe before the development of writing there. American Indian music is the Musics that are shared by or that distinguish American Indian Tribes and First Nations. Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates It is more common to call the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – folk, indigenous, or traditional music. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous
The prehistoric era is considered to have ended with the development of writing, and with it, by definition, prehistoric music. Ancient music is Music that developed in literate Cultures replacing Prehistoric music. "Ancient music" is the name given to the music that followed.
The "oldest known song" was written in cuneiform, dating to 4,000 years ago from Ur. It was deciphered by Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (University of Calif. at Berkeley), and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient gymel (Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, Sounds from Silence, 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley, Calif. , LCC 76-16729), and also was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale. Pythagorean tuning is a system of Musical tuning in which the Frequency relationships of all intervals are based on the ratio 32. In Music theory, a diatonic scale (from the Greek διατονικος, meaning " through tones" also known as the heptatonia prima and
Double pipes, such as used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc. , and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX. 12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony.
One pipe in the aulos pairs (double flutes) likely served as a drone or "keynote," while the other played melodic passages. In music a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or Accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much
Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley civilization archaeological sites. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin 
Indian classical music (marga) can be found from the scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length. The Samaveda ( Sanskrit: सामवेद sāmaveda, from sāman "melody" + veda "knowledge") is third (in the usual
The history of musical development in Iran [Persia] Persian music, dates back to the prehistoric era. Persian traditional music (also known as Iranian traditional music, Musiqi-e Sonati-e Irani, also Persian classical music or Iranian classical music The great legendary king, Jamshid, is credited with the Invention of music. Music in Iran can be traced back to the days of the Elamite Empire(2,500-644 B. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. C). Fragmentary documents from various periods of the country's history establish that the ancient Persians possessed an elaborate musical culture. The Sassanian period (A. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire D. 226-651), in particular, has left us ample evidence pointing to the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. The names of some important musicians such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin, and titles of some of their works have survived.
The term Early music era may also refer to contemporary but traditional or folk music, including Asian music,Persian music, music of India, Jewish music, Greek music, Roman music, the music of Mesopotamia, the music of Egypt, and Muslim music. Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures Persian traditional music (also known as Iranian traditional music, Musiqi-e Sonati-e Irani, also Persian classical music or Iranian classical music The music of India' includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. Jewish music, the music of Jews, is quite diverse and dates back thousands of years The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. Cypriot music has certain similarities to traditional Greek Music, and their This article treats the music of Ancient Mesopotamia (see Music and Ancient Mesopotamia) Egyptian music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since ancient times Islamic music is Muslim religious Music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions
|History of European art music|
|Medieval||(500 – 1400)|
|Renaissance||(1400 – 1600)|
|Baroque||(1600 – 1760)|
|Classical||(1730 – 1820)|
|Romantic||(1815 – 1910)|
|Modern and contemporary|
|20th century classical||(1900 – 2000)|
|Contemporary classical||(1975 – present)|
Early music is a general term used to describe music in the European classical tradition from after the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476 CE, until the end of the Baroque era in the middle of the 18th century. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Music within this enormous span of time was extremely diverse, encompassing multiple cultural traditions within a wide geographic area; many of the cultural groups out of which medieval Europe developed already had musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified these cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and its music served as the focal point for musical development for the first thousand years of this period. Very little non-Christian music from this period survived, due to its suppression by the Church and the absence of music notation; however, folk music of modern Europe probably has roots at least as far back as the Middle Ages.
