New York, the "Empire State" has been at the center of American politics, finance, industry, transportation and culture since it was created by the Dutch in the 17th century.
The western part of New York had been settled by the six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy for at least 500 years before Europeans came. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Iroquois had maintained the area between Seneca and Cayuga Lakes as a grassland prairie, which abounded in wild game including grazing American Bison herds. Seneca Lake, one of western New York 's glacial Finger Lakes, is the largest finger lake The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. In colonial times, the Iroquois were prosperously growing corn, vegetables and orchards, and keeping cows and hogs; fish were also abundant.
The far-southern area around what is now New York City was long inhabited by the Lenape; Lenape in canoes met Giovanni da Verrazzano, the first European explorer to enter New York Harbor, in 1524. The shannon (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans were in the 17th century organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City Giovanni da Verrazzano named this place Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angouleme) in honor of the French king François I. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. Angoulême is a commune in western France, capital of the Charente department. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 A French explorer and mapper, Samuel de Champlain, described his explorations through New York in 1608. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Samuel de Champlain (c 1575 - 25 December 1635) "The Father of New France " was a French navigator geographer cartographer
See New Netherland (1624 - 1667)
In 1663 the Duke of York purchased the grant of Long Island and other islands on the New England coast made in 1635 to the Earl of Stirling. New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast The Province of New York (1664-1776 (Provincie New York resulted from the capture of the Dutch Republic colony of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Earl of Stirling was a title in the Peerage of Scotland created on 14 June 1633, along with the titles Viscount Canada and Lord Alexander The following year, the Duke equipped an armed expedition, which took possession of New Amsterdam, which was thenceforth called Province of New York, after him. New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that later became New York City. The Province of New York (1664-1776 (Provincie New York resulted from the capture of the Dutch Republic colony of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the  This conquest was confirmed by the treaty of Breda, in July 1667. In July 1673, a Dutch fleet recaptured New York and held it until it was restored to the English by the treaty of Westminster in February, 1674.
The Province of New York was established by its colonial charter of 1664. The Province of New York (1664-1776 (Provincie New York resulted from the capture of the Dutch Republic colony of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the A Colonial Charter is a Document that gave colonies the Legal rights to exist The colonial charter of New York granted unlimited westward expansion, despite Native American presence in the Area. Massachusetts' charter had the same provision, causing territorial disputes between the colonies and with the Iroquois. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The separate colony of New Jersey was created out of the southwestern part of New Netherland, and the far southwestern portion given to Pennsylvania. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern
There lay a vast tract of land from the upper Mohawk River to Lake Erie, that was thinly occupied by the Iroquois and virtually unknown to the colonists. The Mohawk River is a long River in the US state of New York. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally Since the colonial charters of both Massachusetts and New York granted unlimited westward expansion, the claim to this tract was disputed. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. There were also many tensions between the original Dutch settlers in the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys and the English who were rapidly arriving in Eastern New York, and the Germans were also establishing settlements in the Mohawk area. For the Magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine The Mohawk Valley ( Yenęˀná•ˀna•č in Tuscarora) region of the U
The Patriot organization, the Sons of Liberty, were active in New York in the 1760s and early 1770s following the Stamp Acts and continuing with the Intolerable Acts, and clashes with British troops peaked with the Battle of Golden Hill and the long-running skirmishes over Liberty poles. This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolution. For other uses see Patriot (disambiguation. The Sons of Liberty was a Secret organization of American Patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution. A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain's colonies The Battle of Golden Hill was a clash between British Soldiers and British colonists that occurred on January 19 1770 in New York City A Liberty pole is a tall wooden pole often used as a type of flagstaff planted in the ground which may be surmounted by an ensign or a liberty cap (see Phrygian cap) A Committee of Correspondence was created by Patriots by 1774 to coordinate with like-minded people in the Thirteen Colonies seeking to demand what they saw were their rights as Englishmen denied by the preceding laws and lack of representation in the British Parliament. The committees of correspondence were bodies organized by the local governments of the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution for the purposes of coordinating The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the The Rights of Englishmen is a term that refers to the rights granted English subjects in the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and other " No taxation without representation " began as a Slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the British Colonists The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland The Commitees of Correspondence led to the creation of the New York Provincial Congress, which effectively replaced the British ruling apparatus by 1775. The New York Provincial Congress (1775-1777 was an organization formed by rebels in 1775 during the American Revolution, as a replacement for the Province of New York The New York Provincial Congress sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress, where they voted for independence unanimously. The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning in May 10 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then The state of New York was created on July 9, 1776. Soon after, a permanent Committee for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies was formed which passed many laws allowing the prosecution of proven or suspected enemies of the rebellion. After their civil rights were revoked and their property confiscated (see Bill of attainder) many sought refuge in British-controlled areas. A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of Attainder) is an act of Legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of In 1777, the state required a stringent oath of allegiance from its citizens, those who refused were exiled to British-occupied New York City. The New York Provincial Congress was replaced with the state government with the adoption of the Constitution of New York, 1777.
