The History of Palestine is the account of events in the greater geographic area in the Southern Levant known as Palestine, which includes the West Bank, and Gaza. The Levant is defined as the geographical region bordering the Mediterranean, roughly between Egypt and Anatolia (modern Turkey) Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. Historically "Palestine" referred to a larger area, including what became modern day Israel and parts of Jordan and Syria, more or less approximating the Jewish Judean kingdom of ancientdom that was destroyed by the Romans and then renamed. The name "Palestine," in the form of the Greek toponym Palaistinê (Greek: Παλαιστίνη) is derived from the Greek "Philistia" and is recorded in the work of the Ionian historian Herodotus, circa the 5th century BCE. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Ionians ( Greek:, Iōnes singular) were one of the three populations into which the Ancient Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash He uses it to denote all of the coastal land of the Mediterranean Sea, including Phoenicia, down to Egypt. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The term was first officially used to describe all the Land of Israel after the third Jewish rebellion, Bar Kokhba revolt had failed to win freedom from Roman domination of the Hebrew nation. For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is Background After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in the year 70 the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province The Romans changed the region's name from Israel/Judea in order to historically disconnect the Jews from their land as punishment for their rebellion against Roman imperialism.  An attempt was also made to re-name Jerusalem, to Aelia Capitolina, but this did not by and large succeed throughout history. Aelia Capitolina ( Latin in full Colonia Aelia Capitolina) was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied
Herodotus may have taken the name from several regional languages, such as the Ancient Egyptian P-r-s-t, Assyrian Palastu, and the Old Hebrew Pleshet, the latter used in the Bible to refer to land inhabited by the Greco-Aegean non-Semite Philistines. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, also know as Ktav Ivri, is an offshoot of the ancient Semitic alphabet (see the akin Phoenician alphabet) The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan,
However, the name for the non-Semitic Philistines was already in existence in the Hebrew Bible.
The Hebrew word Filastin (פלסטין) appears in the Hebrew Bible in reference to this non-Semite group whose origin was in the region of Greece. The Philistines became settlers along the Mediterranean, adjacent to the Jewish nation.
The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since medieval Arab geographers adopted the Greek name. The appellative "Filastini" (فلسطيني), also derived from the Latinized term Palaestina (Παλαιστίνη), made appearances in Arabic dating to the 7th century CE.
For more on the use of the term "Palestine", see Boundaries and name of the region of Palestine. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. For archaeology in this region, see Archaeology of Israel. The archaeology of Israel is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the region's Biblical The History of Palestine generally covers a different area than historical Israel in that it applies only to the area of the coastal strip from Gaza to Ekron, considered part of the area of the Philistines, as well as the Wadi Arabah as far as Eilath, historically part of Edom, and does not include those areas trans-Jordan considered part of Israelite Gilead. Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. The city of Ekron (עֶקְרוֹן ʿeqrōn, also transliterated Accaron) The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan, Eilat (Hebrew אילת should not be confused with the nearby kibbutz of Eilot (Hebrew אילות From the Scriptures " Gilead " means hill of testimony or mound of witness, ( Genesis 3121 a mountainous region east of the Jordan
The Mousterian Neanderthals were the earliest inhabitants of the area known to archaeologists, and have been dated to c. The Pre-history of the Southern Levant explains the various cultural changes that occurred as revealed by archaeological evidence prior to recorded traditions in the area of the The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly Flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from 200,000 BCE. The first anatomically modern humans to live in the area were the Kebarans (conventionally c. Kebarans was an archaeological culture that lived in the eastern Mediterranean area (c 18,000 - 10,500 BCE, but recent paleoanthropological evidence suggests that Kebarans may have arrived as early as 75,000 BCE and shared the region with the Neanderthals for millennia before the latter died out). Kebarans was an archaeological culture that lived in the eastern Mediterranean area (c The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from
They were followed by the Natufian culture (c. The Epipaleolithic is a term used for the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the The Natufian culture (natʏˈfjẽː existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. 10,500 BCE - 8500 BCE). (This and the other prehistoric cultures are named after archaeological sites, in the absence of any indication of what they called themselves. )--
Yarmukians (c. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos 8500–4300 BCE). People began agriculture.
Ghassulians (carbon dated c. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a The Ghassulian was an archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Israel (c 4300–3300 BCE). People became urbanized and lived in city-states, including Jericho. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô
The area's location at the center of routes linking three continents made it the meeting place for religious and cultural influences from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. The history of Ancient Israel and Judah is known to us from classical sources including Judaism 's Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known Canaanites redirects here For the 1940s social and political movement in Israel, see Canaanites (movement. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black It was also the natural battleground for the great powers of the region and subject to domination by adjacent empires. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that
The use of the term aCanaanite can be confusing. Archaeologists use it to refer to a long period of time (the entire Bronze Age) and a wide geographical region (ranging from modern Israel to the entire Levant). Thus all of the people in this time and place can be called Canaanites. The Canaanites proper are thought to have been a smaller ethnic group radiating out of Palestine and their presence is mentioned in the Bible and Ancient Egyptian texts. Canaanites redirects here For the 1940s social and political movement in Israel, see Canaanites (movement. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now
There is cultural continuity within the local Semitic-speaking culture from the previous Chalcolithic Period, but now also intermingling with outside influences. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, The settlement patterns of this Period are still a matter of "guesswork". Some archaeologists suggest a group from the Arabian Peninsula (who trade with Mesopotamia) settled among the indigenous peoples who had been there since the original Semitic emigration from Africa. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) Some archaeologists suggest a group from Syria. Other archaeologists suggest the cultural developments are indigenous, and the outside influences result from trade.  Of course, with trade routes come at least some immigration.
