There arose in Germany during the third and fourth centuries after Christ the great tribal confederations of the Alamanni; Bavarians, Thuringians, Franks, Frisians, and Saxons, which took the place of the numerous petty tribes with their popular tribal form of government. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany The Bavarians are a German people from Bavaria, Germany. They are the inheritors of the Bavarii, which occupied modern-day Bavaria and its surroundings The Thuringii or Toringi were a Germanic tribe which appeared late during the Völkerwanderung in the Harz Mountains of central The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. With the exceptions of the Saxons all these confederations were ruled by kings; the Saxons were divided into a number of independent bodies under different chiefs, and in time of war they elected a duke. Germanic monarchy, also called barbarian monarchy, was a monarchical systemof government which was predominant among the Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity The Saxons (Lat. , Saxones) were originally a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider Rivers in the present Holstein. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. The Eider ( German: Eider; Danish: Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German Holstein (ˈhɔlʃtain ( Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) Their name, derived from their weapon called Sax, a stone knife, is first mentioned by the Roman author Claudius Ptolemæus (about 130 A. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca D. ). In the third and fourth centuries the Saxons fought their way victoriously towards the west, and their name was given to the great tribal confederation that stretched towards the west exactly to the former boundary of the Roman Empire, consequently almost to the Rhine. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Only a small strip of land on the right bank of the Rhine remained to the Frankish tribe. Towards the south the Saxons pushed as far as the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld, and in the succeeding centuries absorbed the greater part of Thuringia. The Harz is a mountain range in central Germany It is the highest mountain chain in northern Germany occupying parts of the German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt The Eichsfeld is a historical region in the southeast of Lower Saxony and Thuringia (which is called "Untereichsfeld" = lower Eichsfeld and northwest of The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany. In the east their power extended at first as far as the Elbe and Saale Rivers; in the later centuries it certainly extended much farther. The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale is a River in Germany and a left-bank All the coast of the German Ocean belonged to the Saxons excepting that west of the Weser, which the Frisians retained. The Weser (ˈveːzɐ is a River in north-western Germany. Formed at Hann The history of the powerful Saxon tribe is also the history of the conversion to Christianity of that part of Germany which lies between the Rhine and the Oder, that is of almost the whole of the present Northern Germany. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Oder (known in Czech and Polish as Odra) is a River in Central Europe. From the eighth century the Saxons were divided into the four subdivisions (gau): Westphalians, between the Rhine and Weser; the Engern or Angrians, on both sides of the Weser; the Eastphalians, between the Weser and Elbe; the Transalbingians, in the present Holstein. Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster For the sunken atoll in India see Angria Bank. Angria is also the name of a Paracosm (fictional world created and written about by English novelist Eastphalia (Ostfalen Eastphalian: Oostfalen) is a historical region in northern Germany, encompassing eastern Lower Saxony and western The only one of these names that has been preserved is Westphalians, given to the inhabitants of the Prussian Province of Westphalia. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster
In company with the German tribe of Angles a part of the Saxons settled on the Island of Great Britain from which the Romans had withdrawn, where as Anglo-Saxons, after having accepted Christianity about 600, they laid the foundation of Anglo-Saxon civilization and the present Great Britain. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south Events By Place World The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands In attempting to reach Gaul by land the Saxons came into violent conflict with the Franks living on the Rhine. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Frankish king Clovis I (481-511) united the various Frankish tribes, conquered Roman Gaul, and with his people accepted Christianity. Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler The new Frankish kingdom was able to bring all German tribes except the Saxons under its authority and to make them Christian. For more than a hundred years there was almost uninterrupted warfare between Frank and Saxon. Many Anglo-Saxon Christian missionaries sought to convert the Saxons, some were killed, some driven away; the names of only a few of these men have been preserved, as St. Suitbert, St. Egnert, the saint called Brother Ewald, St. Lebuin, etc. St. Boniface also preached without success among the Saxons. Saint Boniface ( Latin: Bonifacius c 672 – June 5, 754) the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid or Wynfrith at The Saxons were finally brought under Frankish supremacy by the great Frankish ruler, Charlemagne, after a bloody struggle that lasted thirty years (772-804). Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Charlemagne was also able to win them to Christianity, the Saxons being the last German tribe that still held persistently to belief in the Germanic gods. At different times the Saxon wars of Charlemagne have been called "religious wars" and the assertion, which cannot be proved, has been made that Pope Adrian I had called upon Charlemagne to convert the Saxons by force. Pope Adrian, or Hadrian I, (d December 25, 795) was Pope from February 9 772 to December 25 795 Charlemagne's campaigns were intended mainly to punish the Saxons for their annual marauding expeditions to the Rhine, in which they burned churches and monasteries, killed the priests, and sacrificed their prisoners of war to the gods. The earliest date at which it can be proved that Charlemagne had the conquest of the Saxon districts in view is 776. Events April 14 - Charlemagne spends Easter in Treviso after putting down a revolt by Friuli and Spoleto removing Hrodgaud the Duke of Friuli from It is evident that if peace was to be permanent the overthrow of the Saxons must be accompanied by their conversion to Christianity. The necessity for this was based also on the nature of the Frankish kingdom in which politics and religion were never separated. At the same time it is true that various measures taken by Charlemagne, as the execution of 4500 Saxons at Verden in 782 and the hard laws issued to the subjugated, were shortsighted and cruel. Verden (Aller, or Verden (ˈfeːɐdn is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on Events By Place Europe Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen The Church, however, cannot be made responsible in any case for this policy of Charlemagne's which it never approved. Although the opposition in Saxon territories to Christian teaching had been obstinate only a few decades before, the Saxons grew accustomed to the new life. The Christian conception of life sank deep into the hearts of the people, and in little more than a hundred years the Saxons were the messengers and defenders of a Christian, German civilization among the Slavonic tribes. The work of converting Saxony was given to St. Sturmi, who was on terms of friendship with Charlemagne, and the monks of the monastery of Fulda founded by Sturmi. Fulda (ˈfʊlda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district ( Kreis Among the successful missionaries of the Faith were also St. Willihad, the first Bishop of Bremen, and his Anglo-Saxon companions. The Archdiocese of Bremen is a historical Roman Catholic diocese and a former eccesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. After St. Sturmi's death (779) the country of the Saxons was divided into missionary districts, and each of these placed under a Frankish bishop. Parishes were established within the old judicial districts. With the generous aid of Charlemagne and his nobles large numbers of churches and monasteries were founded, and as soon as peace and quiet had been re-established in the different districts, permanent dioceses were founded.
When the Frankish kingdom was divided by the Treaty of Verdun (843) the territory east of the Rhine became the East Frankish Kingdom, from which the present Germany has developed. The mediæval Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian Stem duchy " covering the greater part of Northern Germany. In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne 's grandsons divided his territories the Carolingian A strong central authority was lacking during the reigns of the weak East Frankish kings of the Carolingian dynasty. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Each German tribe was forced to rely upon itself for defence against the incursions of the Normans from the north and of the Slavs from the east, consequently the tribes once more chose dukes as rulers. The first Saxon duke was Otto the Illustrious (880-912) of the Liudolfinger line (descendants of Liudolf); Otto was able to extend his power over Thuringia. Otto or Oddo (c 851 &ndash 30 November 912) called the Illustrious ( der Erlauchte) by later authors was the Duke of Saxony Liudolf (died 12 March 864 or 866 was a Saxon Count; later authors called him duke of the Eastern Saxons Otto's son Henry was elected King of Germany (919-936); Henry is justly called the real founder of the German Empire. This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy His son Otto I (936-973) was the first German king to receive from the pope the imperial Roman crown (962). Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke Otto I was followed as king and emperor by his son Otto II (973-983), who was succeeded by his son Otto III (983-1002); both the kings last mentioned vainly endeavoured to establish German authority in Italy. Otto III (980 &ndash January 23, 1002) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire. The line of Saxon emperors expired with Henry II (1002-1024), who was canonized in 1146. Saint Henry II ( May 6, 973 &ndash July 13, 1024) called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy Henry I had been both King of Germany and Duke of Saxony at the same time. This article lists Dukes Electors and Kings ruling over territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918 Mainly for the sake of his ducal possessions he had carried on a long and difficult struggle with the Slavs on the eastern boundary of his country. The Emperor Otto I was also for the greater part of his reign Duke of Saxony. Otto I brought the Slavonic territory on the right bank of the Elbe and Saale under German supremacy and Christian civilization. He divided the region he had acquired into several margravates, the most important being: the North Mark, out of which in the course of time the present Kingdom of Prussia developed, and the Margraviate of Meissen, from which has sprung the present Kingdom of Saxony. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising The March or Margraviate of Meissen (Mark(grafschaft Meißen was a mediæval principality a march, of the Holy Roman Empire in the area of the modern Each mark was divided into districts, not only for military and political purposes but also for ecclesiastical: the central point of each district was a fortified castle. The first churches built near these castles were plain buildings of wood or rubble-stone.