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston in 1775, and provided the staging ground for the unsuccessful 1775 invasion of Canada. The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 Background Prior to 1775 the British had imposed taxes onto the Americans which they did not take kindly to Background In the spring of 1775 the American Revolutionary War began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord. The first major battle of the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared - and the largest battle of the entire war - was fought in New York at the Battle of Long Island (a. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Background On March 17 1776 the British fleet retreated to Halifax Nova Scotia to refit after the end of the year-long Siege of Boston. k. a Battle of Brooklyn) in 1776. New York saw the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain that year as well. The naval Battle of Valcour Island, also known as the Battle of Valcour Bay, took place on 11 October 1776, on Lake Champlain in a narrow Lake Champlain (French lac Champlain) is a natural freshwater Lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States The withdrawal of General George Washington from Manhattan Island was followed by the British making New York City their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the center of attention for Washington's intelligence network. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Like many Wars much of the American Revolutionary War was fought by means other than the armies of George Washington, Howe, John Burgoyne The notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay saw more American combatants die of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war, combined (see Prisoners in the American Revolutionary War). A prison ship, historically sometimes called a prison hulk, is a vessel used as a Prison, often to hold convicts awaiting transportation to penal colonies Wallabout Bay is small body of water in Upper New York Bay along the northwest shore of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, between the present Early career Jersey was built during a time of peace in Britain. During the American Revolutionary War ( 1775 - 1783) the management and treatment of Prisoners of war (POW was very different from the The first of two major British armies to surrender during the war was captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, preventing the British from connecting their forces in Canada with those in New York City, and resulted in influencing France to ally with the revolutionaries. The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America Background See also Saratoga campaign The British plan and Howe's blunder The original conception of the campaign had been for Burgoyne with some eight The City of New York This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In 1780, Benedict Arnold unsuccessfully attempted to turn West Point over to the British, a move that would have given the British control of the Hudson Valley. Benedict Arnold V ( – June 14, 1801) was a General during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental West Point is a federal military reservation (and a Census-designated place) located North of the Village of Highland Falls in Orange County New York As per the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies - their troops in New York City - departed in 1783 , which was long afterwards celebrated as Evacuation Day. The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the Following the American Revolution, Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the last vestige of British authority in the
During the revolution, four of the Iroquois nations fought on the side of the British, with the exceptions of the Oneida and the Tuscarora. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Tuscarora ("hemp gatherers" are an American Indian tribe with members in New York, Canada, and North Carolina. In 1779, Major General John Sullivan was sent to defeat the Iroquois. For other men with the same name see John Sullivan (disambiguation. The Sullivan Expedition moved northward through the Finger Lakes and Genesee Country, burning all the Iroquois communities and destroying their crops and orchards. Background When the American Revolutionary War began British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance (or at least the neutrality The Finger Lakes are a chain of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York that are a popular tourist destination The Holland Purchase was a large tract of land in what is now the western portion of the U Refugees fled to Fort Niagara where they spent the following winter in hunger and misery. Fort Niagara is a fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in North America. Hundreds died of exposure, hunger and disease. After the war, many moved to Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Most, absent or present, lost their land after the war. Some of the land purchases are the subject of modern-day claims by the individual tribes.