While musical life was undoubtedly rich in the early Medieval era, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only repertory of music which has survived from before 800 to the present day is the plainsong liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant. The term medieval music encompasses European music written during the Middle Ages. For the band see " Plainsong (band " For the song on The Cure's 1989 album see " Disintegration " History Gregorian chant was organized codified and notated mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries with later additions Pope Gregory I, who gave his name to the musical repertory and may himself have been a composer, is usually claimed to be the originator of the musical portion of the liturgy in its present form, though the sources giving details on his contribution, date from more than a hundred years after his death. Many scholars believe that his reputation has been exaggerated by legend. Most of the chant repertory was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory and Charlemagne. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
During the 9th century several important developments took place. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. First, there was a major effort by the Church to unify the many chant traditions, and suppress many of them in favor of the Gregorian liturgy. Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organum. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony Organum (ˈɔrgənəm though the stress is now sometimes incorrectly put on the second syllable from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ instrument Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted. See also Modern musical symbols Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived Music through the use
Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after 1100: the St. Martial school of organum, the music of which was often characterized by a swiftly moving part over a single sustained line; the Notre Dame school of polyphony, which included the composers Léonin and Pérotin, and which produced the first music for more than two parts around 1200; the musical melting-pot of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, a pilgrimage destination and site where musicians from many traditions came together in the late Middle Ages, the music of whom survives in the Codex Calixtinus; and the English school, the music of which survives in the Worchester Fragments and the Old Hall Manuscript. Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) ( fl 1150s — d ? 1201) is the first known significant Pérotin ( fl c 1200 also called Perotin the Great, was a European Composer, believed to be French, who lived Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia and a UNESCO World Galicia (occasionally Galiza) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. The Codex Calixtinus is a 12th century Illuminated manuscript formerly attributed to Pope Callixtus II, though now believed to have been arranged by the The Worcester Fragments are a collection of medieval music associated with the English town of Worcester. The Old Hall Manuscript (British Library Additional MS 57950 is the largest most complete and most significant source of English sacred music of the late 14th Alongside these schools of sacred music a vibrant tradition of secular song developed, as exemplified in the music of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 Trouvère ( MWCD: /trü'ver trü'vər/ sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French ( Langue d'oïl) form of the word Troubadour Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and Song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century Much of the later secular music of the early Renaissance evolved from the forms, ideas, and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours, courtly poets and itinerant musicians, whose culture was largely exterminated during the Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar
Forms of sacred music which developed during the late 13th century included the motet, conductus, discant, and clausulae. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions In Medieval music, conductus (plural conductus) is a type of sacred but non-liturgical vocal composition for one or more voices Discant (discantus meaning "singing apart" was a style of liturgical setting in the Middle Ages associated with the development of the Notre Dame school A clausula (plural clausulae) is a Polyphonic composition performed as a musical alternative to the original Plainchant passage that it is intended to replace One unusual development was the Geisslerlieder, the music of wandering bands of flagellants during two periods: the middle of the 13th century (until they were suppressed by the Church); and the period during and immediately following the Black Death, around 1350, when their activities were vividly recorded and well-documented with notated music. In Medieval music, the Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, were the Songs of the Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by Whipping it with various instruments The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or apocalyptic texts.
The 14th century in European music history is dominated by the style of the ars nova, which by convention is grouped with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with early Renaissance ideals and aesthetics. Ars nova was a stylistic period in Music of the Late Middle Ages, centered in France, which encompassed the period roughly from the preparation Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Much of the surviving music of the time is secular, and tends to use the formes fixes: the ballade, the virelai, the lai, the rondeau, which correspond to poetic forms of the same names. Formes fixes (English fixed forms) are French poetic forms of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which were translated into musical forms A ballade (French for "ballad' pronounced bah-LAHD refers to a one-movement musical piece with lyrical and dramatic narrative qualities A virelai is a form of Medieval French verse used often in Poetry and Music. A lai was a song form composed in northern Europe, mainly France and Germany, from the 13th to the late 14th century. Most pieces in these forms are for one to three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: famous composers include Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini. Guillaume de Machaut, sometimes spelled Machault (c 1300 – April 1377 was an important Medieval French Poet and Composer. Francesco Landini or Landino (around 1325 &ndash September 2, 1397) was an Italian Composer, organist, singer poet