During the Late Canaanite Period (Late Bronze Age), the emerging Israelites are part of Canaanite culture in language and customs. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for They are virtually indistinguishable from their neighbors. Archaeologists have not yet reached a consensus about the precise origins of the Israelites. Some archaeologists regard them as an outgrowth of the Canaanite culture, who were perhaps displaced during the unusually turbulent  Late Canaanite Period, living as semi-nomads, until settling the hill areas of Samaria and Judah during the Early Israelite Period.
Alternatively, Israelites are ancient Aramean immigrants from Aram-Naharaim (around the Syro-Turkish area of Mesopotamia). Aram-Naharaim or "Aram of Two Rivers" is a region that is mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible. Genetic testing has shown that, throughout the world, modern "Jews [are genetically] more closely related to groups from the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large "  These ancient immigrants from Aram-Naharaim to the Land of Israel lived a semi-nomadic life of commerce and herding with periodic stops for raising crops. The Promised Land ( הארץ המובטחת, translit: ha-Aretz ha-Muvtachat) is another name for the Land of Israel, the region which according  They lived on the fringes of the unstable Canaanite society for centuries, acquiring the Canaanite language and material culture, before finally urbanizing across the hill areas of modern Israel around the 13th century BCE.
According to the tradition recorded in the Hebrew Bible's book of Genesis (composed in the 9th/10th centuries BCE), the Israelites descended from Abraham who is called a "wandering Aramean", whose family is associated with Aram-Naharaim, including the ancient places there such as Ur in Iraq, and Haran and Teran in Turkey. The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic After Abraham, the Israelites are said to descend through Isaac, born in the land of Israel, and then through their eponymous ancestor Jacob who is also known as Israel. According to the Hebrew Bible, Isaac ( Hebrew: Yitzchak יִצְחָק, Standard Yiẓḥaq Jacob ( Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard   Yaʿaqov Tiberian   Yaʿăqōḇ; For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Israel's sons married wives in the land of Canaan. The Bible also describes a famine time when the Israelites dwelled in Egypt, and following the Exodus returned from Egypt, back to Canaan, in some instances conquering cities of other ethnic groups there, and reclaiming the land God promised them. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
Successive waves of migration brought other groups onto the scene. Around 1200 BCE the Hittite empire was conquered by allied tribes from the north. The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established The Phoenicians of Lebanon, were temporarily displaced, but returned when the invading tribes showed no inclination to settle. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun The Egyptians called the horde that swept across Asia Minor and the Mediterranean Sea the Sea Peoples. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political The Philistines (whose traces disappear before the 5th century BCE) are presently considered to have been among them, giving the name Philistia to the region in which they settled, located in present-day Gaza. The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan, The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan,
For further discussion on the very early ethnic history of the region, see:
With the death of King Solomon around 925 BCE, the Israelites fell into civil war, and the kingdom split into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah. King Solomon ( Ge'ez: ስለሞን Arabic: ar سليمان, Sulayman, all from the Triliteral root S-L-M, "peace" The Kingdom of Israel ( ( KJV Israel in Samaria) was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel' Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel. The northern kingdom was far more wealthy and politically influential, but its monarchy was unstable with frequent intrigue and dynastic changes.
In the relative backwaters of the southern Kingdom of Judah, the Davidic Dynasty alone ruled Judah and its vicinities for centuries until the Persian Period, proving remarkably stable. Several factors contributed to the stability of the southern monarchy. Its kings made a frequent practice of ruling alongside a son in a period of coregency. Gradually, the kings centralized all religious authority to Jerusalem the capital city: to the Temple located next to the king's palace. Etymology The Hebrew name given in Scripture for the building is Beit HaMikdash or "The Holy House" and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name Unlike El that was perceived as a universal deity in the north, Yhwh was perceived in the south as a patron deity of the nation of Israel, thus worship of other gods equated to treason. Eli (Hebrew אל is the Northwest Semitic word and name either translated into English as "god" or "God" or left untranslated as Eli, depending See also Yahweh Tetragrammaton (from the Greek, meaning ' of four letters' (tetra "four" + gramma (gen Throughout the Davidic Dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah, religious loyalty and loyalty to the king consolidated.
In 722 BCE, the northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by the Assyrians, many of its inhabitants (mainly the elite amongst them) were deported (giving rise to the legend of "the Lost Tribes") and replaced by settlers from elsewhere in the Assyrian Empire. Events and trends 728 BC — Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, and receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile The Kingdom of Israel ( ( KJV Israel in Samaria) was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel' Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture The phrase Ten Lost Tribes of Israel refers to the ancient Tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Many, however, probably fled to their southern Israelite sister kingdom of Judah, but others most likely stayed behind. See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel.
