|Chicano · La Raza · Latino|
|Mexican American · Hispanic|
|Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo|
|San Elizario Salt War|
|Sleepy Lagoon trial · Zoot Suit Riots|
|Chicanismo · Aztlán|
|Plan Espiritual de Aztlán|
|Plan de Santa Bárbara|
|Land grant struggle|
|Chicano Blowouts · Chicano Moratorium|
|Farm worker rights campaign|
|Católicos por La Raza|
|Supreme Court cases|
|MEChA · UFW|
|Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional|
|League of United Latin American Citizens|
|American GI Forum|
|Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund|
|Mexican American Political Association|
|National Council of La Raza|
|Chicano Spanish words|
|Chicano Spanish · Chicano English|
|New Mexican Spanish|
|Spanish in the United States|
|Chicano rap · Chicano rock|
|Estrada Courts murals|
|Cholo · Pachuco|
|Lowrider · Zoot suit|
|Teatro Campesino · Chicano Park|
|Dia de los muertos|
|Cinco de Mayo|
|U.S. communities with Hispanic majority|
The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. Chicano (feminine Chicana) is a politically-loaded word for a Mexican American (in the sense of native-born Americans of Mexican ancestry as opposed to Mexican See also History of Mexican-Americans Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry Chicano (feminine Chicana) is a politically-loaded word for a Mexican American (in the sense of native-born Americans of Mexican ancestry as opposed to Mexican La Raza (literally "The Race" is sometimes used to denote people of Chicano (i See also History of Mexican-Americans Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish) is the Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to Mutualistas were community-based mutual aid societies created by Mexican immigrants in the late 19th century United States. The San Elizario Salt War, also known as the Salinero Revolt or The El Paso Salt War, was an 1877 conflict between the Mexican inhabitants of San Elizario The Sleepy Lagoon murder was a 1942 Los Angeles California criminal trial of 21 Latino young men the convictions were reversed on appeal in 1944 The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that The Chicano Movement of the 1960s also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, it is an extension of the Mexican Chicanismo is a cultural movement begun in the 1930s in the Southwestern United States by Mexican Americans to recapture their Mexican, Native American Aztlán ( from Nahuatl Aztlān) is the Legendary ancestral home of the Nahua peoples, one of the main cultural groups in Mesoamerica The Plan Espiritual de Aztlán (English "Spiritual Plan of Aztlán " is a Manifesto advocating Chicano nationalism and self-determination El Plan de Santa Barbara A Chicano Plan for Higher Education was written by the Chicano Coordinating Council on Higher Education as a manifesto for the implementation of Chicano Studies Alianza Federal de Mercedes, which in English translates to Federal Land Grant Alliance, was a group led by Reies Tijerina based in New Mexico in the 1960s The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts were a series of 1968 protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano Anti-war activists that built a broad-based Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Overview The United Farm Workers of America (UFW is a labor Católicos por La Raza is a political association organized by Ricardo Cruz in the later 1960s in Los Angeles California. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Hernandez v Texas, 347 US 475 ( 1954) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans Plyler v Doe,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down a state statute denying funding for education to children who were illegal Mendez v Westminster School District, 64 FSupp 544 (CD Cal 1946 ''aff'd'' 161 F Word origin and usage The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation for the English word " mechanical " Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Overview The United Farm Workers of America (UFW is a labor The Brown Berets were a Chicano nationalist Activist group of young Mexican Americans during the Chicano Movement in the late sixties and throughout The Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional ( National Mexican Women's Commission, abbreviated as CFMN) is a Chicano organization geared towards the political The League of United Latin American Citizens ( LULAC) is a political advocacy group for Latinos in the United States. The American GI Forum ( AGIF) is a Congressionally-chartered Mexican American Veterans and Civil rights organization The Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund ( MALDEF) is a national non-profit Civil rights organization formed in 1968 to protect Mexican American Political Association ( MAPA) is an organization that promotes the interests of Mexican-Americans in the United States. The following is a list of Chicano slang words and expressions known as Caló, also spelled "Calo" and "Kalo" by modern Chicano youth Caló (also known as Pachuco) is an Argot or slang of Mexican Spanish which originated during the first half of the 20th century in the Southwestern Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos One major variation of Chicano English is Tejano English, used mainly in south Texas New Mexican Spanish is a variant or dialect of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part The Spanish language is the second most-common language in the United States after English. Chicano rap is a subgenre of Hip hop music, Latin rap and Gangsta rap that embodies aspects of West Coast and Southwest Mexican American ( Chicano rock is a rock music