|History of Sri Lanka|
|Prehistory of Sri Lanka|
|Early Sri Lankan History|
|Kings of Sri Lanka|
|Sri Lankan independence movement|
|Independence of Sri Lanka|
|Sri Lankan Civil War|
Traditionally, the recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. The Prehistory of Sri Lanka dates back to about 125000 BP and possibly even as early as 500000 BP and covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and early Traditionally the recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries Traditionally the recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries The Sri Lankan independence movement was a peaceful political movement to aimed at achieving independence for Sri Lanka from British imperial rule Traditionally the recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries The Sri Lankan Civil War is an Ongoing conflict on the Island -nation of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island But in actuality, history goes much longer than that, to the Balangoda Man and the Emperor Ravana. For the South Indian film see Ravana (film. Ravanaa, also transliterated as Raavana, Ravan or
In the 6th century BC, Sri Lankans developed a unique hydraulic civilization, enormous pyramid-like Stupa (Dagaba) architecture, within a culture nourished by Buddhism. A hydraulic empire, also known as a hydraulic despotism or water monopoly empire, is a social or government structure which maintains power and control through exclusive A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices It was forced to deal with South Indian invasions in the tenth century and European expansions in the sixteenth century). South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union
Historical chronicles are found in stone writings ('sel lipi'), ola leaf writings ('Hela Atuva') and also in great Indian chronicles as Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki The main historical written evidence is the Mahavamsa, also including Dipavamsa & Chulavamsa, their Burmese versions, as well as the parallel Indian records. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa, (Pāli "Lesser Chronicle " is a historical record written in the Pāli language of the kings The island presently known as "Sri Lanka" was originally known to the Sinhalese as "Sinhale" or "Heladiva" and to the Tamils as "Eelam". In the 5th century B. C. , Indo-Aryan emigrated from India, mixed with the Hela people and later Buddhism was established and helped develop the Sinhalese culture in Sri Lanka. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research More than 70% of Sinhalese populace considers itself to be Buddhist. There is also a Tamil Hindu nation on this island. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Most Tamils may be descendants of those who have immigrated from Tamil Naadu, India, but it is a known fact, it was after the Sinhalese arrived that their ancestors came to the island.
There is a long-standing relationship between Sinhalese, Tamils, Moors, Malayans, Burghers, Ja (Javanese), Veddahs and other hundreds of inhabitants and cultural groups of Sri Lanka, which has ensured an extremely close relationship between the groups and cultures. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Islam in Sri Lanka is practised by a group of minorities who make up approximately 10% of the population Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast "Vedda" and "Veddas" redirect here For the Sanskrit texts see Vedas.
The island is estimated to have been colonised by the Balangoda people (named after the area where their remains were discovered) about 34,000 years ago. The Prehistory of Sri Lanka dates back to about 125000 BP and possibly even as early as 500000 BP and covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and early They have been identified as a group of Mesolithic hunter gatherers who lived in caves. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting Several of these caves including the well known Batadombalena and the Fa-Hien Rock cave) have yielded many artefacts that points to them being the first inhabitants of the island.
The Balangoda people appear to have been responsible for creating Horton Plains, in the central hills, by burning the trees in order to catch game. Horton Plains National Park ( හෝටන් තැන්න "Maha-Eliya" in Sinhala is a National park in the highlands of Sri Lanka. However, discovery of Oats and Barley on the plains dating to about 15,000 BC suggest they may have engaged in agriculture. Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture 
Several minute granite tools of about 4 centimeters in length, earthenware and remnants of charred timber, and clay burial pots that date back to the Stone Age Mesolithic Man who lived 8000 years ago have been discovered during recent excavations around a cave at Varana Raja Maha vihara & also in Kalatuwawa area. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age
Cinnamon, which is native to Sri Lanka, was in use in Ancient Egypt in about 1500 BC, suggesting that there were trading links with the island. Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum, synonym C zeylanicum) is a small Evergreen Tree 10–15 metres (32 Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now It is possible that Biblical Tarshish was located on the island (James Emerson Tennent identified it with Galle). Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with these meanings One of the sons of Javan (Genesis 104 Sir James Emerson Tennent 1st Baronet ( 7 April 1804 &ndash 6 March 1869) born James Emerson, was an Irish Politician Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable in English gɔːl the same as "Gaul" and in Sinhalese 
A large settlement appears to have been founded before 900 BC at the site of Anuradhapura and signs of an Iron Age culture have also been found. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The size of the settlement was about 15 hectares at that date, but it expanded to 50 ha, to 'town' size within a couple of centuries. A similar site has been discovered at Aligala in Sigiriya. Sigiriya (Lion's rock is an ancient rock fortress and ruins of a castle situated in central Matale District of Sri Lanka. 
It is suspected that the hunter gatherer people known as the Wanniyala-Aetto or Veddas, who still live in the North-Eastern parts of the island, are relatively direct descendants of the first inhabitants who were definitely Dravidians, if not Tamils. "Vedda" and "Veddas" redirect here For the Sanskrit texts see Vedas. "Vedda" and "Veddas" redirect here For the Sanskrit texts see Vedas. .
The Ramayana epic, composed possibly between the 2nd and 4th centuries BC, states that Lanka was created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the lord of wealth. The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki Lanka ( Sanskrit: लंका lankā means "island" is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the Vishvakarma Or Vishwabrahmin ( Sanskrit: विश्वकर्मा viśvá-karman "all-accomplishing all-creator" is Kubera ( Sanskrit: कुबेर (also Kuvera or Kuber) is the king of the Yakshas and the lord of wealth in Hindu mythology  Ravana, usurped the throne of Kubera after defeating him in a battle. Ramayana recounts how Rama invaded the island through the Mannar causeway with the help of Sugreeva (the king of a Vanara (monkey) Army) and Hanuman the minister of Sugreeva, to save his abducted wife Sita from Ravana, the King of Sri Lanka. Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog: Hanuman (हनुमत् sa-Latn '''Hanumat''' nominative singular sa हनुमान् sa-Latn ''Hanumān'' known also as ' Anjaneya' (son of Anjana is one of the SITA is a multinational Information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the Aviation industry For the South Indian film see Ravana (film. Ravanaa, also transliterated as Raavana, Ravan or
The earliest chronicles the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa say that, before the migration of the Indo-Aryans, tribes of Yakkhas (demons) and Nagas (cobras) inhabited the island. The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. The Yakkha The indigenous Yakkha (identical with its Kirat family Rai Limbu and Sunuwar of the Mongolian physiognomy is one of the progenesis of Nepal's prehistoric Nāga ( नाग, IAST: nāgá, Indonesian: naga, Javanese: nogo, Khmer: neak) is These names might refer to the tribal totems of the Dravidian people living in the island.