The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike the Renaissance in the other arts, it did not begin in Italy, but in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern France, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The style of the Burgundian composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and mannered style of the late 14th century ars subtilior, and contained clear, singable melody and balanced polyphony in all voices. The Burgundian School is a term used to denote a group of composers active in the 15th century in what is now northern and eastern France, Belgium, In Music, the Franco-Flemish School refers somewhat imprecisely to the style of polyphonic Vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th Ars subtilior (more subtle art is a Musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity centered around Paris, Avignon In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony The most famous composers of the Burgundian school in the mid-15th century are Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, and Antoine Busnois. Guillaume Dufay ( Du Fay, Du Fayt) ( August 5, 1397 ? &ndash November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer Gilles Binchois, also known as Gilles de Binche or Gilles de Bins (c Antoine Busnois (also Busnoys) (c 1430 &ndash November 6, 1492) was a French Composer and Poet of the early
By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers from the Low Countries and adjacent areas began to overspread Europe, moving especially into Italy where they were employed by the papal chapel and the aristocratic patrons of the arts, such as the Medici, the Este family in Ferrara, and the Sforza family in Milan. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt "Este" redirects here For the city see Este Italy. For Tolkien's fictional character see Estë. Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. They carried their style with them: smooth polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as appropriate. Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time were the mass, the motet, and the laude; secular forms included the chanson, the frottola, and later the madrigal. For other uses see Mass (disambiguation The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions "Lauda" redirects here For the former F1 racing driver see Niki Lauda. A chanson ( French for " Song " from Latin cantio) is in general any lyric -driven French songs usually Polyphonic The frottola was the predominant type of Italian popular secular song of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century A madrigal is a type of Secular vocal music composition written during the Renaissance and early Baroque eras
The invention of printing had an immense influence on the dissemination of musical styles, and along with the movement of the Franco-Flemish musicians throughout Europe, contributed to the establishment of the first truly international style in European music since the unification of Gregorian chant under Charlemagne seven hundred years before. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press
Composers of the middle generation of the Franco-Flemish school included Johannes Ockeghem, who wrote music in a contrapuntally complex style, with varied texture and an elaborate use of canonical devices; Jacob Obrecht, one of the most famous composers of masses in the last decades of the 15th century; and Josquin Desprez, probably the most famous composer in Europe before Palestrina, and who during the 16th century was renowned as one of the greatest artists in any form. Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also In Music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a Melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e Jacob Obrecht (1457/1458 &ndash late July 1505 was a Dutch composer of the Renaissance. Josquin des Prez (c 1450 to 1455 &ndash August 27 1521 often referred to simply as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526 - 2 February 1594 was an Italian Composer of the Renaissance.
Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing complexity of counterpoint; possibly the most extreme expression of this tendency is in the music of Nicolas Gombert, whose contrapuntal complexities influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzona and the ricercar, ultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony Nicolas Gombert (c 1495 &ndash c 1560 was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. In music a canzona (also Canzone) was a 16th-century multipart vocal setting of a literary canzone and a 16th - and 17th-century instrumental A ricercar (or ricercare recercar; the terms are interchangeable is a type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred
By the middle of the 16th century, the international style began to break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became evident: a trend towards simplicity in sacred music, as directed by the Counter-Reformation Council of Trent, and as exemplified in the austere perfection of the music of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; a trend towards complexity and chromaticism in the madrigal, which reached its extreme expression in the avant-garde style of the Ferrara School of Luzzaschi, and the late century madrigalist Carlo Gesualdo; and the grandiose, sonorous music of the Venetian school, which took advantage of the architecture of the Basilica San Marco di Venezia to create a music of antiphonal contrasts. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526 - 2 February 1594 was an Italian Composer of the Renaissance. In Music, chromaticism is a Compositional technique interspersing the primary Diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the Chromatic Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard The School of Ferrara was a group of Painters which flourished in the Duchy of Ferrara during the Renaissance. Luzzasco Luzzaschi (c 1545 &ndash September 10, 1607) was an Italian Composer, Organist, and teacher of the late Renaissance This article is about the composer for the Italian town see Gesualdo (town. In music history the Venetian School is a term used to describe the Composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of This article is about the musical term See Antiphon (person the orator of ancient Greece The music of the Venetian school can be seen on the cusp of the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, and included the development of orchestration, ornamented instrumental parts, and continuo bass parts, all of which occurred within a span of several decades around 1600. Orchestration is the study or practice of writing Music for Orchestra (or more loosely for any Musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer Musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords and Nonchord tones in relation Famous composers in Venice included the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovanni, as well as Claudio Monteverdi, one of the most significant innovators at the end of the era. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533? – August 30, 1585) was an Italian Composer and Organist of the late Renaissance. Giovanni Gabrieli (c 1554/1557 &ndash August 12 1612 was an Italian Composer and organist.