performed by Mexican American ( Chicano) groups or music with themes derived Tejano music (Spanish-Texan music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic populations of Central and Southern Texas Estrada Courts is a low-income housing project in the Boyle Heights area of East Los Angeles, California, located at 3232 Estrada Street in the vicinity Cholo was applied to individuals of mixed American Indian and Mestizo ancestry Pachucos are Mexican American youths who developed their own Subculture during the 1930s and 1940s in the Southwestern United States A lowrider is a Car or Truck which has had its suspension system modified (sometimes with Hydraulic suspension so that it rides as A Zoot suit (also spelled Zuit Suit) is a suit with high-waisted wide-legged tight-cuffed pegged trousers and a long coat with wide lapels and wide padded El Teatro Campesino ("farmworkers' ( Campesino) theater" is a theatrical troupe founded in 1965 as the cultural arm of the United Chicano Park is a 32000 square meter (79 Acre) Park located beneath the San Diego-Coronado Bridge in Logan Heights (Barrio Logan Tex-Mex is a term used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional American cuisine that blends Food products The Cinco de Mayo (Spanish for "5th of May" is a Mexican national holiday that honors the Mexican victory over the French army at Puebla de Los Angeles in 1862 The holiday commemorates The following is a partial list of United States cities towns and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50% of the population is Hispanic or Latino This article contains a list of notable Hispanic and Latino Americans, citizens of the United States with ancestry or origins in Hispanic America or Spain The United States of America —commonly referred to as the While Mexican-Americans were once concentrated in the states that formerly belonged to Mexico, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas; they began creating communities in San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Chicago and other steel producing regions when they obtained employment there during World War I. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All More recently, Mexican immigrants have increasingly become a large part of the workforce in industries such as meat packing throughout the Midwest, in agriculture in the southeastern United States, and in the construction, landscaping, restaurant, hotel and other service industries throughout the country.
Mexican-American identity has also changed markedly throughout these years. Over the past hundred years Mexican-Americans have campaigned for voting rights, stood against educational, employment, ethnic discrimination and stood for economic and social advancement. At the same time many Mexican-Americans have struggled with defining and maintaining their community's identity. In the 1960s and 1970s, some Latino and Hispanic student groups flirted with nationalism and differences over the proper name for members of the community of Chicano/Chicana, Latino/Latina, Mexican-Americans, Hispanics or simply La Raza became tied up with deeper disagreements over whether to integrate into or remain separate from Anglo society, as well as divisions between those Mexican-Americans whose families had lived in the United States for two or more generations and more recent immigrants. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Chicano (feminine Chicana) is a politically-loaded word for a Mexican American (in the sense of native-born Americans of Mexican ancestry as opposed to Mexican La Raza (literally "The Race" is sometimes used to denote people of Chicano (i The term Anglo is used as a prefix to indicate a relation to the Angles, England or the English people, as in the phrases ' Anglo-Saxon ' '
Mexican-Americans are a subset of the Hispanic, or Latino ethnic group. Mexican-Americans may be recent immigrants or the sons and daughters of immigrants, descendants of those who came to the United States decades ago or who settled there when the land was either an independent republic or under Spanish or Mexican rule. Mexican-Americans can either be bilingual or monolingual (or, indeed, multilingual), their primary languages being English and Spanish, harking back to the Spanish colonizing efforts starting in the 1570s.
Mexican American also means you identify with both your Mexican ancestry and American ancestry.
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, California, parts of Colorado, and Wyoming were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later formed part of the newly independent Mexican Republic. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, The Spaniards first entered the region in the late 16th century, starting settlements in what is now New Mexico. Those communities lived alongside established Native American communities and, to some extent, integrated with them. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States
In California, Spanish colonization was founded by Franciscan friars who formed a string of missions along the coastal regions of California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between These missions were economic as well as religious entities and served to reduce the Native American populations in those areas to a form of servitude. Along with the system of forts and land grants to favored associates of the king, they enabled widespread Spanish settlement of the western edge of California.
Missions were not as successful elsewhere in the region. Significant Spanish-speaking settlements established themselves in the areas now known as Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas.