Pottery has been found at Anuradhapura, bearing Brahmi script and non-Brahmi writing, dating back to 600 BC. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous One of the oldest examples of the script. .
The Pali chronicles, i. Vijaya (c 543 BC - 504 BC) was the first king of Sri Lanka mentioned in the ancient Sri Lankan Pali chronicles e. , the Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Thupavamsa and the Chulavamsa as well as a large collection of stone inscriptions, the Indian Epigraphical records, the Burmese versions of the chronicles etc. The Dipavamsa, or "Deepavamsa" (ie Chronicle of the Island in Pali) is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa, (Pāli "Lesser Chronicle " is a historical record written in the Pāli language of the kings , provide an exceptional record for the history of Sri Lanka from about the 6th century B. C. The Mahavamsa, written circa 5th century A. D. by the monk Nagasena, using the Deepavamsa, the Attakatha and other written sources available to him, correlates well with the Indian history of the period, with King Asoka's dates of reign actually discovered through the Mahavamsa. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi The account of the period prior to Asoka's coronation (given in the Mahavamsa as 218 years after the Buddha's death) seems to be part legend. Thus the history begins with the arrival of Vijaya and his 700 followers. Vijaya (c 543 BC - 504 BC) was the first king of Sri Lanka mentioned in the ancient Sri Lankan Pali chronicles Vijaya, is a Kalinga(ancient Orissa) prince, the eldest son of King Sinhabahu (means:-"Man with Lion arms") and Queen Sinhasivali, who were siblings born by a mythical union between a lion and a human princess. Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. The historian contrives the chronology to claim that Vijaya landed on the same day as the death of the Buddha (See Geiger's preface to Mahavamsa), giving added significance to Vijaya's arrival. The story of Vijaya and Kuveni (the local reigning queen) is reminiscent of Greek legend, and may have a common source in Indo-European folk tales.  Vijaya landed near Mahathitha (Manthota or Mannar), and, according to the Mahavamsa, named the Island "Thambaparni" ('copper-colored palms), a name which entered into Ptolemy's map of the ancient world. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Tamirabharani is the old name for the second longest river (known as Malwatu Oya in Sinhala and Aruvi Aru in Tamil); it was a main supply route connecting the capital, Anuradhapura to Mahathitha (Mannar), used by Greek ships and Chinese ships travelling on the Silk Route. Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous Mahathitha was an ancient port, linking the Indian coast and the Persian gulf with Sri Lanka, and frequented by sea-faring people in pre-Vijayan times.
The descendents of Vijaya are known as the Sinhala. The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and number approximately 15 million people with the Although the genetic indicators and haplotypes of the region show that the people are a thoroughly inter-mixed group, the issue of migratory patterns, and their relation to those in the Indian sub-continent are endlessly debated. The term haplotype is a contraction of the term " haploid Genotype.
Ancient epigraphic inscriptions found at Anuradhapura and some other places in Sri Lanka attest Muridi (Muruda = Murunda), Meraya (Maurya? or else the inhabitants from Meru in Hindukush?) etc. Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφολογία from Greek ἐπιγραφή — "inscription" is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military The Hindu Kush is a Mountain range located between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Although Dravidians have lived on this island for many thousands of years before the first wave of Sinhala immigrants arrived with Vijaya, Sinhalese chronciles talk of these people as non-humans. The pressure of migrations from the north and the rise of Dravidian power led to invasions of the Island, in later times. Small settlements near present-day Kathirveli and Pomparippu ("pon parappi" which means "Tamira Bharni", a river in Tamil Naadu, South India)are described as mere "isolated settlements" by Dr. Karthigesu Indrapala. 
Senan and Guttakan were the first Tamil rulers (2nd century BC). They left no evidence except for the allusion in the Mahavamsa. (This is admission that there are so many allusions to be found in the Mahavamsa which are not supported by evidence). The intermingling of Tamil and Sinhala people, especially after the 12th century is evidenced by the Sinhalization many Tamil place names in the South and the tamilization of Sinhala toponyms, see Place names in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan place name etymology is characterized by the linguistic and ethnic diversity of the island of Sri Lanka through the ages and the position of the country in the centre
There is also a reference to Dravidian community Dameda (Damila or Tamil), and another reference to Jhavaka (?) and Mileka (=Mlechha). Dravidian peoples refers to the peoples that natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ mleccha, meaning "non- Aryan, Barbarian " is a derogatory term for people who did
Of these several ethnic groups, the Kaboja (or Kamboja, Kambodjin) find mention in seven or eight ancient inscriptions, whereas term Daemeda is referenced four times, Mileka occurs twice and the Muridi, Meraya and Jhavaka occur only once.  The Sihalavatthu, a Pali text of about the fourth century, also attests a group of people called the Kambojas living in Rohana. Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Rohana is a Genus of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae. The third story of this text, called Metteyya-vatthu, reveals that the Elder named Maleyya was residing in Kamboja-gama, in the province (Janapada) of Rohana on the Island of Tambapanni (Sri Lanka). The Janapadas are the major realms or kingdoms of Vedic ( Iron Age) India, by the 6th century BC evolving into the sixteen classical An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant  Further, there is an ancient evidence from Mahavamsa that the Yonas or Yavanas (Greeks), the next door neighbors of the Kambojas in the north-west, had also their settlement in Pandukabhaya in Anuradhapura
The ancient inscriptions reveal that the Kambojas were actively involved in trade since there is reference to one 'Grand Trade Guild of the Kambojas' (Kabojhiya-mahapugiyana) and one 'Sangha of the Kambojas' (Gota-Kabojhi(ya]na) in Anuradhapura. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. "Yona" is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers "Yona" is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions  Scholars have dated these epigraphic inscriptions to at least third century BCE (or probably earlier). This may imply that the Aryan speakers of Sri Lankan population may have materially descended from the north-western Kambojas and partly from the Saka (Murinda) and the Yavana colonists. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" 
DEVANAMPIYA TISSA (250-210 BC). Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala, அனுராதபுரம் in Tamil) is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous Mauriya clan. His links with Emperor Asoka led to the introduction of Buddhism by Mahinda (son of Asoka) in 247? BC. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi Mahinda ( Sanskrit: महिन्द्र Mahindra) (born 3rd century BCE in Magadha, now in Bihar, India) was a Buddhist Sangamitta, (sister of Mahinda) brought a Bodhi sapling via Jambukola(Sambiliturei). See also Ashoka Bhikkhuni Sri Maha Bodhi Bodhi (बोधि is both the Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English as "enlightenment There is no evidence in the history of King Ashoka about his having had a son by the name of Mahinda (or by any other name) or a daughter by the name of Sangamitta (or by any other name). This is another complete "boru" of the monks who wrote the Mahavanse. This king's reign was crucial to Theravada Buddhism, and for Sri Lanka. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation
ELARA 205-161 BC, a Tamil king, ruled "Pihiti Rata", i. e. , Sri Lanka north of the mahaweli, after killing King Asela. The Mahaweli Ganga ("Mahaweli River" Sinhala mahaväli ganga) is the longest River in Sri Lanka. During Elara's time, KelaniTissa was a sub-king of Maya Rata (south-west) and KavanTissa was a regional sub-king of Ruhuna (South-east). Kavantissa built Tissa Maha Vihara, Dighavapi Tank and many shrines in Seruvila. DUTU GEMUNU (GAMINI) 161-137 BC – Eldest son of King Kavan Tissa, who was a young man 25 years of age, defeated Elara (over 64 years of age) in single combat, described in the Mahavamsa. Dutugamunu is depicted as a Sinhala "Asoka". King Dutugemunu ( Sinhala, දුටුගැමුණු duṭugämuṇu) also known as Dutthagamani ( Pali, duṭṭhagāmaṇī) The Ruwanwelisaya, built by this king is a dagaba of pyramid-like proportions. The Ruwanwelisaya is a Stupa in Sri Lanka, considered a marvel for its architectural qualities and sacred to many Buddhists all over the world It was an engineering marvel.