Philistine cities, because of their strategic location close to Egypt, were ruled directly by a governor appointed by the Assyrians. In Edom, a series of kings was founded under Assyrian patronage, to keep the Judean kingdom distracted to the south. A number of anti-Edomite passages in the Bible are dated to this period.
The Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar conquered the (southern) Kingdom of Judah in 597–586 BCE, and exiled the middle and upper classes of the Jews (that is, the citizens of the Kingdom of Judah, consisting mostly of the members of the tribe of Judah but also some members of the other tribes) to Babylonia, where they flourished. Etymology The Hebrew name given in Scripture for the building is Beit HaMikdash or "The Holy House" and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (c 630-562 BC was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel. Events and trends 599 BC — Vardhamana Mahavira, last Tirthankar of Jainism is born Events and trends 589 BC — Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt. The Babylonian captivity, Babylonian exile, is the name typically given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Most regard the collapse of the Israelite kingdoms as the beginning of the Jewish diaspora. The Jewish diaspora ( Hebrew: Tefutzah, "scattered" or Galut גלות "exile" Yiddish: tfutses) the presence
Cyrus II of Persia conquered the Babylonian Empire by 539 BCE and incorporated Judah and Israel into the Persian Empire. Events and trends 539 BC — Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus; noted in such documents as that of Africanus Cyrus organized the empire into provincial administrations called satrapies. See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient The administrators of these provinces, called satraps, had considerable independence from the emperor. The Persians allowed Jews to return to the regions that the Bablyonians had exiled them from.
The exiled Jews who returned to the lands they had occupied encountered the Jews that had remained, surrounded by a much larger non-Jewish majority. One group of note (that exists up until this day) were the Samaritans, who adhered to most features of the Jewish rite and claimed to be descendants of the Assyrian Jews; they were not recognized as Jews by the returning exiles for various reasons (at least some of which seem to be political). The return of the exiles from Babylon reinforced the Jewish population, which gradually became more dominant and expanded significantly.
In the early 330s BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the region, beginning an important period of Hellenistic influence in Israel. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Events and trends Alexander the Great leads the army of Macedon in a successful campaign to conquer the Persian Empire. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, his empire was partitioned, and the competing Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires occupied various portions of the eastern Mediterranean, including different parts of Israel. Events By place Macedonian Empire 10 June — In Babylon, Alexander the Great dies ten days after being taken ill Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i
The Jews were divided between the Hellenists who supported the adoption of Greek culture, and those who believed in keeping to the traditions of the past, which resulted in the Maccabean revolt of the 2nd century BCE. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The Maccabean Revolt was a Jewish revolt against Seleucidic and Syrian rulers taking place in the second century before Christ The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. Jews achieved sovereignty in Palestinian land throughout the Maccabean Period, and their Kingdom of Judea controlled most of the region of Israel (without the Negev but with the West Bank, Golan, and parts of the Gaza Strip) and parts of eastern Jordan.
Following the Roman conquest in 63 BCE, parts of Israel—first a client kingdom of the Roman Empire, after year 6 CE the Iudaea Province—were in nearly constant revolt against Roman occupation (see Zealots and Jewish-Roman Wars). Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Year 6 ( VI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard The Great Jewish Revolt began in 66 CE and resulted in the destruction of Jewish temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. Year 66 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73 Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish teacher of Galilee inspired what will eventually evolve, through Paul of Tarsus, into Early Christianity. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c
This early part of the Late Roman Period (70–135 CE) is sometimes called Early Roman.
The Great Jewish Revolt in 66–73 resulted in the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem (70) and the sacking of the entire city by the Roman army led by Titus Flavius and the estimated death toll of 600,000 to 1,300,000 Jews (see Josephus Flavius). Year 66 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 73 was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD It was a decisive event in the First Jewish-Roman War, followed by the fall of Masada in 73 Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus ( December 30 39 &ndash September 13 81) was a Roman Emperor who Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus
Rabbi Yokhanan ben Zakai, a student of Hillel, fled during the siege of Jerusalem to negotiate with the Roman General Vespasian, who he predicted would soon become emperor. Yochanan ben Zakai (יוחנן בן זכאי c 30 BCE - 90 CE) was one of the Tannaim, an important Jewish sage in the era of the Second Temple Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who Yokhanan obtained permission to reestablish a Sanhedrin in the coastal city of Yavne (just south of Tel Aviv), see also Council of Jamnia. The Sanhedrin (סנהדרין συνέδριον ''synedrion'', "sitting together" hence " assembly " or "council" was an assembly Yavne (יַבְנֶה ياڨني or يبنة Yibnah; Iamnia traditional English spelling Jabneh or Jamnia) is a city in the Center District Even before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai relocated to the city of Yavne / Jamnia and received permission He founded a school of Torah there that would eventually evolve, through the Mishna in around 200 CE, into Rabbinic Judaism. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism ( Hebrew: " Yehadut Rabanit " - יהדות רבנית is the mainstream religious system of post- diaspora
In 135 CE, the costly victory in Bar Kokhba's revolt by Hadrian resulted in 580,000 Jews killed (according to Cassius Dio) and destabilization of the region's Jewish population. Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, Background After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in the year 70 the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was The Romans renamed the new territory as Syria Palaestina (Syria Palaestina) to complete the disassociation with Judaea. The History of Palestine is the account of events in the greater geographic area in the Southern Levant known as Palestine, which includes not just the West Bank  Jerusalem is re-established as the Roman military colony of Aelia Capitolina; a largely unsuccessful attempt is made to prevent Jews from living there. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Aelia Capitolina ( Latin in full Colonia Aelia Capitolina) was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied Many Jews left the country altogether for the Diaspora commnunities, and large numbers of prisoners of war are sold as slaves throughout the Empire. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another
A number of events with far-reaching consequences took place, including religious schisms, such as Christianity branching off of Judaism, see also List of events in early Christianity. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut See also Schisms among the Jews, Origins of Christianity The split between Pharisaic / Rabbinic Judaism (the period of the Tannaim)
The Romans destroyed the Jewish community of the Mother Church in Jerusalem, which had existed since the time of Jesus. The line of Jewish bishops in Jerusalem, which started with Jesus's brother James the Righteous (Hebrew: Yaakov Ha-Tsadik) as its first bishop, now ceases to exist. The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head Bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in Saint James the Just ( Hebrew: יעקב or Jacob ( Greek Iάκωβος (died 62AD also known as James of Jerusalem, James Adelphotheos The Romans impose a new line of non-Jewish bishops in Jerusalem. Christianity ceases to be a Jewish movement.