Otto I laid the basis of the organization of the Church in this territory, that had been won for the German race and Christianity, by making the chief fortified places which he established in the different marks the sees of dioceses. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. The Byzantine emperors also aided much in bringing to Christianity the great Slavonic people, the Poles, who lived on the right bank of the Oder, as for a time the Polish country was under German suzerainty. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. The beginnings of Christian civilization among the Slavs were largely destroyed by the Slavonic rebellions in the years 980 and 1060. In 960 Otto I had transferred the ducal authority over Saxony to a Count Hermann, who had distinguished himself in the struggle with the Slavs, and the ducal title became hereditary in Count Hermann's family. Events By Place Europe Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. Hermann Billung (900 or 912 &ndash 27 March 973) was a Margrave of Saxony and one of the most well-known members of the House of Billung This old Duchy of Saxony, as it is called in distinction from the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, became the centre of the opposition of the German princes to the imperial power during the era of the Franconian or Salian emperors. Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a Town in Germany in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, on the Elbe With the death of Duke Magnus in 1106 the Saxon ducal family, frequently called the Billung line, became extinct. Magnus (c 1045 &ndash 23 August 1106) was the Duke of Saxony from 1072 to 1106 The House of Billung was a Dynasty of Saxon noblemen in the 9th through 12th centuries The Emperor Henry V (1106-25) gave the Duchy of Saxony in fief to Count Lothair of Supplinburg, who in 1125 became King of Germany, and at his death (1137) transferred the Duchy of Saxony to his son-in-law, Duke Henry the Proud, of the princely family of the Welf (Guelph). Henry V ( 8 November 1086 &ndash 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1098-1125) and Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075 &ndash 1137 was Duke of Saxony (1106 King of Germany (1125 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137 Henry the Proud (c 1108 &ndash 20 October 1139) was the Duke of Bavaria ( Henry X, 1126&ndash1139 Duke of Saxony ( Henry See also Elder House of Welf The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European Dynasty that has included many German and British The hundred years of war waged by the family of Guelph with the Hohenstaufen emperors is famous in history. The son of Henry the Proud (d. 1139) was Henry the Lion (d. Henry the Lion ( German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 &ndash 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony 1195), who extended German authority and Christianity into the present Mecklenburg and Pomerania, and re-established Christianity in the territories devastated by the Slavonic revolts. Mecklenburg ( Low German: Mekelnborg) is a region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Henry the Lion refused to aid the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in his campaign against the cities of Lombardy in 1176, consequently in 1180 the ban of the empire was proclaimed against Henry at Würzburg, and 1181 the old Duchy of Saxony was cut up at the Diet of Gelnhausen into many small portions. Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Würzburg (ˈvʏɐ̯ʦbʊɐ̯k is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany The greater share of its western portion was given, as the Duchy of Westphalia, to the Archbishop of Cologne. Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Bishops of Colonia Agrippina, 88–784 All names before Maternus ('II' are to be approached with considerable The Saxon bishops who had before this possessed sovereign authority in their territories, though under the suzerainty of the Duke of Saxony, were now subject only to the imperial government; the case was the same with a large number of secular countships and cities.