The new United States first came into conflict with Mexico in the 1830s, as the westward spread of Anglo settlements and of slavery brought significant numbers of new settlers into the region known as Tejas, then part of Mexico. The Mexican-American War, followed by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 and the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, extended U. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish) is the Peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla or Treaty of La Mesilla in Mexico is a region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico S. control over a wide range of territory once held by Mexico, including the present day states of Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California. The vast majority of Hispanic populations chose to stay and become full US citizens. By and large, the Hispanic populations of these areas supported the new government. The Mexican government had become despotic under the on and off again president General Santa Anna and the U. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ( February 21, 1794 &ndash June 21, 1876) often known as Santa S. Government offered protection from Indian raids that Mexico had not prevented, it meant an end to civil wars of the sort that continuously wracked Mexico until 1920, and it promised much greater long-run prosperity.
Although the treaty promised that the landowners in this newly acquired territory would enjoy full enjoyment and protection of their property as if they were citizens of the United States, many former citizens of Mexico lost their land in lawsuits before state and federal courts or as a result of legislation passed after the treaty. Even those statutes intended to protect the owners of property at the time of the extension of the United States' borders, such as the 1851 California Land Act, had the effect of dispossessing Californio owners ruined by the cost of maintaining litigation over land titles for years. Californio's (Spanish for "Californian" is a term used to identify a Californian of Hispanic and/or Latin-American descent first as a part of New Spain, later
The loss of property rights in New Mexico created a largely landless population that resented the powers that had taken their land.  After the Santa Fe Ring succeeded in dispossessing thousands of landholders in New Mexico, groups such as Las Gorras Blancas tore down fences or burned down interlopers' farm buildings. Las Gorras Blancas ( Spanish for "The White Caps" was a group active in the American Southwest in the late 1880s and early 1890s In western Texas the political struggle sparked an armed conflict in which the Tejano majority forced the surrender of the Texas Rangers, but in the end lost their influence, offices, and economic opportunities. The San Elizario Salt War, also known as the Salinero Revolt or The El Paso Salt War, was an 1877 conflict between the Mexican inhabitants of San Elizario The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide Jurisdiction based in Austin, the
In other areas, particularly California, the Hispanic residents were simply overwhelmed by the number of Anglo settlers who rushed in, first in Northern California as a result of the California Gold Rush, then decades later by the boom in Southern California. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California Anglo miners drove Hispanic miners out of their camps, barred non-Anglos from testifying in court and imposed exclusionary standards similar to what was called Jim Crow in the case of African-Americans. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965  Some Hispanics, of whom Joaquín Murieta was a legendary example and Tiburcio Vásquez a real one, responded by resorting to banditry. Joaquin Murrietta (sometimes spelled Murieta or Murietta) (1829&ndashca Tiburcio Vásquez ( August 11 1835 &ndash March 19, 1875) was a Californio bandit who was active in California During the Gold Rush, there was an immigration of Mexican miners to California.
About 20,000 Tejanos lived in South Texas in the 1850s. The social structure has been analyzed by historian Radolph Campbell ["Gone to Texas: A History of the Lone Star State" 2003 p 190-1]
South Texans of Hispanic descent lived in a three-tiered society during the antebellum years. At the top stood the landed elite, the owners of huge ranches, many of which originated as haciendas in the Spanish colonial period. The elite based their economic lives on cattle raising. They sold some cattle in Mexico and Louisiana and exported hides and tallow, but access to major urban markets outside the region was so limited that South Texas ranchers did not develop highly commercial operations during the antebellum years. This apparently suited most very well anyhow in that they viewed their ranches primarily as a way of life rather than a business investment and therefore focused on keeping their property intact as well as turning a profit. . . .
Small landowners occupied the second rung of the South Texas economic and social ladder. These rancheros, as they were called, lived in one-room adobe houses and spent most of their time caring for their small herds of horses and cattle. Although a smaller part of the population, they can be compared, it seems, to the plain folk Anglos of East Texas. That is, they differed from the elite only in the extent of their property, not in their dependence on the land or the way they tried to live.
Finally, South Texas had a lower class composed primarily of peóns, vaqueros, and cartmen. Peóns had a status above that of the slaves in antebellum Texas but below that of genuinely free men. They owned no property, could not travel or call in a doctor without the permission of the estate owner (the patrón), and needed his approval for marriages. When a peón was accused of an offense, the patrón acted as judge and jury. On the other hand, peóns were not property and therefore could not be bought and sold or treated as personal chattels in any way. Somewhere in an ill-defined place between that of slaves and free men, they served as “faithful servants” to the upper class.