Five Tamil Chiefs: PULAHATHA deposed by BAHIYA, deposed by PANAYAMARA, deposed by PILAYAMARA, murdered by DATHIYA 88 BC – deposed by Valagambahu, ending Tamil rule. VALAGAMBAHU I 89-77 BC – restored the Dutugamunu dynasty. The Mahavihara Theravada -Abhayagiri(pro-Mahayana) doctrinal disputes arose at this time. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for The Tripitaka was written in Pali at Aluvihara, Matale. The Tripiṭaka ( Sanskrit; Devanagari: त्रिपिटक lit Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. CHORA NAGA (Mahanaga) 63-51 BC; poisoned by his consort Anula. Queen Anula 48-44 BC – Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, first Queen of Lanka. Queen Anula (reigned 47 BC - 42 BC was the first queen in Sri Lankan history to have wielded meaningful power and authority She had many lovers who were poisoned by her. She was finally killed by: KUTTAKANNA TISSA. VASABHA 67-111 AD – Vallipuram gold plate; he fortified Anuradhapura and built eleven tanks; many edicts. Vallipuram (வல்லிபுரம் is an ancient capital of Sri Lanka GAJABAHU I 114-136 – invaded the Chola kingdom and brought back captives. He recovered the tooth relic of the Buddha. History The relic in India According to Sri Lankan legends when the Buddha died his body was cremated in a sandalwood pyre at Kusinara in
MAHASENA 274-301 AD – The Theravada (Maha Vihara) was persecuted and Mahayana surfaced. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Later the King returned to the Maha Vihara. Pandu 429 AD - first of seven Pandiyan rulers, ending with Pithya, 455; DHATUSENA 455-473 AD, his uncle, Mahanama wrote the Mahavamsa, he built "Kalaweva". His son KASHYAPA 470-488 AD, built the famous sigiriya rock palace. Sigiriya (Lion's rock is an ancient rock fortress and ruins of a castle situated in central Matale District of Sri Lanka. Some 700 rock graffiti give a glimpse of ancient Sinhala.
MANAVAMMA 684-718 AD – seized the throne with Pallava help. Origins See also Origin of Pallava The exact origin of the Pallavas is shrouded in mystery Manavamma introduced Pallava patronage for three centuries. By the 9th century, with the Pandyan ascendancy in southern India, Anuradhapura was sacked. However, the Sinhalese invaded Pandya using a rival prince, and Madurai itself was sacked. Madurai MAHINDA V 982-1029 AD – was the last Sinhala monarch of Anuradhapura. He fled to Ruhuna, where, in 1007, the Chola took him to prison and he died in India.
The great Raja Raja Cholan I, and his great son Rajendra Cholan I, defeated all of the Sinhalese kings and sub-kings who ruled over Sinhlala kingdoms on the island and brought the entire island under Tamil control(False, Cholas did not control Rohana,south of Sri Lanka). The Sinhala king Mahinda V and his family were captured and taken to Chola Naadu. Tamils ruled the entire island for the next 140 years. (False, Cholas did not control the south of Sri Lanka)
VIJAYABAHU I 1055-1110 AD, recaptured the whole Island, and established Polonnaruwa as the new capital. The second most ancient of Sri Lanka 's kingdoms Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 King Vijaya Bahu married from the Kalinga (Orissa) Royal Family a second queen, and had a son Vikrama Bahu and a daughter Ratnavali. His sister, Mitta, married a Pandya Prince who had three sons, the eldest being Manabharana. He married Ratnavali. Their son was PARAKRAMA BAHU I 1153-1186 AD – Grandson of Vijaya Bahu I, Prince of Sinhala-Pandyan-Kalinga descent, son of Manabharana and Vijaya Bahu’s sister, Mitta. He was a very powerful king, noted for his engineering, naval power, art, culture, many Sinhala inscriptions, and even a Tamil edict in Uruthota (Kayts). The Chulavamsa was written by Dharmakirthi, updating the Mahavamsa to include Parakramabahu. The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa, (Pāli "Lesser Chronicle " is a historical record written in the Pāli language of the kings It was a great age since the epic Anradhapura period.