Sullivan's men returned from the campaign to Pennsylvania and New England to tell of the enormous wealth of this new territory. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Many of them were given land grants in gratitude for their service in the Revolution. The Military Tract of Central New York, also called the New Military Tract, consisted of nearly two million Acres (8000 km² of Bounty From 1786 through 1797 several groups of wealthy land speculators entered into agreements with one another, with neighboring states, and with the Indians to obtain title to vast tracts of land in western New York. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Some purchases of Iroquois lands are the subject of numerous modern-day land claims by the individual nations of the Six Nations. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse
For the Oneida nation's assistance in defeating the British, primarily assisting General Washington's army at Valley Forge, then President Washington while on tour of the Mohawk Valley signed the Treaty of Canandaigua. The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York on November 11, 1794, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council This Treaty promised the Oneidas among other things a large swath of land from Pennsylvania to Canada, forever. The Treaty was violated in the mid-1800s by New York State. This became the basis for the present land claim dispute.
After the end of the American Revolutionary War, Isaac Sears and others, in New York City, revived the Sons of Liberty. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Isaac Sears (1730 &ndash 1786 was an American merchant sailor and political figure who played an important role in the American Revolution. In March 1784, they rallied an enormous crowd which called for the expulsion of any remaining Loyalists from the state starting on May 1. The Sons of Liberty gained sufficient seats in the December, 1784 election to have enacted punitive Loyalist laws. These laws remained in effect until, 1786 when Loyalists not banned by name were allowed to return to the state, 1788 when confiscation of Loyalist property was stopped, and 1792 when those banned by name were allowed to return to the state provided they did not contest their previous forfeiture of their property.
After a furious controversy, led by Alexander Hamilton, New York ratified the new federal United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788, and New York became the 11th state in the union with New York City being the federal capital (until 1790). The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap
Roads of the era were quite poor and often muddy, rutted, and narrow. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Cargo capacity was limited to what a small wagon could carry, and daily progress was measured in a few miles per day. Ships, which were typically faster, could easily navigate up the Hudson to Albany, but no further. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The Mohawk River provided a route to the central part of the state, but due to rapids and falls along its course, was suitable only for canoes and small bateaux (which could be portaged around the obstacles). The Mohawk River is a long River in the US state of New York. From 1807 there was much talk of building a canal system. Governor DeWitt Clinton became the chief sponsor, and in 1817 the first portion of a canal was begun, to connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie (and thence to the rest of the Great Lakes). DeWitt Clinton ( March 2, 1769 Little Britain New York February 11, 1828 Albany New York) was an early American politician Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The easy part was built first, a series of bypasses of rapids on the Mohawk River. Later sections were cut through the wilderness, often with Irish immigrant labor.
Though there was opposition, and the canal was derisively called "Clinton's Ditch" or worse, "Clinton's Folly," the canal was finally completed in 1825. Officially the event was celebrated by cannon shots along the length, and by Governor Clinton ceremonially pouring Lake Erie water into the New York Harbor in the "Wedding of the Waters. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City " The Erie Canal proved to be a stroke of genius, as settlers now poured from New England, Eastern New York and Europe into the central and western part of the state. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Others went on to Ohio and Michigan. The Canal was the first serious route for settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, which had previously been a geographic barrier. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Now upstate farms and industries could easily ship their products to the large and growing market of New York City and beyond. A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The City of New York The canal shortened the trip across the state of New York from weeks to days. The cost of shipping cargo dropped precipitously as well.
The Erie Canal, though no longer so important a trade route (it is supplanted by railroads and highways) still defines the central commerce belt of New York State. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Before adding any more images to this * * page please do carefully consider * * whether they would be mere decoration * * or actually improve The port city of Buffalo, Lockport, where the canal crossed a great limestone ridge, mill-town and beautiful 'Flower City' Rochester on the Genessee, and many smaller cities owe their growth, perhaps even their existence, to the Erie. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. Connecting canals were also built to Lake Ontario and the larger Finger Lakes. Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Finger Lakes are a chain of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York that are a popular tourist destination The success of the Erie Canal in led in turn to a series of other canals throughout the Northern US.