Most parts of Europe had active, and well-differentiated, musical traditions by late in the century. In England, composers such as Thomas Tallis and William Byrd wrote sacred music in a style similar to that written on the continent, while an active group of home-grown madrigalists adapted the Italian form for English tastes: famous composers included Thomas Morley, John Wilbye and Thomas Weelkes. Thomas Tallis (c 1505 &ndash 23 November 1585) was an English Composer. William Byrd (c 1540 &ndash 4 July 1623 was an English Composer of the Renaissance. Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 &ndash October 1602 was an English Composer, theorist, editor and organist of the Renaissance, and the John Wilbye ( 7 March 1574 ( baptized) &ndash September 1638 was an English madrigal Composer. Thomas Weelkes (baptised 25 October 1576 &ndash buried 1 December 1623 was an English Composer and organist. Spain developed instrumental and vocal styles of its own, with Tomás Luis de Victoria writing refined music similar to that of Palestrina, and numerous other composers writing for a new instrument called the guitar. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes spelled 'da Vittoria' (1548 &ndash August 20, 1611) was a Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles Germany cultivated polyphonic forms built on the Protestant chorales, which replaced the Roman Catholic Gregorian Chant as a basis for sacred music, and imported wholesale the style of the Venetian school (the appearance of which defined the start of the Baroque era there). Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. A chorale was originally a Hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation In addition, German composers wrote enormous amounts of organ music, establishing the basis for the later spectacular flowering of the Baroque organ style which culminated in the work of J.S. Bach. The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" France developed a unique style of musical diction known as musique mesurée, used in secular chansons, with composers such as Guillaume Costeley and Claude Le Jeune prominent in the movement. Musique mesurée, or Musique mesurée à l'antique, was a style of vocal musical composition in France in the late 16th century. Guillaume Costeley (1530 possibly 1531 – January 28, 1606) was a French composer of the Renaissance. Claude Le Jeune (1528 to 1530 &ndash buried September 26, 1600) was a French composer of the late Renaissance.
One of the most revolutionary movements in the era took place in Florence in the 1570s and 1580s, with the work of the Florentine Camerata, who ironically had a reactionary intent: dissatisfied with what they saw as contemporary musical depravities, their goal was to restore the music of the ancient Greeks. The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists Musicians Poets and Intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered Chief among them were Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer, and Giulio Caccini. Vincenzo Galilei (c 1520 &ndash July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, Composer, and music theorist, and the father of Giulio Caccini ( October 8 1551 &ndash December 10 1618) was an Italian composer teacher singer instrumentalist and writer The fruits of their labors was a declamatory melodic singing style known as monody, and a corresponding dramatic form consisting of staged, acted monody: a form known today as opera. In Poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto The first operas, written around 1600, also define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque eras.
Music prior to 1600 was modal rather than tonal. In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode Tonality is a system of Music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center" or tonic. Several theoretical developments late in the 16th century, such as the writings on scales on modes by Gioseffo Zarlino and Franchinus Gaffurius, led directly to the development of common practice tonality. In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode Gioseffo Zarlino ( January 31 or March 22, 1517 &ndash February 4, 1590) was an Italian music theorist and Franchinus Gaffurius ( Franchino Gaffurio) ( January 14, 1451 – June 25, 1522) was an Italian music theorist The major and minor scales began to predominate over the old church modes, a feature which was at first most obvious at cadential points in compositions, but gradually became pervasive. Music after 1600, beginning with the tonal music of the Baroque era, is often referred to as belonging to the common practice period. The common practice period, in the history of European Art music (broadly called Classical music) spanning the Baroque, Classical, and
Instrumental music became dominant in the Baroque, and most major music forms were defined. Counterpoint was one of the major forces in both the instrumental and the vocal music of the period. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony Although a strong religious musical tradition continued, secular music came to the fore with the development of the sonata, the concerto, and the concerto grosso. Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra The concerto grosso ( Italian for big concert(o, Plural concerti grossi) is a form of Baroque music in which the musical material
Much Baroque music was designed for improvisation, with a figured bass provided by the composer for the performer to flesh out and ornament. Improvisation (also called extemporization) is the practice of acting singing talking and reacting of making and creating in the moment and in response to the stimulus of Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer Musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords and Nonchord tones in relation The keyboard, particularly the harpsichord, was a dominant instrument, and the beginnings of well temperament opened up the possibilities of playing in all keys and of modulation. A harpsichord is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. Well temperament (also circular or circulating temperament is a type of tempered tuning described in twentieth-century Music theory In Music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key ( tonic, or tonal center) to another Much Baroque music featured a basso continuo consisting of a keyboard, either harpsichord or organ (sometimes a lute instead), and a bass instrument, such as a viola da gamba or bassoon. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer Musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords and Nonchord tones in relation Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from The viol (also called viola da gamba) is any one of a family of bowed, Fretted stringed Musical instruments developed in the 1400s The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally The three outstanding composers of the period were Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, and Antonio Vivaldi, but a host of other composers, some with huge output, were active in the period. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