The Jaffna kingdom (Tamil: யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215-1619 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti came into existence after the invasion of Magha, who is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. The Jaffna kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு (1215-1619 CE also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka came into existence See also Jaffna kingdom The Aryacakravarti dynasty (ஆரியச் சக்கரவர்த்திகள் வம்சம் were kings of the Jaffna Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Magha (reigned 1215 - 1236) also known as Kalinga Magha (கலிங்க மாகன் and Magha the Tyrant, is a medieval king of Sri Kalinga was a Kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state It eventually became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1250, but later become independent with the fragmentation of the Pandyan control. Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union For a brief period, in the early to middle fourteenth century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450. The Kotte Kingdom (Sinhalese කෝට්ටේ රාජධානිය located a few miles from present-day Colombo was a kingdom that flourished in Ceylon ( Sri
It was freed of Kotte control in 1467; its subsequent rulers directed their energies towards consolidating its economic potential by maximising revenue from pearls and elephant exports and land revenue. A pearl is a hard roundish object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled Mollusk. Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. It was less feudal than most of other regional kingdoms in the island of Sri Lanka of the same period. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed During this period, important local Tamil literature was produced and Hindu temples were built including an academy for language advancement. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
The arrival of the Portuguese colonial power to the island of Sri Lanka in 1505, and its strategic location in the Palk Strait connecting all interior Sinhalese kingdoms to South India, created political problems. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta The Palk Strait is a Strait that lies between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Island nation of Sri Lanka. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union Many of its kings confronted and ultimately made peace with the Portuguese colonials. In 1617, Cankili II, an usurper to the throne, confronted the Portuguese but was defeated, thus bringing the kingdom’s independent existence to an end in 1619. Cankili II (சங்கிலி குமாரன் (died 1619 self proclaimed last king of the Jaffna kingdom, he was a usurper who came to throne with a Palace
The first Europeans to visit Sri Lanka in modern times were the Portuguese: Francisco de Almeida arrived in 1505, finding the island divided into seven warring kingdoms and unable to fend off intruders. Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão refers to a former Portuguese territory in Sri Lanka ( Ceylon) representing a period in Sri Lankan history from Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Dom Francisco de Almeida (fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku dɨ aɫˈmɐiðɐ also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (born c The Portuguese founded a fort at the port city of Colombo in 1517 and gradually extended their control over the coastal areas. Colombo ( Sinhala:, ˈkoləmbə Tamil: கொழும்பு is the largest city and commercial capital of Sri Lanka. In 1592 the Sinhalese moved their capital to the inland city of Kandy, a location more secure against attack from invaders. Kandy ( maha nuvara, mahaˈnuərə in Sinhala, கண்டி kaṇṭi, ˈkaɳɖi in Tamil) is the English name for the city of Intermittent warfare continued through the 16th century.
Many lowland Sinhalese were forced to convert to Christianity while the coastal Moors were religiously persecuted and forced to retreat to the Central highlands. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Sri Lankan Moors (also called Muslims, Marakallayos or Sonagar) are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka comprising 9% of the country's The Central Province ( Sinhala: Madhyama Palata) of Sri Lanka consists primarily of mountainous terrain The Buddhist majority disliked Portuguese occupation and its influences and welcomed any power who might rescue them. In 1602, therefore, when the Dutch captain Joris Spilberg landed, the king at Kandy appealed to him for help. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
It was in 1638 that the Dutch attacked in earnest, and not until 1656 that Colombo fell. This is a term used synonymously for the period and the area of Ceylon or Sri Lanka that was controlled by the Dutch from 1685-1798 and their rule By 1660 the Dutch controlled the whole island except the kingdom of Kandy. The Dutch persecuted the Catholics but left the Buddhists, Hindus and Moslems alone. However, they taxed the people far more heavily than the Portuguese had done. A mixed Dutch-Sinhalese people known as Burgher peoples are the legacy of Dutch rule. The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists
In 1659, the British sea captain Robert Knox landed by chance on Sri Lanka and was captured by the king of Kandy. Robert Knox (1641-1720 was an English sea captain in the service of the British East India Company. He escaped 19 years later and wrote an account of his stay. This helped to bring the island to the attention of the British.
During the Napoleonic Wars the United Kingdom, fearing that French control of the Netherlands might deliver Sri Lanka to the French, occupied the coastal areas of the island (which they called Ceylon) with little difficulty in 1796. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area In 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens the Dutch part of the island was formally ceded to Britain, and became a crown colony. The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended the hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1803 the British invaded the Kingdom of Kandy in the 1st Kandyan War, but were bloodily repulsed. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Kingdom of Kandy ( Sinhalese: මහනුවර රාජධානිය Tamil:கண்டி இராச்சியம் mahanuvara rājadhāniya is the term Kandian Wars (or the Kandyan Wars) refers generally to the period of warfare between British colonial forces and the kingdom of Kandy in Ceylon, modern In 1815 Kandy was occupied in the 2nd Kandyan War, finally ending Sri Lankan independence. Following the bloody suppression of the Uva Rebellion or 3rd Kandyan War in 1817–1818, a treaty in 1818 preserved the Kandyan monarchy (Nayaks of Kandy) as a British dependency. The Uva Rebellion, also known as the ' Great Rebellion of 1817-1818' (or the 3rd Kandyan War by the British) took place in Ceylon against See also Kingdom of Kandy The Nayaks of Kandy (aka Nayakar Dynasty were rulers of Kandy kingdom in Sri Lanka with Kandy as their capital
The Kandyan peasantry were stripped of their lands by the Wastelands Ordinance, a modern enclosure movement and reduced to penury. Enclosure or inclosure (the latter is used in Legal documents and Place names is the term used in England and Wales The British found that the uplands of Sri Lanka were very suited to coffee, tea and rubber cultivation, and by the mid 19th century Ceylon tea had become a staple of the British market, bringing great wealth to a small class of white tea planters. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market To work the estates, the planters imported large numbers of Tamil workers as indentured labourers from south India, who soon made up 10% of the island's population. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to These workers had to work in slave-like conditions and to live in line rooms, not very different from cattle sheds.