Peóns worked at the direction of the patróns—planting and harvesting crops, herding goats, digging wells, and doing any sort of manual labor necessary. In return they received wages or credits at the estate's store in amounts so small that they were constantly in debt. They lived in tiny one-room jacales, huts with walls of mud or any other material available and thatched roofs. The one room served for both living and sleeping; cooking and eating took place in a separate enclosure made of grass or corn stalks.
The poor, landless class also included vaqueros, the men who herded and took care of cattle. Ranch owners and mission priests generally considered it beneath their dignity to do such work and thought of these first Texas cowboys simply as laborers riding horses. No one involved could have imagined that millions of Americans would one day see working cattle as an ultimately romantic and heroic part of Texas's past. At least vaqueros, as befitted their future image, had more independence than peóns. They were not bound to the land and could even expect to acquire property of their own someday.
Cartmen lived in San Antonio or along the route from that city to Indianola and earned their living by transporting food and merchandise from the coast to the interior. Using oxcarts, they virtually monopolized this particular freight route by moving goods quickly and cheaply. Anglo competitors appeared by the 1850s but were unable to match the rates charged by the Tejanos. Carting appears to have been the most lucrative business open to poorer Tejanos during these years
In parts of south Texas and southern Arizona, Hispanic Americans were able to obtain positions within local government while in New Mexico Hispanic Americans remained an absolute majority of the population until the end of the nineteenth century. The federal government delayed granting statehood to New Mexico because of its Hispanic American political leadership. 
Despite integration, Hispanic Americans managed to retain their Spanish language and culture. They were most successful in those areas where they had retained some measure of political or economic power, where Jim Crow laws imposed a forced isolation or where immigrants from Mexico made up a significant percentage of the community.
The lynching of Mexicans and Mexican Americans in the Southwest has long been overlooked in American history. This may be due to the fact that most historical records categorized Mexican, Chinese, and Native American lynching victims as white.  It is estimated that at least 597 Mexican Americans were lynched between 1848 and 1928. Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27. 4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during that period, which suffered an average of 37. 1 per 100,000 population.  Between 1848 to 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population. Most of these lynchings were not instances of "frontier justice"--of the 597 total victims, only 64 were lynched in areas which lacked a formal judicial system.  The majority of lynching victims were denied access to a trial while others were convicted in unfair trials.
During the California Gold Rush, as many as 25,000 Mexicans arrived in California. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California Many of these Mexicans were experienced miners and had great success mining gold in California. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Some Anglos perceived their success as a threat and intimidated them with violence. Between 1848 and 1860, at least 163 Mexicans were lynched in California alone. One particularly infamous lynching occurred on July 5, 1851 when a Mexican woman named Josefa Segovia was lynched by a mob in Downieville, California. She was accused of killing a white man who had attempted to assault her after breaking into her home. 
The Texas Rangers were also known to brutally repress the Mexican-American population in Texas. The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide Jurisdiction based in Austin, the Historians estimate that hundreds, perhaps even thousands of Mexicans and Mexican Americans were killed by the Texas Rangers. 
Anti-Mexican mob violence and intimidation resulted in Mexicans being displaced from their lands, denied access to natural resources, and becoming politically disenfranchised.
Hispanic Americans made up a significant number of workers in a number of industries, particularly the railroad and mining industries in the southwestern U. S. , that led to the growth of communities throughout the region. The employment needs of the railroad industry in the late nineteenth century brought Mexican immigrants from more remote regions of Mexico, while the new systems integrated the border regions of the United States and Mexico. The railroad also led to the economic development of those parts of the US, drawing Mexican immigrants in large numbers into agriculture in the early twentieth century, establishing a pattern that continued thereafter.