The Diet of Gelnhausen is of much importance in the history of Germany. The Emperor Frederick executed here a great legal act. Yet the splitting up of the extensive country of the Saxons into a large number of principalities subject only to the imperial government was one of the causes of the system of petty states which proved so disadvantageous to Germany in its later history. The territory of the old duchy never again bore the name of Saxony; the large western part acquired the name of Westphalia. However, as regards customs and peculiarities of speech, the designation Lower Saxony was still in existence for the districts on the lower Elbe, that is, the northern part of the Province of Saxony, Hanover, Hamburg, etc. Lower Saxony ( German: Niedersachsen ch is pronounced before an s --> lies in north-western Germany and is second Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany , in distinction from Upper Saxony, that is, the Kingdom of Saxony, and Thuringia. The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic From the era of the conversion of the Saxons up to the revolt of the sixteenth century, a rich religious life was developed in the territory included in the medieval Duchy of Saxony. Art, learning, poetry, and the writing of history reached a high degree of perfection in the many monasteries. Among the most noted places of learning were the cathedral and monastery schools of Corvey, Hildesheim, Paderborn, and Münster. Corvey Abbey or the Imperial Abbey of Corvey (Fürstabtei Corvey was a Benedictine monastery on the River Weser, 2km northeast of Höxter, now is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste Paderborn (paːdɐˈbɔʁn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the This era produced architecturally fine churches of the Romanesque style that are still in existence, as the cathedrals of Goslar, Soest, and Brunswick, the chapel of St. Bartholomew at Paderborn, the collegiate churches at Quedlinburg, Königslutter, Gernrode, etc. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which Goslar is a historic Town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern Soest ( pronounced) is a City in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Braunschweig, known as Brunswiek in Low German, is a city of 245810 people (as of 31 December 2007 located in Lower Saxony, Germany. Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Βαρθολομαίος transliterated "Bartholomaios" comes from Paderborn (paːdɐˈbɔʁn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. Quedlinburg (ˈkveːdlɪnbʊʁk is a Town located north of the Harz mountains in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt Also spelled " Koenigslutter " (without "ö" Königslutter am Elm is a city of 17000 inhabitants (2003 in the district Gernrode is a town in Germany, in the district of Harz, Saxony-Anhalt. Hildesheim, which contains much Romanesque work, has especially fine churches of this style. is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste The cathedrals at Naumburg, Paderborn, Münster, and Osnabrück are striking examples of the Transition period. Naumburg (ˈnaʊ̯mbʊɐ̯k is a town in Germany, on the Saale River. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Osnabrück (ɔsnaˈbʁʏk is a City in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due Only a few of these buildings still belong to the Catholic Church.
After the dissolution of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the name Saxony was first applied to a small part of the duchy situated on the Elbe around the city of Wittenberg. The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen or Duchy of Upper Saxony was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1356–1806 The mediæval Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian Stem duchy " covering the greater part of Northern Germany. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a Town in Germany in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, on the Elbe When in 1356 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV issued the Golden Bull, the fundamental law of the empire which settled the method of electing the emperor, the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was made one of the seven electorates and promoted to become the Electorate of Saxony. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Charles IV ( Czech: Karel IV, German: Karl IV, Hungarian: IV Károly; 14 May 1316 &ndash The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a Town in Germany in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, on the Elbe The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl This lent influence out of proportion to the small area of the state. In addition, electoral status required succession based on primogeniture, which precluded the division of the territory among several heirs and the consequent disintegration of the country. An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death resignation or removal of its current occupant Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings
The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century began under the protection of the electors of Saxony — in 1517, Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses at the castle church of Wittenberg. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The electorate remained a focal point of religious strife throughout the Reformation and to the subsequent Thirty Years' War. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War.