The British colonialists favoured the semi-European Burghers, certain high-caste Sinhalese and the Tamils who were mainly concentrated to the north of the country, exacerbating divisions and enmities which have survived ever since. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. Nevertheless, the British also introduced democratic elements to Sri Lanka for the first time in its history. The Burghers were given some degree of self-government as early as 1833. It was not until 1909 that constitutional development began with a partly-elected assembly, and not until 1920 that elected members outnumbered official appointees. Universal suffrage was introduced in 1931, over the protests of the Sinhalese, Tamil and Burgher elite who objected to the common people being allowed to vote , . Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to
Ceylon National Congress (CNC) was founded to agitate for greater autonomy. The Sri Lankan independence movement was a peaceful political movement to aimed at achieving independence for Sri Lanka from British imperial rule The party soon split along ethnic and caste lines. Prof. K. M. de Silva, the famous Peradeniya historian has pointed out that the refusal of the Ceylon Tamils to accept minority status to be one of the main causes which broke up the Ceylon National congress.  The CNC did not seek independence or "Swaraj". What may be called the independence movement broke into two streams, viz. , the "constitutionalists", who sought independence by gradual modification of the status of Ceylon, and the more radical groups associated with the Colombo Youth League, Labour movement of Goonasinghe, and the Jaffna Youth Congress. These organizations were the first to raise the cry of Swaraj, or outright independence, following the Indian example, when Nehru, Sarojini Naidu and other Indian leaders visited Ceylon in 1926. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू ʤəʋäɦəɾläl nɛɦɾu (14 November 1889 27 May 1964 was a major political leader of the Congress Party  The efforts of the constitutionalists led to the arrival of the Donoughmore Commission reforms (1931) and the Soulbury Commission recommendations, which essentially upheld the 1944 draft contitution of the Board of ministers headed by D. S. Senanayake. Donoughmore is a parish in County Cork which lies 25 km west north west of Cork city in Ireland. The Soulbury Commission announce in 1944 was like its predecessor the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in Sri Lanka. Don Stephen Senanayake ( October 20 1884 &ndash 22 March 1952) was an independence activist who served as the first Prime Minister of  The Marxist Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP), which grew out of the Youth Leagues in 1935, made the demand for outright independence a corner stone of their policy Its deputies in the State Council, N.M. Perera and Philip Gunawardena, were aided in this struggle by other less radical members like Natesa Iyer and Don Alwin Rajapaksa. The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் Nanayakkarapathirage Martin Perera, better known as Dr N M Perera, ( 6 June 1905 &ndash 14 August 1979) was one of the leaders Don Philip Rupasinghe Gunawardena (b 11 January 1901 - d 26 March 1972) is a national hero of Sri Lanka. They also demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. The Marxist groups were a tiny minority and yet their movement was viewed with grave suspicion by the British administration. The heroic (but ineffctive) attempts to rouse the public against the British Raj in revolt would have led to certain bloodshed and a delay in independence. British state papers released in the 1950s show that the Marxist movement had a very negative impact on the policy makers at the Colonial office.
The Soulbury Commission was the most important result of the agitation for constitutional reform in the 1930s. The Soulbury Commission announce in 1944 was like its predecessor the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in Sri Lanka. The Tamil leadership had by then fallen into the hands of G. G. Ponnambalam who had rejected the "Ceylonese identity". Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam (8 November 1902 &ndash 9 December 1977 known as G  Ponnamblam had declared himself a "proud Dravidian", and attempted to establish an independent identity for the Tamils. Ponnamblam was a politician who attacked the Sinhalese, and their historical chronicle known as the Mahavamsa. The Mahavamsa, ("Great Chronicle " is a historical poem written in the Pali language of the kings of Sri Lanka. One such inflamed attack in Navalapitiya led to the first Sinhala-Tamil riot in 1939.  Ponnambalam opposed universal franchise, supported the caste system, and claimed that the protection of Tamil rights requires the Tamils (15% of the population in 1931) having an equal number of seats in parliament to that of the Sinhalese (~72% of the population). Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. This "50-50" or "balanced representation" policy became the hall mark of Tamil politics of the time. Ponnambalam also accused the British of having established colonization in "traditional Tamil areas", and having favoured the Buddhists by the buddhist temporalities act. The Soulbury Commission rejected these submissions by Ponnambalam, and even noted their unacceptable communal character. The Soulbury Commission announce in 1944 was like its predecessor the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese writers pointed out the large immigration of Tamils to the southern urban centers, especially after the opening of the Jaffna-Colombo railway. Meanwhile, Senanayake, Baron Jayatilleke, Oliver Gunatilleke and others lobbied the Soulbury Commission without confronting them officially. The Soulbury Commission announce in 1944 was like its predecessor the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in Sri Lanka. The unoffcial submissions contained what was to later become the draft constitution of 1944. 
The close collaboration of the D. S. Senanayake government with the war-time British administration led to the support of Lord Mount-Batton. His dispatches and a telegram to the Colonial office supporting Independence for Ceylon have been cited by historians as having helped the Senanayake government to secure the independence of Sri Lanka. The shrewd cooperation with the British as well as diverting the needs of the war market to Ceylonese markets as a supply point, managed by Oliver Goonatilleke, also led to a very favourable fiscal situation for the newly independent government.
During World War II, Sri Lanka was a front-line British base against the Japanese. The opposition to the war in Sri Lanka was orchestrated by the Marxist organisations. The LSSP leaders of the pro-independence agitation were arrested by the Colonial authorities. On 5 April 1942, The Japanese Navy bombed Colombo. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article This led to the fleeing of the Indian merchants who dominated the commercial sector in Colombo, removing a great political problem that had faced the Senanayake government.  The Marxist leaders also escaped to India, where they participated in the struggle there. The movement in Ceylon was minuscule, limited to the English educated intelligentsia and trade unions, mainly in the urban centers. These groups were led by Robert Gunawardena, Philip's brother. In stark contrast to this "heroic" but ineffective approach to the war, the Senanayake government took advantage of the war to establish excellent rapport with the commanding elite. Ceylon became a main center of the war, with Mountbatten using Colombo as its headquarters. Mountbatten is the family name adopted by two branches of the Battenberg family due to rising Anti-German sentiment among the British public during World War Oliver Goonatilleka successfully exploited the markets for the country's rubber and other agricultural products to replenish the treasury. They also used the war period to continue to agitate for independence, using the opportunities offered by the war to establish their "friendship" with Britain.
Meanwhile, the Marxists, who analysed that this was an imperialist war which should be followed by the proletarian revolution, followed a path of agitation totally unrelated to their negligible combat strength, and diametrically opposite to the "constitutionalist" approach of Senanayake and other leaders. A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie. A very small garrison on the Cocos Islands, manned by Ceylonese, mutinied. It has been claimed that the LSSP had some hand in it, although this is far from clear. Three of the mutineers were the only British Commonwealth troops to be shot for mutiny during the Second World War. Two members of the Governing Party, Junius Richard Jayawardene and Dudley Senanayake held discussions with the Japanese with a view to collaboration to oust the British. Junius Richard Jayewardene ( September 17 1906 &ndash November 1 1996) famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the Dudley Shelton Senanayake ( June 19, 1911 &mdash April 13, 1973) was a Ceylonese (now Sri Lanka politician who became the second Sri Lankans in Singapore and Malaysia formed the 'Lanka Regiment' of the Indian National Army. Singapore For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Indian National Army ( INA) or Azad Hind Fauj ( Hindi: आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists
However, the constitutionalists led by D. S. Senanayake succeeded in winning independence. The Soulbury constitution was essentially what Senanayake's board of ministers had drafted in 1944. The promise of Dominion status, and independence itself, had been given by the Colonial office.