The use of Hebrew as the spoken language gradually declines in the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, becoming negligible approximately 300 CE but surviving as a literary language.
During the Hellenistic, Hasmonean, and Roman Periods, the Jewish Diaspora grew even further. In addition to the large Jewish community in Babylon, large numbers of Jews settled in Egypt, and in other parts of the Hellenistic world and in the Roman Empire. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Frequent conflict contributed to Jewish emigration, both as refugees, through deportation, and by reducing economic opportunities in the region. It also led to many deaths among the Jewish population - deaths in battles with the Romans and others, deaths due to massacres, and deaths due to the famine and disease that so often accompany armed conflict. However, during the Byzantine Period, the Jewish population in the north of Israel remained large for several centuries, particullarly in Eastern Galilee. Western Galilee later began to take on a more Christian character ie. Syro-Arameans, Greeks and Romans from the 5th century onward. The coastal plain, central Judea and Southern Samaria had already become largely Pagan. Southern Judea remained mostly Jewish for some centuries and Northern Samaria remained Samaritan until the later stages the first period of Islamic imperial rule.
The Land of Palestine became part of the Eastern Roman Empire ("Byzantium") after the division of the Roman Empire into east and west (a fitful process that was not finalized until 395 CE).
Around year 390 CE, the Byzantines redrew the borders of the Land of Palestine. The various Roman provinces (Syria Palaestina, Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea) were reorganized into three diocese of Palaestina. According to historian H. H. Ben-Sasson, under Diocletian (284-305) the region was divided into Palaestina Prima which was Judea, Samaria, Idumea, Peraea and the coastal plain with Caesarea as capital, Palaestina Secunda which was Galilee, Decapolis, Golan with Beth-shean as capital, and Palaestina Tertia which was the Negev with Petra as capital. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Caesarea Maritima (Greek παράλιος Καισάρεια called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 CE onwards was a city and Harbor built by Herod the Great
In the year 351 CE, the Jews launched another revolt, provoking heavy retribution. The War against Gallus ( 351 – 352) was a Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire directed against the rule of Constantius Gallus, brother-in-law
In year 438 CE, Empress Eudocia allows Jews to return to Jerusalem to live.