The music of the Classical period is characterized by homophonic texture, or an obvious melody with accompaniment. In Music, homophony (hoʊˈmɒfəni from Greek "homófonos" where ομοιο = the same and φωνή = a sound tone is a texture in which two or more In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or In Music, accompaniment is the art of playing along with a soloist or ensemble, often known as the Lead, in a Supporting manner These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable, allowing composers at the time to actually replace singer(s) as the focus of the music. Instrumental music therefore quickly replaced opera and other sung forms (such as oratorio) as the favorite of the musical audience and the epitome of great composition. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto An oratorio is a large Musical composition including an Orchestra, a Choir, and soloists The oratorio was somewhat modeled after the Opera This is not to say that opera disappeared. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Indeed, during the classical period, several composers began producing operas for the general public, in their native languages (previous operas were generally in Italian).
Along with the gradual displacement of the voice in favor of stronger, clearer melodies, counterpoint also typically became a decorative flourish, often used near the end of a work or for a single movement. A movement is a self-contained part of a Musical composition or Musical form. In its stead, simple patterns, such as arpeggios and, in piano music, Alberti bass (an accompaniment with a repeated pattern typically in the left hand) were used to liven the movement of the piece without creating a confusing additional voice. Alberti bass is a particular kind of Accompaniment in Music, often used in the Classical era, and sometimes the romantic one The now popular instrumental music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the symphony, and the concerto, though none of these forms were specifically defined or taught at the time as they are now in the field of music theory. Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works All three derive from sonata form, which is used to refer both to the overlying form of an entire work and the structure of a single movement. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
The early Classical period was ushered in by the Mannheim School, which included such composers as Johann Stamitz, Franz Xaver Richter, Carl Stamitz, and Christian Cannabich. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Siegfried is the third of the four Operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) by Richard Wagner Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers Jan Václav Antonín Stamic (later during his life in Mannhein Germanized as Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz ( June 17, 1717 &ndash March 27 Karel Stamic ( May 7, 1745 - November 9, 1801) who took the German form of his name Karl Philipp Stamitz and is now better known as Johann Christian Innocenz Bonaventura Cannabich (bapt 28 December, 1731 &ndash died 20 January, 1798) was a German composer of It exerted a profound influence on Joseph Haydn and, through him, on all subsequent European music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was the central figure of the Classical period, and his phenomenal and varied output in all genres defines our perception of the period. Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert were transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their expansion of existing genres, forms, and even functions of music. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist.
In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. Famous early Romantic composers include Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini ( November 3, 1801 &ndash September 23, 1835) was a Sicilian Opera Composer
The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well Urban culture is the Culture of cities. Cities all over the world past and present have behaviors and cultural elements that separate them from otherwise comparable Famous composers from the second half of the century include Johann Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Verdi, and Wagner. Johann Strauss II (also known as Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer
Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Dvořák, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much longer – musical works. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( (often pronounced in English as; DVOR-zhahk; September 8 1841 – May 1 1904 was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( December 22, 1858 A prominent mark of late 19th century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck. Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and Gabriel Urbain Fauré ( 12 May 1845 &ndash 4 November 1924) was a French Composer, Organist, Pianist WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов César Franck (December 10 1822 – November 8 1890 a Composer, Organist and music teacher of Belgian and German origin who lived in France
The 20th Century saw a revolution in music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. Because music was no longer limited to concerts and clubs, it became possible for music artists to quickly gain fame nationwide and sometimes worldwide. Conversely, audiences were able to be exposed to a wider range of music than ever before. Music performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and recording of music videos and concerts. Music of all kinds also became increasingly portable. Headphones allowed people sitting next to each other to listen to entirely different performances or share the same performance.