In 1791, [Alex Bahret (1748 - 1831)|had gotten rich as a merchant in the American Revolution, bought 3,670,715 acres (14,855 km²) of northern New York at about twelve cents an acre. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The tract, that ran along the St. Lawrence River and eastern Lake Ontario, including the Thousand Islands, was divided into ten large townships; the deeds for all the lands that are now included in Lewis, Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, as well as portions of Herkimer and Oswego Counties are derived from this purchase. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Thousand Islands is the name of an archipelago of Islands that straddle the U Lewis County is a County located in the US state of New York. Jefferson County is a County located in the US state of New York. St Lawrence County is a County located in the US state of New York. Franklin County is a County located in the US state of New York. Herkimer County is a County located in the US state of New York. Oswego County is a County located in the US state of New York. The land was divided into townships and sections for sale. See also the history of the Adirondacks. The Adirondack Mountains are a Mountain range located in the northeastern part of New York, that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin
Upstate New York was the "Burned-Over District", a zone of intense religious and reform activity typified by revivalist Charles Grandison Finney. " Burned-over district " was a name popularized by historian Whitney Cross in his 1950 book The Burned-over District the social and intellectual history of Charles Grandison Finney ( August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875) was a minister of the gospel originally in upstate New York and grew to become
Two denominations emerged: the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known Benevolent reform movements (establishing Sunday Schools, and orphanages), temperance groups (abolishing the consumption of alcohol), antislavery societies, and women’s rights activists also found enthusiastic supporters in upstate New York between 1825 and 1860. Social experiments in communal living appeared in utopian communities at Oneida and Skaneateles; the best known are the Shaker villages near Albany. The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, known as the Shakers, was a Protestant religious denomination that originated in Manchester Historian Alice Felt Tyler called it a "ferment of reform. "
At the same time, upstate New York was at the cutting edge of the transportation revolution, the agricultural revolution, the industrial revolution, and even the urban revolution. Turnpikes, canals, and railroads connected eastern cities with western markets. Especially important was the route from Albany to Buffalo, connected with the Seneca Turnpike (1803), Erie Canal (1825), and New York Central Railroad (1853). The Seneca Turnpike is a road originally extending from Fort Schuyler ( Utica New York) to Canandaigua New York. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. In agriculture, New York’s farmland, much of it former Haudenosaunee homeland, was some of the most productive in the nation. The Genesee country, from the Finger Lakes west, became known as the breadbasket of the nation for its extraordinary grain production. At key sites (such at Troy-Cohoes, the Sauquoit Creek west of Utica, Oswego, Seneca Falls, and Rochester), rapid-flowing rivers offered power for major industrial sites. In terms of urban growth, cities in New York State, along with those in the rest of the country, grew more rapidly between 1820 and 1860 than in any other period in U. S. history.
Following these expanding economic opportunities, people (including African Americans as well as European Americans of many different backgrounds) poured into upstate New York. They came from several different culture hearths—New England Yankees, Dutch and Yorkers from eastern New York, Germans and Scots Irish from Pennsylvania, and immigrants from England and Ireland. Upstate New York State became a place where people of many different backgrounds moved rapidly into the same area and created a volatile combination of voices and dramatic new movements.
Although New York State was not the scene of any battles, its involvement in the Union war effort was considerable.
The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week), were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16 1863 known at the time as Draft Week) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other The City of New York The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The riots were the largest civil insurrection in American history apart from the American Civil War.  President Abraham Lincoln sent several regiments of militia and volunteer troops to control the city. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The rioters numbered in the thousands and were mainly Irish. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland.  Smaller scale riots erupted in other cities about the same time.
Railroads became the dominant transport after the war, though the traffic of steamboats and canal boats continued to increase. The victorious Republican Party split into acrimonious factions over questions of patronage, while the Tammany Hall machine of the Democrats in New York City perfected their system of looting public funds. Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party Political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably Continued immigration and economic growth brought an urbanized majority.
The governorships of Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Evans Hughes and Al Smith made New York a major factor in the Progressive Era. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Charles Evans Hughes Sr ( April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was a Lawyer and Republican politician from the State Alfred Emanuel Smith Jr, known in private and public life as Al Smith, ( December 30, 1873 - October 4, 1944) was elected Governor The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s