The Nabateans roamed the Negev by the Roman Period, and by the Byzantine Period dominated the swath of sparsely populated deserts, from the Sinai to the Negev to the northwest coast of Arabia, the outlands that the Byzantines called the diocese of Palaestina Salutoris (meaning something like "near Palestine"). The Nabataeans ( Arabic: الأنباط, Al-Anbāṭ) were an ancient Semitic people Arabs of southern Jordan, Canaan Its capital Petra was formally the capital of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. For the Achaemenid satrapy of Arabia see Arabia (satrapy Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier The Nabateans also inhabited the outland of Jordan and southern Syria, improperly called the diocese of Arabia because its capital Bostra was within the northern extremity of the Roman province of Arabia Petrae. The origin of the Nabateans remains obscure, but they were Aramaic speakers, and the term "Nabatean" was the Arabic name for an Aramean of Syria and Iraq. Aramaic is a Semitic language with By the third century during the Late Roman Period, the Nabateans stopped writing in Aramaic and began writing in Greek, and by the Byzantine Period they converted to Christianity. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 
The two diocese of Palaestina proper also became increasingly Christianized. They probably had a Christian majority by the time of Diocletian. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Some areas, like Gaza, were well-known as pagan holdouts, and remained attached to the worship of Dagon and other deities as their ancestors had been for thousands of years. Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god reportedly of grain and agriculture
Under Byzantine rule, the region became a center of Christianity, while retaining significant Jewish and Samaritan communities (although the Samaritans were greatly reduced following Julianus ben Sabar's revolt. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Julianus ben Sabar (also known as Julian or Julianus ben Sahir) was a messianic leader of the Samaritans In 529 Julianus led a revolt against the )
In 613 CE, the Persian Sassanian Empire under Khosrau II invaded Palaestina. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Khosrau II or Khosrow II ( Chosroes II or Xosrov II in classical sources sometimes called Jews under Benjamin of Tiberias assisted the conquering Persians, revolting against the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius in the hopes of controlling Jerusalem autonomously. The Revolt against Heraclius ( 613 – 617) was a Jewish insurrection against the Byzantine Empire coming into aid of the Persian invaders Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East In 614 CE, the Persians conquered Jerusalem, destroying most of the churches and expelling 37,000 Christians. The Jews of Jerusalem gained autonomy to some degree, but frustrated with its limitations and anticipating its loss offered to assist the Byzantines in return for amnesty for the revolt. In 617 CE, the Persians signed a peace treaty with Byzantines. At that time the Persians betrayed the agreements with the Jews and expelled the Jewish population from Jerusalem, forbidding them to live within 3 miles of it. In 625 CE, the Byzantinian army returned to the area, promising amnesty to Jews who had joined the Persians, and was greeted by Benjamin of Tiberias. In 629 CE, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius marched into Jerusalem at the head of his army with the support of the Jewish population who had received amnesty. Nevertheless, upon entry, the Christian priests in Jerusalem convinced the emperor that God commanded him to kill Jews and therefore his amnesty was invalid, whereupon the Byzantines massacred the Jews in Jerusalems and put thousands of Jewish refugees to flight from Palaestina to Egypt.
In 634 CE, the Byzantine Empire lost control of the entire Mideast. The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Umar conquered Jerusalem along with the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palaestina, and Egypt. The Muslim conquest of Syria occurred in the first half of the 7th century and refers to the region known as the Bilad al-Sham, the Levant, or Greater Syria
In 638 CE, the Christians of Jerusalem surrendered to the conquering armies of the Caliphate (Islamic Empire) under Caliph (Emperor) Umar, the second of the initial four Rashidun Caliphs. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( ar الخلفاء الراشدون) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first
Umar allowed seventy families from Tiberias in Galilee to move to Jerusalem to live.
In Arabic, the area approximating the Byzantine Diocese of Palaestina I in the south (roughly Judea, Philistia, and southern Jordan) was called Jund Filastin ( meaning Division of Palestine, as a tax administrative area , and the Diocese of Palaestina II in the north (roughly Samaria, Galilee, Golan, and northern Jordan) Jund Jordan. Jund Filastin ( جند فلسطين, "the military district of Palestine" was one of four sub-provinces of the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphate
In 661 CE, with the assassination of Ali, the last of the Rashidun Caliphs, Muawiyah I became the uncontested Caliph and founded the Ummayad Dynasty. ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Mu'awiyah I (a=معاوية بن أبي سفيان|t=Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān 602-680 was a Sahaba (companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
After the Arabs conquered the Area, waves of Bedouin garrisons began to settle there.
The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750.
In the 900s, the Fatimids, a self-proclaimed Shia caliphate, took control and appointed a Jewish governor. In the next century, Seljuk Turks invaded large portions of West Asia, including Asia Minor and Palestine. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in
After the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 CE, the Crusader Kingdom survived throughout Ayyubid Period until 1291 CE well into Mamluk Period, but here we will consider its peak period, until AD 1244. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents
The proximate cause of the Crusades, following 1095, by the Christian European powers was the desire to reconquer the birthland and holy land of Christianity, which had been lost to the Islamic Arab invasion of the Byzantine Roman empire in the 7th century. This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian See also History of Jerusalem Kingdom of Jerusalem The history of the city of Jerusalem in the Middle Ages takes it from the 900s when it was under the The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש The Christian forces established the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which lasted from 1099 until 1291, though Saladin reconquered the city of Jerusalem in 1187. This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c
The Ayyubid Sultanate, founded by Saladin, controlled Jerusalem and some but not all of the region until 1250, when it was defeated by the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for
After the Mongols decimated Baghdad and Damascus in the mid-1200s, the center of Islamic power moved to Cairo, under the Egyptian slave warriors, the Mamluks. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. They destroyed all towns on the flat coastal plains in order to rid the land of the Crusader presence and make sure it never returned. The main exceptions were Jaffa, Gaza, Lydda and Ramle. The last major Crusader stronghold, Acre fell in 1291, at the Siege of Acre. The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader -control city of Acre to the Muslims As a result of this, most trade with the west was curtailed.
In the late 1200s, Palestine and Syria were the primary front for battles between the Egyptian Mamluks and the Mongol Empire The pivotal battle was the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when the Mamluks, after having brokered a cautious neutrality with the Crusaders (who regarded the Mongols as a greater threat), were able to advance northwards and achieve a decisive victory over the Mongols at Ain Jalut, near Galilee. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, The Mongols were, however, able to engage into some brief Mongol raids into Palestine in 1260 and 1300, reaching as far as Gaza. Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, as a follow up to temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300
Due to the many earthquakes, the religious extremism and the black plague that hit during this era, the population dwindled to around 200,000 souls. It is during this period that the land began to have an indigenous Levantine Muslim majority and even in the traditional Jewish stronghold of Eastern Galilee, a new Jewish-Muslim culture began to develop.