These largely male Mexican immigrants also established colonias in the early twentieth century in places such as Chicago, Kansas City and Salt Lake City, Utah as railroad employment took them further within the United States. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Mexican-Americans and Mexican immigrants also moved in large numbers to Denver, the San Francisco Bay area, and to a lesser extent to Detroit, Minneapolis and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania, during World War I to work in the steel and automobile manufacturing industry. The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The Monongahela River (məˌnɒŋɡəˈheɪlə also known locally as the Mon /ˈmɒn/ is a River on the Allegheny Plateau in North-Central The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Others began migrating from South Texas to work in cotton fields elsewhere in Texas and Oklahoma, and from Southern California went to work in summer harvests of groves and orchards in Oregon and the Yakima Valley, Washington. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
More recently, beginning in significant numbers in the 1970s, Mexican immigrants have moved in large numbers to the Midwest U. S. , attracted by jobs in the packinghouse industry, and to the southeastern U. S. , where they have displaced many African-Americans and contract workers from the Caribbean in agriculture and related industries. This large wave of Mexican immigration are attracted to low-paid labor jobs and an equally high number moved to low-income communities, such as industrial suburbs of Los Angeles in ethnic neighborhoods known as barrios and the agricultural sector of Imperial Valley, California. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The Imperial Valley is a region of southeastern California ( USA) located in part between the Colorado River and the Salton Sea, which California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
The Mexican Revolution affected Mexican-Americans in a number of ways. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I The turmoil in Mexico caused hundreds of thousands of refugees to flee to the U. S. (1910-1917), while some demographers placed the figure at one million at the time period. The revolution also fueled animosities between the United States and Mexican governments while threatening the interests of U. S. businesses operating in Mexico. Mexican revolutionaries, from Venustiano Carranza to Ricardo Flores Magon, operated on both sides of the border during this era. Ricardo Flores Magón ( September 16, 1874 November 21, 1922) a noted Mexican Anarchist and social reform activist was
The Wilson administration actively intervened in Mexico in these years, sending troops to Veracruz, Veracruz. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. The city of Veracruz is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. When Pancho Villa's troops killed seventeen U. Doroteo Arango Arámbula ( June 5 1878 &ndash July 20 1923) better known as Francisco or " Pancho " Villa S. mining engineers in Chihuahua, then crossed the border and killed a number of soldiers and civilians in a raid on Columbus, New Mexico, the federal government sent General John J. Pershing on a "punitive expedition" to capture or defeat Villa. Columbus is a village in Luna County, New Mexico, United States. John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB ( September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army A purported plan to liberate those regions formerly held by Mexico and to drive out all Anglo residents and persistent rumors that Mexico was receiving aid from Germany inflamed public sentiment in the United States even further. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Mexican-American workers formed unions of their own and joined integrated unions throughout the twentieth century. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was particularly active in organizing Mexican-American farm workers and hard rock miners the first three decades of that century, in Arizona and elsewhere. The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA In 1917, many of them were expelled in the Bisbee Deportation. The Bisbee Deportation was the illegal Deportation of about 1300 striking mine workers their supporters and innocent citizen bystanders by 2000 Vigilantes
From about 1902 to 1914, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) attempted to organize coal miners in Colorado. Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->The United Mine Workers of America ( UMW or UMWA) is a North In 1927, Mexican-American coal miners participated in a bloody coal strike in Colorado, walking out under the banner of the IWW. The first Columbine Massacre, sometimes called the Columbine Mine massacre to distinguish it from the Columbine High School massacre, occurred in 1927 when striking Mexican-Americans in the southeastern part of the state, particularly from the Walsenburg, Pueblo, and Trinidad areas, took leadership roles in the 1927 strike. The historic City of Walsenburg is a Statutory City that is the County seat and the most populous city of Huerfano The City of Pueblo (ˈpwɛbloʊ is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County The historic City of Trinidad is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Las Animas County, Colorado
Numerous workers from Mexico were in the mines. As many as 60 percent of all these wage earners had come to Colorado after further labor troubles at Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) properties in 1919 and 1921. The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company (CF&I was a large steel concern As the IWW agitation increased in 1926-27, mine owners refused to hire Mexicans, blaming them for the labor unrest. 
The UMWA returned to northern Colorado in 1928, just weeks after a machine-gun massacre of strikers, when Rocky Mountain Fuel Company invited the AFL-affiliated organization to take the place of the more radical IWW. The American Federation of Labor (AFL was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States
The Communist Party-affiliated Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union led a massive strike of cotton pickers in California in 1933; that strike was defeated after mass arrests and the murder of several strikers. The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. The movie Salt of the Earth depicts another strike, waged by the mostly Mexican-American members of the Mine Mill and Smelter Workers; the movie itself became an important document in the later Chicano movement. Salt of the Earth ( 1954) is an American Drama film written by Michael Wilson, directed by Herbert J The Western Federation of Miners ( WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mines of the western United States
The most significant union struggle involving Mexican-Americans was the United Farm Workers' long strike and boycott aimed at grape growers in the San Joaquin and Coachella Valleys in the late 1960s, followed by campaigns to organize lettuce workers in California and Arizona, farm workers in Texas, and orange grove workers in Florida. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Overview The United Farm Workers of America (UFW is a labor The San Joaquin Valley (ˌsæn wɑːˈkiːn refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta The Coachella Valley ( pronounced /koʊəˈtʃɛlə/ in English) is a large stretch of land in Southern California that is populated by close to a million While the union suffered severe setbacks in California in 1973 and never established a strong union presence in other states, its struggle propelled César Chávez and Dolores Huerta into national prominence, while providing the foot soldiers who helped increase the visibility of Mexican-Americans within the Democratic Party in California and elect a number of Mexican-American candidates in the 1970s and 1980s. César Estrada Chávez ( March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) born in Yuma Arizona, was a Mexican-American farm worker Labor Dolores C Huerta (born April 10, 1930) is the co-founder and First Vice President Emeritus of the United Farm Workers of America AFL-CIO (UFW The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party.