20th Century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. The invention of musical amplification and electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer, in the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music. An electronic musical instrument is a Musical instrument that produces its sounds using Electronics.
Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of art, ecclesiastical and concert music. Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to a period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music A music is classical if it includes some of the following features: a learned tradition, support from the church or government, or greater cultural capital. Classical music is also described as complex, lasting, transcendent, and abstract.
In many cultures a classical tradition coexisted with traditional or popular music, occasionally for thousands of years, and with different levels of mutual borrowing with the parallel tradition.
'Classical European music' is a somewhat broad term, referring to music produced in or rooted in the traditions of European art, ecclesiastical, and concert music, particularly between 1000 and 1900. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 The central norms of this tradition developed between 1550 and 1825 centering on what is known as the common practice period. The common practice period, in the history of European Art music (broadly called Classical music) spanning the Baroque, Classical, and
Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures Arabic music or Arab music ( Arabic: موسيقى عربية;) includes several genres and styles of Music ranging from Arabic classical Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures
The Indian music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. Gagaku (ja [[wiktionary雅 雅]][[wiktionary楽 楽]] literally "elegant music" is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial court A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and Traditional Korean music includes both the folk and court music styles of the Korean people. The modern Japanese music scene includes a wide array of performers in distinct styles both traditional and modern ranging from rock electro punk folk metal reggae salsa and tango The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas. Purandara Dāsa (1484 - 1564 (sometimes spelled as a single word ( Kannada: ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ was one of the most prominent composers of Carnatic  The Indus Valley civilization has sculptures which show dance  and old musical instruments, like the seven holed flute. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. Harappa ( Urdu:, Hindi: हड़प्पा) is a City in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35km (22 miles southwest Mohenjo-daro (موئن جودڑو موئن جو دڙو मोहन जोदड़ो Mound of the Dead was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler CH, CIE, MC, FBA, FSA ( September 10, 1890 Glasgow  The Rigveda has elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge"  Early Indian musical tradition also speaks of three accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning melody and Gan meaning to sing). 
The classical music of India includes two major traditions of the southern Carnatic music and the northern Hindustani classical music. Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India Hindustani Classical Music ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत Urdu: ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت India's classical music tradition has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment.
Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based around a single melody line or raga rhythmically organized through talas. Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used In Indian classical music, Tala ( Sanskrit tāla literally a "clap" is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition Carnatic music is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are a lot of songs emphasising love and other social issues. In contrast to Carnatic music, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan Mughals.
The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length. The Samaveda ( Sanskrit: सामवेद sāmaveda, from sāman "melody" + veda "knowledge") is third (in the usual
Chinese classical music is the traditional art or court music of China. The Music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artefacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as It has a long history stretching for more than three thousand years. It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes to an octave (5+7 = 12) as does European-influenced music.
Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). Persian traditional music (also known as Iranian traditional music, Musiqi-e Sonati-e Irani, also Persian classical music or Iranian classical music Persian traditional music (also known as Iranian traditional music, Musiqi-e Sonati-e Irani, also Persian classical music or Iranian classical music For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. See: Music of Iran, Music of Afghanistan, Music of Tajikistan, Music of Uzbekistan. The music of Iran or Persian music has thousands of years of history dating back to the Neolithic age as seen in the archeological Since the 1980s Afghanistan has been involved in near constant violence Tajik Music is closely related to Central Asian forms The classical music is Shashmaqam, which Uzbeks also developed classical music of Tajiks Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam, which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital
Greek written history extends far back into Ancient Greece, and was a major part of ancient Greek theater. The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. Cypriot music has certain similarities to traditional Greek Music, and their The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The theatre of ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical Culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c In ancient Greece, mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara. The aulos ( Greek αυλός, plural αυλοί, auloi or tibia ( Latin) was an ancient Greek musical instrument A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs The lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity and later The kithara was an Ancient Greek Musical instrument in the Lyre family
Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of development; Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, eventually became the basis for Western religious music and classical music. Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode Religious music (also sacred music) is Music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Later, influences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent.