The Mamluk Sultanate ultimately became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, in the wake of campaigns waged by Selim I in the 16th century. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Selim I ( Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ISelim; also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave" Yavuz in
In 1516 the Ottoman Turks occupied Palestine. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. The country became part of the Ottoman Empire. Constantinople appointed local governors. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Public works, including the city walls, were rebuilt in Jerusalem by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1537. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566 An area around Tiberias was given to Don Joseph HaNasi for a Jewish enclave. Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah Following the expulsions from Spain, the Jewish population of Palestine rose to around 25% (includes non-Ottoman citizens, excludes Bedouin) and regained its former stronghold of Eastern Galilee. That ended in 1660 when they were massacred at Safed and Jerusalem. During the reign of Dahar al Omar, Pasha of the Galilee, Jews from Ukraine began to resettle Tiberias.
Napoleon of France briefly waged war against the Ottoman Empire (allied then with Great Britain). Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. His forces conquered and occupied cities in Palestine, but they were finally defeated and driven out by 1801. In 1799 Napoleon announced a plan to re-establish a Jewish State in Palestine which was mostly to curry favour with Haim Farkhi the Jewish finance minister and adviser to the Pasha of Syria/Palestine. The ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte proved to be an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish Haim Farhi (also Chaim, Farkhi) (חיים פרחי حاييم فرحي also known as Haim "El Muallim" lit He was later assassinated and his brothers formed an army with Ottoman permission to conquer the Galilee. Turkish rule lasted until World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Jewish immigration to Palestine, particularly to the "four sacred cities" (Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias and Hebron) which already had significant Jewish communities, increased particularly towards the end of Ottoman rule; Jews of European origin lived mostly off donations from off-country, while many Sephardic Jews found themselves a trade. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Safed (צְפַת pronounced Tsfat; صفد pronounced Safad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah Hebron ( al-Ḫalīl or al-Khalīl, Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn is the largest city in the West Bank, located in the south Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural Many Circassians and Bosnian Muslims were settled in the north of Palestine by the Ottomans in the early 19th Century. In the 1830s Egypt conquered Palestine and made some minor improvements and many Egyptians, in particular soldiers, settled there. It was however during this period that the Jews of Safed were massacred in 1831 by Druzes. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon Safed was resettled with Kurds and Algerians. This was followed in 1837 by earthquakes in Safed and Tiberias. In 1838 Palestine was given back to the Turks. However, with the advent of early Zionism, just prior to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Jews had become a small majority in the central Judea region. Many were not Ottoman citizens and were expelled to Egypt at the time that war was declared.
The rise of Zionism, the national movement of the Jewish people started in Europe and Russia in the 19th century seeking to create a Jewish state in the Land of Israel (aka Palestine), the ancient Jewish homeland, increased the Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization Although the Zionist movement was created by Theodor Herzl in 1897 the history of Zionism can be seen as beginning History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ By 1920, the Jewish population of Palestine had reached 11% of the population. 
In World War I, Turkey sided with Germany. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. As a result, it was embroiled in a conflict with Great Britain, leading to the British capture of Palestine in a series of battles led by General Allenby. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby 1st Viscount Allenby GCB GCMG GCVO ( April 23 1861 - May 14 1936  Allenby famously dismounted from his horse when he entered captured Jerusalem as a mark of respect for the Holy City. He was greeted by the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic leaders of the city with great honor. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
At the subsequent 1919 Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles, Turkey's loss of its Middle East empire was formalized. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The British had in the interim made two agreements. In the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence there was an undertaking to form an Arab state in exchange for the Great Arab Revolt and in the Balfour Declaration in 1917 to "favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" while respecting the rights of existing non-Jewish communities". The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was a protracted exchange of letters (July 14 1915 to January 30 1916 during World War I, between the The Arab Revolt (1916&ndash1918 ( الثورة العربية Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated November 2 1917) was a Classified formal statement of Policy by the British government stating These were not necessarily contradictory. The Faisal-Weizman agreement of the same epoch declared the compatibility of Jewish and Arab nationalist aspirations.
McMahon's promises could have been seen by Arab nationalists as a pledge of immediate Arab independence, an undertaking violated by the region's subsequent partition into British and French League of Nations mandates under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 1916 which became the real cornerstone of the geopolitics structuring the entire region. A League of Nations mandate refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales The Balfour Declaration, likewise, was seen by Jewish nationalists as the cornerstone of a future Jewish homeland (and eventual state) on both sides of the Jordan River. Prior to the conference Emir Faisal, British ally and son of the king of the Hijaz, had agreed in the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement to support the immigration of Jews into Palestine and the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine, while creating a large Arab state based in Syria. Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi, GCB, GCMG ( فيصل بن حسين Fayṣal ibn Ḥusayn; 20 May 1883 &ndash September 8 al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia When the conference did not produce that Arab state, and under pressure from Islamists, Faisal called instead for Palestine to become part of his new Arab Syrian kingdom.