More recently, the Service Employees International Union has led a number of successful "Justice for Janitors" campaigns throughout the United States among predominantly immigrant workers, many of whom have come from Mexico and Central America. Service Employees International Union ( SEIU) is a labor union representing more than 2 million workers In Florida a high-profile strike at the University of Miami Justice for Janitors is a Janitor organization movement and part of the Service Employees International Union (SEIU Those campaigns do not stress cultural or ethnic identity in the way that the UFW did, but have linked immigrant workers' struggles with the political interests of Mexican-Americans in many communities, such as Los Angeles.
The IWW is also once again organizing, particularly among Troquero truck drivers and immigrant taxi drivers in the Los Angeles, California area. The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West
Tejanos — Texans of Spanish and/or Mexican descent — formed several organizations in the early twentieth century to protect themselves from official and private discrimination, but made only partial progress in addressing the worst forms of official ethnic discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American Citizens formed in 1929, remains active today. The League of United Latin American Citizens ( LULAC) is a political advocacy group for Latinos in the United States.
The movement to overturn the many forms of state-sponsored discrimination directed at Hispanic Americans was strongest in Texas, where Tejanos formed organizations throughout the first fifty years of the twentieth century to advance their rights. The movement picked up steam after World War II, however, when groups such as the American G.I. Forum, formed by returning veterans, joined in the efforts of organizations such as LULAC to demand an end to segregated schools and denial of the right to vote. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The American GI Forum ( AGIF) is a Congressionally-chartered Mexican American Veterans and Civil rights organization Hispanic Americans brought several legal cases against school segregation in San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas, in the 1940s and similar battles in San Diego and Orange County, California. Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States.
During The Great Depression, the United States government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will. The Mexican Repatriation was a largely Forced migration mainly taking place between 1929 and 1937 when an More than 500,000 individuals were deported, approximately 60 percent of which were actually United States citizens.  In the post-war McCarthy era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback. McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service ( INS) to remove about four million illegal immigrants 
Mexican-Americans, mestizos especially, also faced heightened racism during World War II, most famously during the Zoot Suit Riots, when sailors in Los Angeles attacked Mexican-American youths in 1943, and in the Sleepy Lagoon Case, in which a number of young men were wrongly convicted in a case marked by sensationalized press coverage and overt racism from the prosecution and judge. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that That trial and verdict, overturned on appeal after a broad-based committee was created to support the defendants, is depicted in Luis Valdez' play and film Zoot Suit. Luis Valdez (born June 26, 1940) is an American Playwright, Writer and Film director. At the same time, the United States was importing thousands of Mexican farm workers under the Bracero program that used them as temporary labor, without employment rights.
According to the National World War II Museum, between 250,000 and 500,000 Hispanic Americans served in the Armed Forces during WWII. The National World War II Museum, formerly known as the National D-Day Museum, is a Museum located in the Central Business District of New Orleans Thus, Hispanic Americans comprised 2. 3% to 4. 7% of the Army. The exact number, however is unknown as at the time Hispanics were classified as whites. Generally Mexican American World War II servicemen were integrated into regular military units. However, many Mexican American war veterans were discriminated against and even denied medical services by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs when they arrived home. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs ( VA) is a government-run military Veteran benefit system with Cabinet -level status  In 1948, war veteran Dr Hector P. Garcia founded the American GI Forum to address the concerns of Mexican American veterans who were being discriminated against. Hector P Garcia ( January 17, 1914 - July 26, 1997) was a Mexican-American Physician, surgeon, World War The American GI Forum ( AGIF) is a Congressionally-chartered Mexican American Veterans and Civil rights organization The AGIF's first campaign was on the behalf of Felix Longoria, a Mexican American private who was killed in the Philippines in the line of duty. Pvt Felix Z Longoria Jr (1920 &ndash June 1945 a decorated soldier served in the United States Army during World War II and was the first Mexican American The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Upon the return of his body to his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas, he was denied funeral services because he was Mexican American. Three Rivers is a city in Live Oak County, Texas, United States.