The connection of the music environment of Greece with that of the European Renaissance can be traced mainly in Crete until 1669, where its vivid urban music benefited from the creative assimilation with the venetian culture. The most important musical figure of Crete was Fragiskos Leondaritis (Francesco Leondariti or Londariti), organist and composer of sacred and secular music. Another key-figure of that era was Ieronimos o Tragodistis (Hieronymus the Chanter), a Cypriot student of Gios. Zarlino, who flourished around 1571 and, among others, proposed a system that enabled medieval Byzantine chant to correspont to the current contrapuntal practices via the cantus firmus paraphrase. In Music, a cantus firmus ("fixed song" is a pre-existing Melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition. In the 18th century art music was mainly cultivated in Ionian Islands, where from 1733 opera became the most distinctive music genre. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system This article is about the group of islands west of Greece For the ancient region in western Anatolia see Ionia. This dynamic had as a consequence in 19th century, composers like Nikolaos Mantzaros (Niccolo Calichiopulo Manzaro, 1795 - 1872), Spyridon Xyndas (1812 - 1896), Pavlos Karrer (Paolo Carrer, 1829-1896) and Spyros Samaras (1861 - 1917) to revitalize Greek art music. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Biography Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros (Νικόλαος Χαλικιόπουλος Μάντζαρος or Niccoló Calichiopulo Manzaro 26 October 1795 Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Spyridon Xyndas or Spiridione Xinda (Σπυρίδων Ξύνδας (1812-1896 was a Greek composer and Guitarist, whose last name has also been transliterated Year 1812 ( MDCCCXII) a leap year started on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Pavlos Carrer (Paolo Carrer Zakynthos, 12 May 1829 - Zakynthos 7 June 1896) was a Greek Composer. For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Instrumental music was also cultivated in 19th century by composers, such as Dionysios Rodotheatos from Ithaca and Dimitris Lialios from Patras, both of them adopting the -with the broader sense-wagnerian novelties in the style and aesthetics. In the first decade of 20th century, the social and historical conditions enabled the revisiting of nationalism in music by the composers of the so-called 'National School'. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The prevailing current for 'national music' was that of Manolis Kalomiris, which eventually became wider accepted compared to that of Georgios Lambelet. Manolis Kalomiris, Μανώλης Καλομοίρης (1883–1962 was a Greek composer 'National School' succeeded in concentrating under its aesthetic 'credo' composer with different backgrounds, such as Marios Varvoglis, Petros Petrides, Dimetrios Levidis, Aimilios Riadis or Antiohos Evagellatos. On the other hand, modernism made also its appearance with Nikos Skalkottas, a student of Arn. Nikos Skalkottas (Nίκος Σκαλκώτας ( 21 March, 1904 &ndash 19 September, 1949) was one of Schoenberg, being the most notable (and at the same time, neglected) representative. Schoenberg (beautiful mountain is the surname of several persons Dimitris Mitropoulos also contributed to the music literature of Greek modernism before committing himself to conducting. Mitropoulos (Μητρόπουλος is a Greek surname The female version of the name is Mitropoulou. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century After the Second World War modernism began to prevail, with considerable difficulty, mainly because of the social and political conditions of the postwar period in Greece, as well as the dominance of the 'National School'. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century However, composers like Mihalis Adamis, Thodoros Antoniou, Iannis Xenakis, Y. Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης (May 29 1922 - February 4 2001 was a Greek modernist composer musical theoretician and architect A. Papaioannou and Janni Christou succeeded in giving new perspectives to such aesthetic ways. Christou (Greek Χρήστου is a Greek surname meaning son of Christ In the maintime, a strong current of populism related to the political conditions especially after 1949, as well as to the brief change of taste of the urban class and the initiation of the touristic enterprise in 1960s, enabled the gradual promotion of the popular song as the prevalent form, which the last decades has regretably become synonymous to 'Greek music', as a whole.
Monteverdi - cruda amarilli
|Pachelbel's Canon in D major is built on ground bass, a common method in the Baroque period. Pachelbel's Canon, also known as Canon in D major, or more formally Canon and Gigue in D major for three Violins and Basso Continuo In Music, an Ostinato (derived from Italian: "stubborn" see also Oscillation) is a motif or phrase which is persistently|
|"Hallelujah" from Messiah|
|The "Hallelujah" Chorus from Georg Frideric Handel's Messiah is an example of Baroque vocal music. Messiah ( HWV 56 is an Oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a Libretto by Charles Jennens.|
Symphony No. 40, 1st mvt.
Tristan und Isolde