In 1920, the Allied Supreme Council meeting at San Remo offered a Mandate for Palestine to Great Britain, but the borders and terms under which the mandate was to be held were not finalised until September 1922. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement Article 25 of the mandate specified that the eastern area (then known as Transjordan or Transjordania) did not have to be subject to all parts of the Mandate, notably the provisions regarding a Jewish national home. This was used by the British as one rationale to establish an Arab state, which it saw as at least partially fulfilling the undertakings in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence. The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was a protracted exchange of letters (July 14 1915 to January 30 1916 during World War I, between the On 11 April 1921 the British passed administration of the eastern region to the Hashemite Arab dynasty from the Hejaz what later became part of Saudi Arabia as the Emirate of Transjordan and on 15 May 1923 recognized it as a state, thereby eliminating Jewish national aspirations on that part of Palestine. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Emirate of Transjordan ( Arabic: ar إمارة شرق الأردن) was a former Ottoman territory incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Under the Mandate, Jewish immigration to Palestine increased substantially with a rise in Jewish nationalism, which encouraged Zionism, a return to the ancient land of the Jews. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the
Palestinian Arab leaders, particularly the Mufti of Jerusalem strongly opposed the immigration and used anti-Semitic demagogery to argue, falsely, that Jews threatened the Haram. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn The result was, in 1920, 1922 and 1929, the 1920 Palestine Riots. In 1936, the British Peel Commission advised that the western part of Palestine be divided between Arabs and Jews. The Peel Commission of 1936-1937 formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the Mandate for The Arabs then launched the Great Uprising against British rule in an effort to end the immigration. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939 The Jews, for their part, organized militia groups like the Irgun and Lehi to fight the British and the Haganah and Palmach to fight the Arabs. Irgun (ארגון shorthand for HaIrgun HaTzva'i HaLe'umi BeEretz Yisra'el, he הארגון הצבאי הלאומי בארץ ישראל "National Military Organization Lehi ('lɛxi Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel" לח"י - לוחמי חירות Haganah ( Hebrew: "The Defense" ההגנה was a Jewish Paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine The Palmach ( Hebrew: פלמ"ח an acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew פלוגות מחץ Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force By the time order was restored in March of 1939, more than 5,000 Arabs, 400 Jews, and 200 Britons had been killed.
Soon after World War II, the British decided to leave Palestine. The State of Israel (מדינת ישראל Medinat Yisrael) was established in 1948 after nearly two thousand The following is a list of United Nations resolutions that concern Israel only or bordering states (such as Lebanon) World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United Nations attempted to solve the dispute by establishing the Arab state of Jordan (without Jews) and by putting forward the 1947 UN Partition Plan, which further divided the remaining land area between the Arab and Jewish populations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 was a plan approved by the General Assembly on November 29 On November 29, 1947, the Jewish Agency, including the Palestinian Jews, accepted the plan, while the Arab states rejected it in protest of the establishment of any independent homeland for Jewish residents of the Middle East. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Jewish Agency for Israel (Hebrew הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) also known as the Sochnut or JAFI On May 14, 1948, the Jewish population declared independence as the State of Israel. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria declared war, invaded, but did not succeed. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية (For a more detailed account, see 1948 Arab-Israeli War). Preceding this military action, Arab radio broadcasts advised Palestinian Arabs to temporarily flee from their homes so as not to be hit by Arab friendly fire in the process of destroying the new Jewish State. During the fighting, additional Arabs fled and in some locations were expelled. Unlike the Jews who were expelled or fled from multiple Arab countries during the same period, these Arab displaced persons were not given citizenship in their neighboring countries (with the notable exception of Jordan), nor independent statehood while under Arab control (1948-1967), and have been kept in large part in refugee camps to this day (see 1948 Palestinian exodus). The 1948 Palestinian exodus (الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) referred to by Palestinians as al Naqba (النكبة Israel survived the multi-nation onslaught. The aggression created the dual refugee problems of Palestinian Arabs and the expulsion of Middle Eastern Jews (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands) who had lived in the region for millennia. Antisemitism in the Arab world|Islam and Antisemitism The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews primarily of Sephardi
What remained of the territories allotted to the Arab state in Israel was annexed by Jordan (Judea and Samaria/the West Bank) or occupied by Egypt (the Gaza Strip) from 1948 to 1967. The West Bank and East Jerusalem were occupied by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) for a period of nearly two decades (1948&ndash1967 starting Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern This article refers to a District of Israel called Judea and Samaria The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt: 1947 - October 1956 March 1957 - June 1967 This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west During this time, Jordan and Egypt did not normalize living conditions or establish an independent state for Palestinian Arabs.