Mexican American school children were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. They were forced to attend "Mexican schools" in California. In 1947, the Mendez v. Westminster ruling declared that segrating children of "Mexican and Latin descent" in Orange County and the state of California was unconstitutional. Mendez v Westminster School District, 64 FSupp 544 (CD Cal 1946 ''aff'd'' 161 F Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. This ruling helped lay the foundation for the landmark Brown v Board of Education case which ended racial segregation in the public school system. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier 
In many counties in the Southwestern United States, Mexican Americans were not selected as jurors in court cases which involved a Mexican American defendant.  In 1954, Pete Hernandez, an agricultural worker, was indicted of murder by an all-Anglo jury in Jackson County, Texas. Jackson County is a County located in the US state of Texas. In 2000 its population was 14391 Hernandez believed that the jury could not be impartial unless members of other races were allowed on the jury-selecting committees, seeing that a Mexican American had not been on a jury for more than 25 years in that particular county. Hernandez and his lawyers decided to take the case to the Supreme Court. The Hernandez v. Texas Supreme Court ruling declared that Mexican Americans and other racial groups in the United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Hernandez v Texas, 347 US 475 ( 1954) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans The Fourteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution is one of the post- Civil War Reconstruction Amendments, first The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. 
The most prominent civil rights organization in the Mexican-American community is the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), founded in 1968. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund ( MALDEF) is a national non-profit Civil rights organization formed in 1968 to protect Although modeled after the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, MALDEF has also taken on many of the functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and training of local leaders. The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund Inc ( NAACP LDF, the Inc
The Chicano movement blossomed in the 1960s. The Chicano Movement of the 1960s also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, it is an extension of the Mexican Chicano (feminine Chicana) is a politically-loaded word for a Mexican American (in the sense of native-born Americans of Mexican ancestry as opposed to Mexican The movement had roots in the civil rights struggles that had preceded it, adding to it the cultural and generational politics of the era.
The early proponents of the movement — Rodolfo Gonzales in Denver, Colorado and Reies Tijerina in New Mexico — adopted a historical account of the preceding hundred and twenty-five years that obscured much of Mexican-American history. Rodolfo Gonzales ( June 18, 1928 &ndash April 12, 2005) was a Mexican American boxer, poet, and political The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States Reies López Tijerina (born September 21, 1926) was a leader in the 1960s struggle to restore New Mexican Land grants to the descendants of their Gonzales and Tijerina embraced a form of nationalism that was based on the failure of the United States government to live up to the promises that it had made in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 
That version of the past did not, on the other hand, take into account the history of those Mexicans who had immigrated to the United States. It also gave little attention to the rights of illegal immigrants in the United States in the 1960s — not surprising, since immigration did not have the political significance it was to acquire in the years to come. It was only a decade later when activists embraced the rights of illegal immigrants and helped broaden the focus to include their rights.
Instead, when the movement dealt with practical problems most activists focused on the most immediate issues confronting Mexican-Americans: unequal educational and employment opportunities, political disenfranchisement, and police brutality. In the heady days of the late 1960s, when the student movement was active around the globe, the Chicano movement brought about more or less spontaneous actions, such as the mass walkouts by high school students in Denver and East Los Angeles in 1968 and the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970. East Los Angeles can refer to East Los Angeles California (unincorporated community East Los Angeles (region The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano Anti-war activists that built a broad-based
The movement was particularly strong at the college level, where activists formed MEChA, el Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán, which promoted Chicano Studies programs and a generalized nationalist agenda. Word origin and usage The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation for the English word " mechanical " The student movement produced a generation of future political leaders, including Richard Alatorre and Cruz Bustamante in California. Richard Alatorre is a politician and a member of the Democratic Party of the United States Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician.