Following the Thirty Years' War, Saxony's rulers and people were Lutheran and, although with ascension of Frederick Augustus II the rulers were once again Roman Catholic, the population remained Protestant. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Augustus III (Augustus III the Saxon or the Corpulent (August III Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
When in 1806 Napoleon I's French Empire began a war with Prussia, Saxony at first allied itself to Prussia, but afterwards joined Napoleon and entered the Confederation of the Rhine and the electorate became the Kingdom of Saxony with Elector Frederick Augustus III becoming King Frederick Augustus I. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund États confédérés du Rhin officially and Confédération du Rhin in practice) lasted The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic For the king of Poland see Augustus I of Poland Frederick Augustus I (full name Frederick Augustus Joseph Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Aloys Xavier) (Friedrich For the king of Poland see Augustus I of Poland Frederick Augustus I (full name Frederick Augustus Joseph Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Aloys Xavier) (Friedrich
The new kingdom was an ally of France in all the Napoleonic wars of the years 1807-13. The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions At the beginning of the great War of Liberation (1813) the king sided neither with Napoleon nor with his allied opponents, but united his troops with those of France when Napoleon threatened to treat Saxony as a hostile country. A War of liberation is a conflict which is primarily intended to bring freedom or independence to a Nation or group At the Battle of Leipzig (16-18 October, 1813), when Napoleon was completely defeated, the greater part of the Saxon troops deserted to the allied forces. The Battle of the Nations (or Battle of Leipzig or Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig) on 16–19 October 1813 was one of the most decisive defeats suffered by Napoleon The King of Saxony was taken as a Prussian prisoner to the Castle of Friedrichsfeld near Berlin. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) took from Saxony the greater part of its land and gave it to Prussia, namely 7800 square miles with about 850,000 inhabitants; this ceded territory included the former Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, the former possessions of the Dioceses of Merseburg and Naumburg, a large part of Lusatia, etc. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich Bishopric of Merseburg was a former Episcopal see in Saxony with the center in Merseburg, founded at the same time in the same manner as those of Meissen What Prussia had obtained, with the addition of some old Prussian districts, was formed into the Province of Saxony.
The Kingdom of Saxony had left only an area of 5789 square miles with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to King John (1854-73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. John (full name Johann Nepomuk Maria Joseph Anton Xaver Vincenz Aloys Franz de Paula Stanislaus Bernhard Paul Felix Damasus) (Johann b Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund came into existence in August 1866 as a military alliance of 22 states of northern Germany with the Kingdom of In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (1873-1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (1902-04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III. Albert (full name Frederick Augustus Albert Anton Ferdinand Joseph Karl Maria Baptist Nepomuk Wilhelm Xaver Georg Fidelis) (b George (Friedrich August Georg Ludwig Wilhelm Maximilian Karl Maria Nepomuk Baptist Xaver Cyriacus Romanus 8 August 1832 &ndash 15 October 1904 Frederick Augustus III (Friedrich August III 25 May 1865 &ndash 18 February 1932) was the last King of Saxony (1904&ndash1918 Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting 8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1. 5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends.
