|Ancient art history|
|Western art history|
|Eastern art history|
|Islamic art history|
|History of painting|
|Western art history|
The history of art usually refers to the history of the visual arts, such as painting, sculpture and architecture. The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental Marble sculpture now in the Vatican Museums, The Culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years with its beginnings in the Mycenaean and Minoan Civilizations, continuing most notably into Classical Greece The Art of the Hellenistic period has long been the victim of the relative disdain attached to the period Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Year 20 BC was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani in Viale Vaticano in Rome, inside the Vatican City, are one of the greatest museums in the world since they display works --> In the history of art prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory beginning somewhere in very late geological history Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of Art that were in the Cultures of Ancient societies such as those of ancient China, Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here Eastern art history is devoted to the arts of the Far East and includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally See also Western art, History of painting, Western art history, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting The history of Painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans and spans all cultures Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here Medieval art covers a vast scope of time and place over 1000 years of Art history in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The term also encompasses theory of the visual arts. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. It is not usually taken or intended to refer to the performing arts or literary arts. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Creative writing is considered to be any writing Fiction or Non-fiction, that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, Journalistic, The history of art attempts an objective survey of art throughout human history, classifying cultures and periods and noting their distinguishing features and influences.
The field of "art history" was developed in the West, and originally dealt exclusively with Western painting, and Western art history, with the High Renaissance (and its Greek precedent) as the defining standard. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings See also Western art, History of painting, Western art history, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here The High Renaissance, in the History of art, denotes the culmination of the art of the Italian Renaissance between 1450 and 1527 The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present particularly in the areas of Sculpture Gradually, with the onset of Modernism, a wider vision of history has developed, seeking to place other societies in a global overview by analyzing their artifacts in terms of their own cultural values. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the Culture of its creator and users Thus, the subject is now seen to encompass all visual art, from the megaliths of Western Europe to the paintings of the Tang Dynasty in China. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Study of the history of art is a relatively recent phenomenon; prior to the Renaissance, the modern concept of "art" did not exist, and art was used to refer to workmanship by generally anonymous tradespeople. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual
The viewpoint of the art historian is a significant input into the defining parameters which are employed. For example, during the early Victorian era, the quattrocento artists were considered inferior to those of the High Renaissance—a notion subsequently challenged by the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities The cultural and artistic events of 15th century Italy are collectively referred to as the Quattrocento (from the Italian for '400 or from "millequattrocento" 1400 The High Renaissance, in the History of art, denotes the culmination of the art of the Italian Renaissance between 1450 and 1527 The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters Poets, and critics founded in 1848 by There has since been a trend, dominant in most modern art history, to see all cultures and periods from a neutral point of view, with a tendency to shy away from value judgements. Thus, for example, Australian Aboriginal art would not be deemed better or worse than Michelangelo by typical Modernist art historians—just different. Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonization as well as Contemporary art Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all
Analysis has also evolved into studying the "political" use of art, rather than reserving analysis to the aesthetic appreciation of its craftsmanship or beauty. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** It is believed there is always an intent and a philosophy behind art, and an effect achieved by it. Thus, for example, the considerable employment by the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Middle Ages can be contrasted or compared with "Soviet propaganda", the manifestation of social structure through 19th-century portraiture, an anarcho-religious vision exemplified by Van Gogh, etc. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people What may once have been viewed simply as a masterpiece is now deconstructed into an economic, social, philosophical, and cultural manifestation of the artist's world-view, philosophy, intentions and background. Masterpiece (or chef d'œuvre) refers to any Work of art that is considered extraordinary
There are different ways of structuring a history of art. The following is one which is commonly used, based primarily on time, but within that creating subdivisions based on place and culture. Other views are somewhat disputed, still, even today there are many forms of structuring a history of art.
The oldest surviving art forms include small sculptures and paintings on rocks and in caves. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter There are very few known examples of art that date earlier than 40,000 years ago, the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa People often rubbed smaller rocks against larger rocks and boulders to paint pictures of their everyday life, such as hunting wild game. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison)
The so-called Venus of Willendorf (which is now being called "Woman from Willendorf" in contemporary art history texts) is a sculpture from the Paleolithic era, which depicts a woman with exaggerated female attributes. The Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 This sculpture, carved from stone, is remarkable in its roundness instead of a flat or low-relief depiction. Early Aegean art, although it dates from a much later period, shares some of the same abstract figurative elements. Aegean art refers to Art that was created in the Grecian lands surrounding and the islands within the Aegean Sea.
Prehistoric art objects are rare, and the context of such early art is difficult to determine. Prehistoric, by definition, refers to those cultures which have left no written records of their society. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" The art historian judges early pieces of art as objects in their own right, with few opportunities for comparison between contemporaneous pieces. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Interpretation of such early art must be done primarily in the context of aesthetics tempered by what is known of various hunter-gatherer societies still in existence. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called
The period of ancient art began when ancient civilizations developed a form of written language.
The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the six great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art. Because of their size and duration these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. They have also provided us with the first records of how artists worked. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating
Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (i. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial e. Zeus' thunderbolt). Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology
In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Byzantine Empire from about the 4th century until the Fall of Constantinople This article is about Gothic art See also Gothic architecture Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 There was no need to depict the reality of the material world, in which man was born in a "state of sin", especially through the extensive use of gold in paintings, which also presented figures in idealised, patterned (i. e. "flat") forms.
The Renaissance is the return yet again to valuation of the material world, and this paradigm shift is reflected in art forms, which show the corporeality of the human body, and the three dimensional reality of landscape. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical elements such as Landforms living elements of flora and fauna abstract elements such as lighting
Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan.
Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometric designs instead. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. However, there are many Islamic paintings which display religious themes and scenes of stories common among the three main monotheistic faiths of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut
[The physical and rational certainties] of the clockwork universe depicted by the 18th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development accelerated by the implosion of civilisation in two world wars. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded The history of twentieth century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Thus the parameters of Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, etc cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form Les Fauves ( French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European For other meanings see Dada (disambiguation DaDa is a Concept album by Alice Cooper, released Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art, such as Pablo Picasso being influenced by African sculpture. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth Japanese woodblock prints (which had themselves been influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship) had an immense influence on Impressionism and subsequent development. Then African fetish sculptures were taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse. Henri Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954 was a French Artist, known for his use of Colour and his fluid brilliant and original draughtsmanship
Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realisation of its unattainability. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Relativity was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the Postmodern period, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with irony. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than regional cultures.