Some women who worked within the Chicano movement felt that participants were more worried about other issues, such as immigration, than solving problems that affected women. This led Chicana women to form the Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional. The Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional ( National Mexican Women's Commission, abbreviated as CFMN) is a Chicano organization geared towards the political
In 1963, in Crystal City, Texas the mainly Mexican-American migrant community together with the support of the Teamsters Union and the Political Association of Spanish Speaking Organizations (PASSO), an outgrowth of the Viva Kennedy clubs of 1960, encouraged Mexican-American men and women to pay their poll tax and choose their own candidates. Crystal City is a city in Zavala County, Texas, United States. TemplateInfobox Union for usage-->The International Brotherhood of Teamsters ( IBT) formerly known by the A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a Tax of a uniform fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income Led by Teamsters business agent and cannery employee, Juan Cornejo, five Mexican-Americans, despite harassment from the infamous Texas Rangers, won the support of their community young and old alike who thanks to the protection provided by the Teamsters and PASSO mobilized for electoral victory. Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide Jurisdiction based in Austin, the This "revolt" was covered nationwide and reported in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. This election led Americans outside of the Southwest to take note of America's other minority community as a political force. The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37
As a result of the Voting Rights Act, followed up by intensive political organizing, Mexican-Americans were able to achieve a new degree of political power and representation in Texas and elsewhere in the Southwest. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited The La Raza Unida Party, headed by Jose Angel Gutierrez of Crystal City, Texas made startling progress in the poorest regions in the Rio Grande Valley with its base of operations at Crystal City, Texas in the early 1970s, spreading for a while to Colorado, Wisconsin, California, Michigan, Oregon and several other states. The Raza Unida Party (RUP (Partido de la Raza Unida is a United States third Political party. José Angel Gutiérrez, is an attorney and Professor at the University of Texas at Arlington in the United States. The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. The party faded in the mid 1970s and held on only in Crystal City, Texas before collapsing in the early 1980s. Veterans from the party, such as Willie Velasquez, became active in Democratic politics and in organizing projects such as the Southwest Voter Registration and Education Project, which boosted the electoral fortunes of Mexican-American candidates throughout the Southwest. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party.
Results came more slowly in California, on the other hand: although Los Angeles had a significant Mexican-American population, gerrymandering eliminated the seat held by Edward R. Roybal, the only Mexican-American member of the Los Angeles City Council, in 1959. Gerrymandering is a form of redistribution in which electoral district or Constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage Edward Ross "Ed" Roybal ( February 10, 1916 &ndash October 24, 2005) was an American politician La Raza Unida Party campaigns in the early 1970s had the practical effect of defeating Mexican-American Democratic candidates, embittering many activists against the party and the form of nationalism it represented.
It would be more than twenty years before another Mexican-American was elected to the Los Angeles City Council and it would take litigation to permit a Mexican-American to win election to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in the 1980s, the first Mexican-American to join that body in more than a century. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five member non-partisan governing board of Los Angeles County California. In the 1990s, Mexican-American politicians held high offices throughout California. In 2005, Antonio Villaraigosa was elected mayor of Los Angeles, the first Latino in 130 years to hold the seat. Antonio Ramon Villaraigosa (born Antonio Ramon Villar Jr on January 23 1953 or Tony Villar, is the mayor of Los Angeles California. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West
Voters have elected a number of governors of Mexican-American descent in the Southwest, including Jerry Apodaca and Bill Richardson in New Mexico and Raúl Castro in Arizona. William Blaine "Bill" Richardson III (born November 15, 1947) is the current Governor of New Mexico and was a candidate for the 2008 Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born June 3 1931 is the President of the Cuban Council of State and the Head of state of Cuba. Colorado voters recently elected Ken Salazar as the first Mexican-American Senator from that state. Kenneth Lee Salazar (born March 2, 1955) is an American politician, rancher and environmentalist from the U Cruz Bustamente was the first lieutenant governor of California in 130 years from his election in 1999 to 2007, but Bustamente lost the gubernatorial election to Austrian-born actor Arnold Schwarzenegger who went on to be state governor. Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician.
Mexican-Americans have also achieved some degree of political recognition in Chicago, where they make up roughly 75% of a Latino community that also includes significant numbers of Puerto Ricans and immigrants from other Spanish-speaking countries. That predominantly Mexican-American community has elected Luis Gutierrez, whose ancestry is Puerto Rican, to represent it in Congress and a number of Mexican-American politicians at the state and local level. Luís Vicente Gutiérrez (born December 10 1953) American politician has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives
Mexican-Americans tend to vote Democratic (in 1960, the John F. Kennedy presidential campaign boosted the Mexican American vote to over 80% for Kennedy), although the Republican Party has made determined efforts in the years after 1980 to reverse that trend. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Mexican-Americans in particular, despite being a large voting bloc, have a very poor voter turnout. This can be attributed to low income and education rates; an engendered mistrust for government in general passed down from parents or grandparents having fled Mexico's government might also play a role.