The province has an area of 9,746 square miles, and in 1905 had 2,979,221 inhabitants. }The Province of Saxony (Provinz Sachsen was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945 Of its population 230,860 (7. 8 per cent) are Catholic, 2,730,098 (91 per cent) are Protestant; 9981 hold other forms of Christian faith, and 8050 are Jews. During the summer months about 15,000 to 20,000 Catholic labourers, called Sachsengänger, come into the country; they are Slavs from the Prussian Province of Posen, from Russian Poland, or Galicia. The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen Prowincja Poznańska was a province of Prussia from 1848-1918 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918 the whole Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria official (Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator official The province is divided into the three government departments of Magdeburg, Merseburg, and Erfurt. Erfurt (ˈɛɐ̯fʊɐ̯t is a City in central Germany. It is the Capital of the state of Thuringia with a population of 202619 (2006 The Prussian Province of Saxony was formed in 1815 from the territories, about 8,100 square miles in extent, ceded by the Kingdom of Saxony, with the addition of some districts already belonging to Prussia, the most important of which are the Altmark, from which the State of Prussia sprang; the former immediate principalities of the Archbishop of Magdeburg and of the Bishop of Halberstadt, which Prussia had received by the Peace of Westphalia (1648) at the close of the Thirty Years' War; and the Eichsfeld, with the city of Erfurt and its surroundings. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a Roman Catholic Archdiocese within the Holy Roman Empire. The Bishopric of Halberstadt (Bistum Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic Diocese from 804 until 1648 and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the late The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of The Eichsfeld is a historical region in the southeast of Lower Saxony and Thuringia (which is called "Untereichsfeld" = lower Eichsfeld and northwest of Up to 1802 the Eichsfeld and Erfurt had belonged to the principality of the Archbishop of Mainz; a large of the population had, therefore, retained the Catholic Faith during the Reformation. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the The Archbishopric of Mainz (Erzbistum Mainz or Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz) was an influential ecclesiastic and secular Prince-bishopric As regards ecclesiastical affairs the Province of Saxony had been assigned to the Diocese of Paderborn by the papal bull De salute animarum of 16 July, 1821. The Bishopric of Paderborn (Fürstbistum Paderborn was a Prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802 A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. The province contains three ecclesiastical administrative divisions: the episcopal commissariat of Magdeburg that embraces the entire governmental department of Magdeburg and consists of four deaneries and 25 parishes; the "ecclesiastical Court" of Erfurt, which includes the governmental Department of Merseburg and the eastern half of the governmental Department of Erfurt; and consists of 2 deaneries (Halle and Erfurt) and 28 parishes; the episcopal commissariat of Heiligenstadt, which embraces the western half of the governmental department of Erfurt, that is called the Upper Eichsfeld, and consists of 16 deaneries and 129 parishes.
In those parts of the governmental Department of Magdeburg which belonged originally to the former Archdiocese of Magdeburg and the Diocese of Halberstadt all Catholic life was not entirely destroyed during the Reformation. The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a Roman Catholic Archdiocese within the Holy Roman Empire. Besides fourteen monasteries that continued in existence, there were in Halberstadt a number of benefices in connexion with the cathedral and the collegiate Church of Sts. Peter and Paul. As the entire native population had become Protestant these monasteries were only maintained by the immigration of Catholics who, from the time of the Treaty of Westphalia, though in small numbers, steadily came into the country; thus there arose around the monasteries small Catholic communities. The monasteries were all suppressed during the great secularization of the beginning of the nineteenth century, and thirteen parishes were formed, for which the State provided a fund from a part of the property of the monasteries. The other parishes in the governmental Department of Magdeburg were created after the middle of the nineteenth century, when, in consequence of the development of the manufacture of sugar, increasing numbers of Catholics came into the country; the St. Boniface Association gave the money to found these parishes.
After 1918 Saxony was a state in the Weimar Republic and was the scene of Gustav Stresemann's overthrow of the KPD/SPD led government in 1923. The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 ( May 10, 1878 &ndash October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Minister It continued to exist during the Nazi era and under Soviet occupation. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers It was dissolved in 1952, and divided into three smaller 'Bezirke' based on Leipzig, Dresden and Karl-Marx-Stadt, but reestablished within slightly altered borders in 1990 upon German reunification. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German Chemnitz (1953–1990 Karl-Marx-Stadt ( Sorbian:Kamjenica is a City in Eastern Germany. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung took place twice after 1945 first in 1957 the Saarland was permitted to join the Federal Republic of Germany Today the Free State of Saxony also includes a small part of Silesia around the town of Görlitz which remained German after the war and which for obvious reasons of unviability as a separate state was incorporated into Saxony. The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people Görlitz ( is a town in Germany on the Lusatian Neisse River in the Bundesland This part had been part of Silesia only after 1815 and belonged as part of Upper Lusatia to Bohemia before 1623 and previously to Saxony between 1623 and 1815. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the