The Sinhalese leader Don Stephen Senanayake left the CNC on the issue of independence, disagreeing with the revised aim of 'the achieving of freedom', although his real reasons were more subtle . He subsequently formed the United National Party (UNP) in 1946, when a new constitution was agreed on, based on the behind-the -curtain lobbying of the Soulbury commission. The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya At the elections of 1947, the UNP won a minority of the seats in Parliament, but cobbled together a coalition with the Sinhala Maha Sabha of Solomon Bandaranaike and the Tamil Congress of G. G. Ponnambalam. The successful inclusions of the Tamil-communalist leader Ponnambalam, and his Sinhala counterpart Bandaranaike were a remarkable political balancing act by Senanayake. However, the vacuum in Tamil Nationalist politics created by Ponnamblam's transition to a moderate opened the field for the Tamil Arasu Kachchi, a Tamil soverignist party (renderd into English as the "Federal" party) led by S. J. V. Chelvanaykam, the lawyer son of a Christian minister.
Dominion status, raised to independence itself followed on 4 February 1948, with military treaties with Britain (the upper ranks of the armed forces were initially British) and British air and sea bases remaining intact. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Senanayake became the first Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. In 1949, with the concurrence of the leaders of the Ceylon Tamils, the UNP government disenfranchised the Indian Tamil plantation workers. Sri Lankan Tamil people ( or Ceylon Tamils, are an Ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka who predominantly speak The Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.  This was the price that Senanayake had to pay, to obtain the support of the Kandyan Sinhalese who felt threatened by the demographics of the tea estates, where the inclusion of the "Indian Tamils" would have meant electoral defeat for the Kandyan leaders. Senanayke died in 1952 after falling from a horse. He was succeeded by his son Dudley Senanayake, the minister of Agriculture. However, in 1953 - following a massive general strike or 'Hartal' by the Left parties against the UNP, Dudley Senanayake resigned. Hartal (also hartaal is a term in many Indian languages for Strike action, used often during the Indian Independence Movement. He was followed by John Kotelawala, a very senior politician and an uncle of Dudley. General Sir John Lionel Kotelawala, KBE, CH ( April 4 1897 - October 2 1980) was a Sri Lankan politician Kotelawala did not have the enormous personal prestige or the adroit political acumen of D. S. Senanayake . He brought to the fore, the issue of national languages that D. S. Senanayake had adroitly kept on the back burner. He antagonized the Tamils and the Sinhalese by stating conflicting policies with regard to the status of Sinhala and Tamil as official languages. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. He also antagonized the Buddhist lobby by attacking politically active Buddhist Monks who were Bandaranaike's supporters.
In 1956 the UNP was defeated at elections (being reduced to 8 seats in Parliament) by the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna, which included the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) led by Solomon Bandaranaike and the Viplavakari Lanka Sama Samaja Party of Philip Gunawardena. The Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front is a left-wing Political party in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike ( January 8, 1899 – September 26, 1959) was the fourth Prime Minister (1956-1959 of Viplavakari Lanka Sama Samaja Party (Revolutionary Ceylon Equal Society Party was a group that broke away from the Trotskyist Lanka Sama Samaja Party, since Philip Gunawardena Don Philip Rupasinghe Gunawardena (b 11 January 1901 - d 26 March 1972) is a national hero of Sri Lanka. Bandaranaike was a politician who had nursed the Sinhala nationalist lobby since the 1930s. He replaced English with Sinahala Only as the official language. He was the chief Sinhalese spokesmen who attempted to counter the communal politics unleashed by G. G. Ponnambalam.  In 1957 British bases were removed and Sri Lanka officially became a non-aligned country. The Paddy Lands Act, the brainchild of Philip Gunawardena was passed, giving those working the land greater rights vis-a-vis absentee landlords.
Bandaraike entered into a pact with Chelvanayagam of the Tamil-based Tamil Arasu Kachchi to secure more rights for the Tamils, but this was opposed by G. G. Ponnambalam and by JR Jayawardene of the UNP. Junius Richard Jayewardene ( September 17 1906 &ndash November 1 1996) famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the The latter organised a "March to Kandy" in protest. This triggered hostility from the Tamil minority which soon led to disturbances, culminating in serious riots in 1958.
Philip Gunawardena, while in government, continued to organize strikes in the Colombo port. He was removed from the government as the right-wing of the governing coalition grew into the ascendent. The right-wing forces also conspired against the government. This was the time when McCarthyism was rampant in the United States, and Mossadeq had also been assassinated in Iran. Mohammad Mosaddeq ( (, pronounced mosæddeq}} also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) ( May 19 1882 – 5 March 1967) was a major Bandaranaike was assassinated in September 1959. His successor Wijayananda Dahanayake, an ex-LSSP member from Galle, was unable to hold the government together, and elections in March 1960 brought the UNP under Dudley Senanayake back to office, but without a working parliamentary majority. Wijeyananda Dahanayake ( October 22 1902 - May 4 1997) was a Sri Lankan Political figure.
Fresh elections in July saw Bandaranaike's widow, Sirimavo Bandaranaike, lead the SLFP to power and become the world's first elected female head of government. Her government avoided further confrontations with the Tamils, but its socialist policies of nationalization led to a cut-off of United States aid and a growing economic crisis. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government After an attempted coup-d'etat by right-wing Army and Police officers who were mainly non-buddhists, aimed at bringing the UNP back to power, Bandaranaike nationalised the oil companies. This led to a boycott of the country by the oil cartels, which was broken with aid from the Kansas oil producers co-operative. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " In 1964 she formed a coalition government with the LSSP, a Trotskyist party with Dr N.M. Perera as Minister of Finance. Nanayakkarapathirage Martin Perera, better known as Dr N M Perera, ( 6 June 1905 &ndash 14 August 1979) was one of the leaders
Dissatisfaction with the economic situation brought the UNP under Senanayake back to office in 1965, but this government fared no better, since the underlying cause of Sri Lanka's problems were the declining market, the exploding population resulting from advanced health services and social welfare. Its traditional commodity exports, tea, coffee and rubber could not match the costs of importing food and maintaining the welfare economy. In 1968 Bandaranaike formed a coalition, the United Front with the LSSP and the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, which swept the 1970 polls on a platform of socialism. The United Front was a political alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP and the
Under Bandaranaike the country became a republic, the Free Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka, the Senate was abolished and the position of Sinhala as the official language (with Tamil as a second language) was confirmed. Full independence was established as the last remaining ties of subjection to the UK were broken (e. g. the Privy Council was no longer a body of appeal above the Supreme Court). Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. The British-owned plantations were nationalised in order to fulfil the election pledges of the Marxist program and to "prevent the ongoing dis-investment by the owning companies".