Following military threats by Egypt and Syria, including Egyptian president Nasser's demand of the UN to remove its peace-keeping troops from the Egyptian-Israeli border, in June 1967 Israeli forces went to action against Egypt and Syria, and, after failing to persuade it to stay out of the conflict, Jordan, in what has come to be known as the Six-Day War. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt As a result of that war, the Israel Defense Forces occupied Judea and Samaria (the West Bank), the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula bringing them under military rule. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit This article refers to a District of Israel called Judea and Samaria The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Israel also pushed Arab forces back from East Jerusalem, which Jews had not been permitted to visit during the prior Jordanian rule. East Jerusalem was annexed by Israel as part of its capital, though this action has not been recognized internationally. The United Nation's Security Council passed Resolution 242, promoting the "land for peace" formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in 1967, in return for the end of all states of belligerency by the aforementioned Arab League nations. United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242 was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 Land for peace is a general principle proposed for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict by which the State of Israel would relinquish control of all or part The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية Since that time, Palestinians have alternatively continued longstanding demands for the destruction of Israel or made a new demand for self-determination in a separate independent Arab state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip similar to but smaller than the original Partition area which Palestinians and the Arab League had rejected for statehood in 1947. In the course of 1973 Yom Kippur War, the attacking military forces of Egypt and Syria were pushed back. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום Despite being attacked by surprise on Israel's holiest day of the Jewish calendar, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt as part of the 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel in hopes of establishing a genuine peace. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, Egypt did not wish to re-gain Gaza; this territory was offered by Israel, but Egypt did not want the responsibility to govern Gaza.
After the First Intifada, attempts at the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict were made at the Madrid Conference of 1991. The First Intifada (1987–1993 (also " Intifada " and "war of the stones" was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR As the process progressed, in 1993 the Israelis allowed Chairman and President of the Palestine Liberation Organization Yassir Arafat to return to the region. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( Arabic: محمد عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني (August 24 1929 – November 11
Following the historic 1993 Oslo Peace Accords between Palestinians and Israel (the "Oslo Accords"), which gave the Palestinian Arabs limited self-rule in some parts of the Disputed Territories through the Palestinian Authority, and other detailed negotiations, proposals for a Palestinian state gained momentum. Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles Proposals for a Palestinian state (دولة فلسطين refer to the proposed establishment of an independent state for the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip, which is currently They were soon followed in 1994 by the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. An attempt was made to end the struggle at the Camp David 2000 Summit between Palestinians and Israel. The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister In the Camp David summit (then) PM of Israel Ehud Barak has agreed to hand over the Palestinians 97% of the Disputed Territories and more 3% of lands inside Israel itself; nevertheless, the Palestinian leadership (headed by Yasser Arafat) refused to agree to the deal. To date, efforts to resolve the conflict have ended in deadlock, and the people of Israel, Jews and Arabs, are engaged in a bloody conflict, called variously the "Arab-Israeli conflict" or "Israeli-Palestinian conflict".
From 1987 to 1993, the First Palestinian Intifada against Israel took place. The First Intifada (1987–1993 (also " Intifada " and "war of the stones" was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli After few years of on-and-off negotiations, the Palestinian militant groups have launched an orchestrated attack against Israel. This was known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada. The events were highlighted by Palestinian suicide bombing in Israel that killed many civilians, and by Israeli Security Forces invasions and targeted killings of Palestinian militant leaders and organizers. Security forces in Israel include a variety of organizations including law enforcement, Military, Paramilitary, governmental Selective Assassination is a policy of selecting targets using arms training personnel and cover-up strategies designed to justify assassination as the means to meet a political agenda Israel began building a complex security barrier to block suicide bombers invading into Israel from the West Bank in 2002. West bank walljpg|thumb|Aerial view looking east from the Israeli side See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
Also in 2002, the Road map for peace calling for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was proposed by a "quartet": the United States, European Union, Russia, and United Nations. The "road map" for peace is a Plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a " quartet " of international entities the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security U.S. President George W. Bush in a speech on June 24, 2002 called for an independent Palestinian state living side by side with Israel in peace. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Proposals for a Palestinian state (دولة فلسطين refer to the proposed establishment of an independent state for the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip, which is currently For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Bush was the first U. S. President to explicitly call for such a Palestinian state.
According to Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004, it withdrew all settlers and most of the military presence from the Gaza strip, but maintained control of the air space and coast. Israel's unilateral disengagement plan ( Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תוכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in Israel also dismantled four settlements in northern West Bank in September 2005. Following Israel's withdrawal, some Palestinian groups failed to abide by a 'calming' (de facto ceasefire) negotiated with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas. Mahmoud Abbas (محمود عباس (born March 26, 1935) also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن was elected President Palestinian militia groups fired Qassam rockets into Israel and attempted to smuggle additional weapons and ammunition into Gaza from Egypt. The Qassam rocket ( صاروخ القسام; also Kassam) is a simple steel Rocket filled with explosives produced by Hamas. Smuggling tunnels are secret tunnels, usually hidden underground used for Smuggling of Goods and people. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. After 2 Israeli soldiers were killed and one was kidnapped by Palestinian militants in the 6th of June 2006, Israel launched a military operation and reentered to some parts of the Gaza Strip.
Following the January 2006 election of the Hamas government, U. S. officials spoke of "hard coup" against the newly elected government and were determined to sow the seeds of civil war to oust the democratically-elected Hamas governnment. Over the 2006 and 2007, the United States supplied guns, ammunition and training to Palestinian Fatah activists to take on Hamas in the streets of Gaza and the West Bank in a U. S. effort that cost tens of millions of dollars. A large number of Fatah activists were trained and "graduated" from West Bank camps. .
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