An attempt was made at economic independence, with a five-year plan to achieve industrial development. However, this was stymied due to a shortage of foreign exchange, a very expensive welfare program, and the oil crisis of 1974. These were combined with an unprecedented drought which severely affected the harvest of rice, the staple food of the people. Strides forward were made in the fields of heavy industry, automotive spares and electronics. The strongly centralized economy, functioning via a set of state corporations grew very sluggishly.
In 1971 a group variously labelled Maoist or Guevarist, the People's Liberation Front (JVP) launched a rebellion. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed It was led by Rohana Wijeweera, a marxist who had his education at the Lumumba University in the Soviet Union. This movement was not connected with the traditional Sri Lankan Marxist parties which were then in power. Most of the "insurgents" were unemployed literate youth who were the product of the post-independence population explosion. Although the JVP rebellion was brutally suppressed, the JVP found a place in Sri Lankan politics as a voice of leftist Sinhalese nationalism, along with the right-wing movement in the UNP associated with Cyril Matthew. Militant Tamil Chauvinist movements, e. g. , the Pulip Padai, had been launched in Trincomalee in 1965. Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai තිරිකුණාමළය Tirikūṇamaḷaya is a district a bay and a port city on the northeast coast of The Jaffna university was "ethnically cleansed" of non-Tamils in 1976, and the city itself began to be subject to similar "ethnic cleansing", eliminating Muslim and Sinhala residents.
The extreme-Tamil groups rejected and physically eliminated the main Colombo-Tamil leadership of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Tamil: தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி in Sinhala: ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් Tamil public servants or members of parliament working with the government were harassed. The mayor of Jaffna was assassinated in 1975. The militants claimed their independence, their rights, and their "traditional homeland", and formed armed separatist groups such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ('Tamil Tigers'), demanding an independent Tamil state called Eelam. "LTTE" redirects here For the Led Zeppelin bootleg see Listen to This Eddie. Much of this had the implicit and material support of politicians in India.  The country began to slide towards a civil war in which a unique cyanide-carrying suicide brigade appeared.
By 1977 the voters were tired of Bandaranaike's socialist policies and elections returned the UNP to power under Junius Jayewardene on a manifesto pledging a market economy and "a free ration of 8 seers (kilograms) of cereals". Junius Richard Jayewardene ( September 17 1906 &ndash November 1 1996) famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the The SLFP and the left-wing parties were virtually wiped out in Parliament (although they garnered 40% of the popular vote), leaving the Tamil United Liberation Front, led by Appapillai Amirthalingam, as the official opposition. The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Tamil: தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி in Sinhala: ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් Appapillai Amirthalingam ( August 26, 1927 &ndash July 13, 1989) was a Sri Lankan politician who advocated Separatism for This created a dangerous ethnic cleavage in Sri Lankan politics.
Bandaranaike had her civic rights removed by an act of Parliament. In 1978 Jayewardene introduced a new constitution making Sri Lanka a presidential 'Democratic Socialist' republic, with himself as executive President . In 1980 he crushed a general strike by the trade-union movement, jailing its leaders. When the UNP member for the parliamentary constituency of Kalawana was removed on an election petition by his Communist opponent, Jayawardene allowed him to continue sitting in the house.
In 1977, Colombo abandoned state controlled economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. This included the opening of free-trade zones with a heavy emphasis on exports of garments from these zones.
Elections to District Councils in 1981 were marred by the open theft of ballot boxes in Jaffna. The Jaffna Library, the repository of thousands of valuable documents was burned down by thugs alleged to be linked with the government. The burning of the Jaffna library was an important event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war.
President Jayawardene had the constitution amended (one of 13 amendments during his 10 years in office) to allow presidential elections to be held early, in 1982. The main opposition candidate, Hector Kobbekaduwa was garlanded with onions by the farmers of the Jaffna peninsular, impoverished by the policy of unrestricted imports.
The Presidential election, held amidst widespread acts of electoral malpractice (Hector Kobbekaduwa arrived at the polling station only to find his vote had already been cast) resulted in Jayawardene's re-election. He followed this with an infamous plebiscite on postponing parliamentary elections for six years. Associates of Kobbekaduwa, such as TB Ilangaratne and Vijaya Kumaratunga, were jailed as 'Naxalites', a political creed unheard of in Sri Lanka, before or since. Tikiri Bandara Ilangaratne ( February 27, 1913 - May 21, 1992) was a Sri Lankan politician author dramatist and theater actor Vijaya Kumaranatunga ( October 9 1945 - February 16, 1988) also Vijaya Kumaratunga was a popular Sri Lankan film actor and politician Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to Communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement The Commissioner of Elections, in his report on the referendum, reported that it was flawed.
In 1983 following a demonstration against the US establishment of a military base in Diego Garcia, former MP Vivienne Goonewardena was physically assaulted at a police station. Diego Garcia is the largest Atoll, in terms of land area in Chagos Archipelago, part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. Violet Vivienne ("Vivi" Goonewardena ( 18 September 1916 - 3 October 1996) was a Sri Lankan pioneer Socialist and Her fundamental rights application in this matter was upheld by the Supreme Court in an act of judicial independence . Following this, thugs stoned the houses of the Supreme Court judges who had made the ruling and the police officer who had been convicted had his fine paid by the government and received a promotion.
|Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka|
|Origins of the Civil War|
|Origins of the Civil War|
Black July • Riots and pogroms
Human rights • Allegations of state terror
Tamil militant groups
|LTTE • Attacks • Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna|
|Current major figures|
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv Gandhi • RAW
|Military of Sri Lanka|
TMVP • EPDP
Notable assassinations • Child soldiers
In July 1983 communal riots took place due to the ambush and killing of 13 Sri Lankan Army soldiers by the Tamil Tigers. The Sri Lankan Civil War is an Ongoing conflict on the Island -nation of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Origins of the Sri lankan civil war is highlighted by the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils Black July is the commonly used name for the Pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23 1983. Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka 1915 riots The first reported organized riots in Sri Lanka were against the minority Sri Lankan Muslims Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State and the European Union, Various Non-governmental organizations and individuals have accused the Sri Lankan government of committing state terrorism Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. "LTTE" redirects here For the Led Zeppelin bootleg see Listen to This Eddie. The following is a list of attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE commonly known as the Tamil Tigers The expulsion of the Muslims from the Northern province was an act of Ethnic cleansing carried out by the Tamil militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa (commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sinhala මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ; maˈhində ˈraːjəˌpakʂə born November Velupillai Prabhakaran (வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன் born November 26, 1954) also known informally as Thambi (தம்பி Colonel Karuna Amman is the Nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan (born 1966 the President of the TMVP ( TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal Lieutenant Colonel (Ret Nandasena Gotabhaya Rajapaksa RWP, RSP, GR is the current Permanent Lt Gen Sarath Fonseka RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, rcds psc, SLSR is a Sri Lankan Army officer who has served throughout Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop supplies over the besieged town of Sri Lankan Civil War See also Sri Lankan Civil War Sri Lanka, from the early part of the 1980s was facing an increasingly violent ethnic strife Indian Peace Keeping Force ( IPKF; Hindi: भारतीय शान्ति सेना was the Indian military contingent performing a Peacekeeping Rajiv Gandhi राजीव गांधी (raːdʒiːv gaːnd̪ʰiː born in Bombay, (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991 the elder son of Indira and Feroze Research and Analysis Wing ( RAW or R&AW) is India 's external Intelligence agency. The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force which comes under the Ministry of Defence. Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP ( தமிழ் மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamil Peoples Liberation Tigers) also The Eelam People's Democratic Party is a Political party and a Paramilitary organization in Sri Lanka. Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983 militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many Public figures on suspicion of being sympathizers or informants Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. The Sri Lankan Civil War is an Ongoing conflict on the Island -nation of Sri Lanka. Using the voters list which contained the exact addresses of Tamils, the Tamil community faced a severe backlash from the Sinhalese rioters including the destruction of shops. It was rumoured that people behind the riots were government thugs supported by Jayewardene and his cabinet. While many Sinhalese were involved in the mob, many other Sinhalese kept Tamil neighbours in their homes to protect them from the rioters. During these riots the government did nothing to control the mob. Conservative government estimates put the death toll at 400 with 150,000 leaving the country resulting in a Tamil Diaspora in Canada, UK, Australia and other western countries.
Jayewardene held office until 1989, ruling as a virtual dictator under emergency powers. In 1987, following an army offensive in the Vadamarachchi peninsular, India started getting deeply involved in the ethnic conflict. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  A convoy sent by India was stopped in Sri Lankan waters by the Sri Lankan Navy and the Indian Air Force retaliated with an air drop of supplies onto the Jaffna peninsular. The Sri Lankan Navy is the key maritime division of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces and is classed as the most vital defence force of Sri Lanka. The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the While the UNP organised street protests against India, Jayawardene declared that he would defend the country's independence to the last bullet.
However, the air drop also caused Jayawardene to reconsider his position and he then accepted the offer of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of a Peace Accord. Rajiv Gandhi राजीव गांधी (raːdʒiːv gaːnd̪ʰiː born in Bombay, (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991 the elder son of Indira and Feroze  Rajiv Gandhi's offer to send troops into Sri Lanka was deeply unpopular with the Sinhalese and, although initially popular with the Tamils, led to an outbreak of hostilities between the Tamil Tigers and the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) - Eelam War II. Indian Peace Keeping Force ( IPKF; Hindi: भारतीय शान्ति सेना was the Indian military contingent performing a Peacekeeping
In 1989 Jayewardene was succeeded by his own choice as President, Ranasinghe Premadasa, who asked for the Indian troops to be withdrawn - which was later done by Indian Prime Minister V.P. Singh. Ranasinghe Premadasa ( June 23, 1924 - May 1, 1993) was the 3rd President of Sri Lanka from January 2, 1989 Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंह born 25 June 1931) was the 10th Prime Minister of the Premadasa was assassinated by a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber in 1993. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Rajiv Gandhi had already met a similar fate in 1991.
Premadasa was succeeded by Dingiri Banda Wijetunga, with Ranil Wickremasinghe as Prime Minister. Dingiri Banda Wijetunga ( February 15, 1916 &ndash 21 September, 2008) was the President of Sri Lanka from May 1, Ranil Shriyan Wickramasinghe, MP (born March 24, 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician and current In August 1994 the People's Alliance under Bandaranaike's daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga won legislative elections on a platform of concessions to the Tamils and a 'balanced economy'. Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born 29 June 1945) was the fifth President (and fourth to hold the office as Executive president) of Kumaratunga became Prime Minister and in November she was elected President, appointing her 78-year-old (but still active) mother Prime Minister. A ceasefire ensued, which broke down after several months - the beginning of Eelam War III. Under the Bandaranaikes the war dragged on, with the military unable to defeat the separatists and the government opposed to negotiations. By 2000 an estimated 65,000 people had been killed in the conflict.
At Presidential elections in 1999, former Prime Minister Wickremesinghe of the UNP contested on a platform of no concessions to the Tamils, but was defeated by Kumaratunga. A 180-degree turn in UNP policy occurred and in December 2001 the UNP returned to office on a policy of a negotiated settlement with the Tigers, with Wickremasinghe as Prime Minister. A cease fire began, the first long cessation of hostilities since the beginning of the conflict. But the 1978 constitution left the Prime Minister with little power against a hostile President, and Kumaratunga did all she could to frustrate Wickremesinghe's government. In March 2004 she dismissed Wickremesinghe and called fresh elections, which returned the SLFP to office under Mahinda Rajapakse. Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa (commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sinhala මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ; maˈhində ˈraːjəˌpakʂə born November
By 2005 there had been no further progress towards either a military or political solution. The assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar in August 2005, by the LTTE (although they denied responsibility), further hardened attitudes. Sri Lankabhimanya Lakshman Kadirgamar PC ( April 12, 1932 &ndash August 12, 2005) was a Sri Lankan Diplomat His successor was Anura Bandaranaike, the President's brother and putative political heir. Anura Priyadarshi Solomon Dias Bandaranaike ( February 15, 1949 &ndash March 16, 2008) was a Sri Lankan politician served as Twenty years of civil conflict had done immense damage to Sri Lankan society and the economy, which has fallen behind other Asian economies, although it remains the second most prosperous nation in South Asia.
In elections held on 17 November 2005, Mahinda Rajapakse, the son of Don Alwin Rajapaksa, was elected President, defeating Wickremasinghe. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa (commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa, Sinhala මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ; maˈhində ˈraːjəˌpakʂə born November He appointed Ratnasiri Wickremanayake Prime Minister and Mangala Samaraweera Foreign Minister. Ratnasiri Wickremanayake MP (born on May 5, 1933) is the 14th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and a veteran politician Mangala Pinsiri Samawareera MP (born April 21, 1956) is a Sri Lankan politician and current member of parliament who served as the Cabinet Minister Negotiations with the LTTE stalled and low-intensity conflict began. The violence dipped off after talks in February, but escalated in April; it remains to be seen whether or not the conflict will revert to full-scale war.
On August 2006 Red Cross evacuated 150 foreigners from Jaffna region after one month of fighting between the LTTE and the government. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated