|History of Italy|
|By time period|
Italy, united in 1861, has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolini's fascist regime, Italy's history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italy until the present era was a conglomeration of city-states and small independent nations Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Important cultures and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times.
After Magna Graecia, the Etruscan civilization and especially the Roman Republic and Empire that dominated this part of the world for many centuries came an Italy whose people would make immeasurable contributions to the development of European philosophy, science, and art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Dominated by city-states for much of the medieval and Renaissance period, the Italian peninsula was eventually unified amidst much struggle in the 19th and 20th centuries. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian
The name Italy (Italia) is an ancient name for the country and people of Central Italy. Central Italy is a geographic area in Italy that encompasses four of the country's 20 autonomous regions: Lazio Marches Its origin is clear: the name Italia was imposed upon the Roman Republic by the conquering Italic tribes of the contemporary Abruzzo region, centering in the area of Corfinium (Corfinio). Coins bearing the name Italia were minted by an alliance of Italic tribes (Sabines, Samnites, Umbrians and others) competing with Rome in the 1st century BC. Ancient peoples of Italy are all those peoples that lived in Italy (including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia) before the Roman domination The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting History and Geography The Umbri are one of the oldest races of indigenous people in Italy ( Pliny, Natural History Vol 3 Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. By the time of Emperor Augustus, the multi-ethnic territory of Italy was included in Italia as the central unit of the Empire; Cisalpine Gaul, the Upper Po valley, for example, was appended in 42 BC. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Italia, under the Roman Republic and later Empire, was the name of the Italian peninsula. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Lombard invasions, "Italy" or "Italian" gradually became the collective name for diverse states appearing on the peninsula and their overseas properties. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Pallotino claims that the name was originally derived from the Itali settled in modern Calabria. The Greeks gradually came to use the name for a greater region, but it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula (Guillotining, M. , History of Earliest Italy, trans. Ryle, M & Soper, K. in Jerome Lectures, Seventeenth Series, p. 50)
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica, made by Camunni civilization, from the neolithic to the middle ages. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading Nadro (Nàder in Camunian dialect) is an italian hamlet ( Frazione) of the Comune of Ceto ( BS) Lombardy Val Camonica is a valley in the lower Alpine regions of Lombardy, between the Province of Brescia and Province of Bergamo, Italy. The Camunni or ancient Camuns ( Greek: for Strabo or for Cassius Dio) were an Alpine people who inhabited the valley of the The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Middle age is the period of life beyond Young adulthood but before the onset of Old age.
Remedello Culture in Pianura Padana
Terramare culture takes its name from the black earth (terremare) residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. Terramare or Terramara is a Bronze Age Archaeological culture of Italy and Dalmatia, dating to ca The occupations of the terramare people as compared with their Neolithic predecessors may be inferred with comparative certainty. They were still hunters, but had domesticated animals; they were fairly skilful metallurgists, casting bronze in moulds of stone and clay, and they were also agriculturists, cultivating beans, the vine, wheat and flax. It is thought the Terremare culture may be an early manifestation of Italic-speaking Indo-Europeans
Villanovan culture brought iron-working to the Italian peninsula; Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of distinctive double-cone shape. Ancient peoples of Italy are all those peoples that lived in Italy (including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia) before the Roman domination The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly Generally speaking, Villanovan settlements were centered in the Po River valley and Etruria round Bologna, later an important Etruscan center, and areas in Emilia Romagna (at Verruchio and Fermi), in Tuscany and Lazio. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Further south, in Campania, a region where inhumation was the general practice, Villanovan cremation burials have been identified at Capua, at the "princely tombs" of Pontecagnano near queer (finds conserved in the Museum of Agro Picentino) and at Sala Consilina. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5
Culture that is identifiably and certainly Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy The latter gave way in the 7th century to an increasingly orientalizing culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The Etruscans are generally believed to have spoken a non-Indo-European language. They were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing. The historical Etruscans had achieved a state system of society, with remnants of the chiefdom and tribal forms. In this they were ahead of the surrounding Italics, who still had chiefs and tribes. Rome was in a sense the first Italic state, but it began as an Etruscan one. The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power, and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could, by human action or inaction, be dissuaded against or persuaded in favor of human affairs. Rome was founded in Etruscan territory. Despite the words of the sources, which indicated that Campania and Latium also had been Etruscan, scholars took the view that Rome was on the edge of Etruscan territory. Near the Etruscan center of Viterbo, an Etruscan citadel now called Acquarossa was destroyed ca 500 BC and never rebuilt, thus preserving relatively undisturbed Etruscan structures, which have been excavated under the auspices of the Swedish Institute at Rome. Viterbo is an ancient city and Comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the Province of Viterbo. Aquarossa' is the modern name of the location of an ancient Etruscan settlement abandoned or destroyed in the second half of the sixth century BC The Swedish Institute at Rome is a research institution that serves as the base for archaeological excavations and other scientific research in Italy.
In the 8th and 7th centuries, driven by unsettled conditions at home, Greek colonies were established in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian peninsula. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. During the Early Middle Ages, following the Gothic War that was disastrous for the region, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks came to Magna Graecia from Greece and Asia Minor, as southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire until the advent first of the Lombards, then of the Normans. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Moreover, the Byzantines found in southern Italy people of common cultural root, the Greek-speaking eredi ellenofoni of Magna Graecia.
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, and was then governed by seven Kings of Rome. This is an overview of the History of Italy during Roman times. Italia, under the Roman Republic and later Empire, was the name of the Italian peninsula. The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology The King of Rome ( Latin: rex regis) was the Chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. In the following centuries, Rome started expanding its territory, defeating its neighbours (Veium, the other Latins, the Sannites) one after the other. Veii (pron WAY-ee or VAY-ee also Veius) was in ancient times an important Etrurian city 16 km NNW of Rome, Italy; its site lies in the modern Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants Samnium ( Oscan: Safinim; Italian Sannio) is a historical region of the south central Apennines in Italy, that was home to the
Italia, under the Roman Republic and later Empire, was the Italian peninsula from Rubicon to Calabria. Rubicon ( Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is a 29 km long River in northern Italy. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of During the Republic, Italia was not a province, but rather the territory of the city of Rome, thus having a special status: for example, military commanders were not allowed to bring their armies within Italia, and Julius Caesar passing the Rubicon with his legions marked the start of the civil war.
The Italian "province" was privileged by Augustus and his heirs, with the construction, among other public structures, of a dense mesh of roads. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Italian economy flourished: agriculture, handicraft and industry had a sensible growth, allowing the export of goods to the other provinces. The Italian population grew as well: Three census were ordered by Augustus, to record the presence of male citizens in Italia. They were 4,063,000 in 28 BC, 4,233,000 in 8 BC, and 4,937,000 in AD 14. Including the women and the children, the total population of Italia at the beginning of the 1st century was around 10 million.
After the death of emperor Theodosius I (395), Italia became part of the Western Roman Empire. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Then came the years of the barbarian invasions, and the capital was moved from Mediolanum to Ravenna. In 476, with the death of Romulus Augustulus and the return of the imperial ensigns to Constantinople, the Western Roman Empire ends; for a few years Italia stayed united under the rule of Odovacer, but later it was divided between several kingdoms, and did not reunite under a single ruler until thirteen centuries later. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
In 476, the last Roman Emperor was overthrown by the Germanic general Odoacer who ruled Italy until 493, largely maintaining Roman customs and culture. Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the Odoacer's rule came to an end when the Ostrogoths under the leadership of Theodoric conquered Italy. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late This led to the Gothic War during which the armies of Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian won a pyrrhic victory over the Goths in Italy. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or A Pyrrhic victory (ˈpɪrɪk is a victory with devastating cost to the victor The Gothic War destroyed the infrastructure of Italy and allowed the more barbarous Germanic tribe, the Lombards to take control of Italy. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Lombards established a kingdom in northern Italy and three principalities in the South. After the Lombard invasion, the popes (for example, St. Gregory) were nominally subject to the eastern emperor, but often received little help from Constantinople, and had to fill the lack of stately power, providing essential services (such as food for the needy) and protecting Rome from Lombard incursions; in this way, the popes started building an independent state. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS In 751 the Lombards seized Ravenna and the Exarchate of Ravenna was abolished. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the This ended the Byzantine presence in central Italy, although some coastal cities and some areas in south Italy remained under Byzantine control until the eleventh century. Facing a new Lombard offensive, the papacy appealed to the Franks for aid. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group In 756 Frankish forces defeated the Lombards and gave the Papacy legal authority over much of central Italy, thus creating the Papal States. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa
The age of Charlemagne was therefore one of stability for Italy, though it was generally dominated by non-Italian interests. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The 11th century signed the end of the darkest period in the Middle Ages. Trade slowly increased, especially on the seas where the four Italian cities of Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa and Venice became major powers. Amalfi is also a town in the Antioquia Departament in Colombia. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The papacy regained its authority, and started a long struggle with the empire, about both ecclesiastical and secular matter. The first episode was the Investiture controversy. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over In the twelfth century those Italian cities which lay in the Holy Roman Empire launched a successful effort to win autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire; this made north Italy a land of quasi-independent or independent city-states until the 19th century. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
In 1155 the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos attempted to invade southern Italy. For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. The Emperor sent his generals Michael Palaiologos and John Doukas with Byzantine troops and large quantities of gold to invade Apulia (1155). Michael Palaeologus (died 1156 was an early member of the great family of the Palaeologi, which later ruled the Byzantine Empire. John Doukas or Ducas ( Greek: Ιωάννης Δούκας Iōannēs Doukas) (c However, the invasion soon stalled. By 1158 the Byzantine army had left Italy, with only a few permanent gains.
By the late Middle Ages, central and southern Italy, once the heartland of the Roman Empire, was far poorer than the north. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Rome was a city largely in ruins, and the Papal States were a loosely administered region with little law and order. Partly because of this, the Papacy had relocated to Avignon in France. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia had for some time been under foreign domination. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were major conduits of culture and knowledge. The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Italian Renaissance began in Tuscany, centered in the city of Florence and Siena. It then spread south, having an especially significant impact on Rome, which was largely rebuilt by the Renaissance popes. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the late 15th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into turmoil. From the late fourteenth century, Florence's leading family had been the Albizzi. The Renaissance ideals first spread from Florence to the neighbouring states of Tuscany such as Siena and Lucca. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea The Tuscan culture soon became the model for all the states of Northern Italy, and the Tuscan variety of Italian came to predominate throughout the region, especially in literature. In 1447 Francesco Persaliano came to power in Milan and rapidly transformed that still medieval city into a major centre of art and learning. Venice, one of the wealthiest cities due to its control of the Mediterranean Sea, also became a centre for Renaissance culture, especially architecture. In 1478 the Papacy returned to Rome, but that once imperial city remained poor and largely in ruins through the first years of the Renaissance. As a cultural movement, the Italian Renaissance affected only a small part of the population. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Northern Italy was the most urbanized region of Europe, but three quarters of the people were still rural peasants.
A series of foreign invasions of Italy known as the Italian Wars that would continue for several decades. These began with the 1494 invasion by France that wreaked widespread devastation on Northern Italy and ended the independence of many of the city-states. Most damaging was the May 6, 1527, Spanish and German troops sacking Rome that all but ended the role of the Papacy as the largest patron of Renaissance art and architecture. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance.
The War of the League of Cambrai was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The principal participants of the war were France, the Papal States, and the Republic of Venice; they were joined, at various times, by nearly every significant power in Western Europe, including Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, the Duchy of Milan, Florence, the Duchy of Ferrara, and the Swiss. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1394 to 1797 Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Duchy of Ferrara is a former sovereign state of northern Italy
The history of Italy in the Early Modern period was characterized by foreign domination: Following the Italian Wars (1494 to 1559), Italy saw a long period of relative peace, first under Habsburg Spain (1559 to 1713) and then under Habsburg Austria (1713 to 1796). The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western '''Europe''' and its first colonies which spans the three centuries between Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor During the Napoleonic era, Italy was a client state of the French Republic (1796 to 1814). Timeline of the Napoleonic eraThe Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe During its occupation of neighboring parts of Europe during the French Revolutionary Wars, France established republican regimes in these territories The Congress of Vienna (1814) restored the situation of the late 18th century, which was however quickly overturned by the incipient movement of Italian unification. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian
The Risorgimento was the political and social process that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
It is difficult to pin down exact dates for the beginning and end of Italian reunification, but most scholars agree that it began with the end of Napoleonic rule and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and approximately ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, though the last "città irredente" did not join the Kingdom of Italy until the Italian victory in World War I. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Italy became a nation-state belatedly — on March 17, 1861, when most of the states of the peninsula were united under king Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, which ruled over Piedmont. This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The architects of Italian unification were Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, a general and national hero. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso Conte di Cavour, Conte di Isolabella e Leri ( August 10 1810 &ndash June Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Rome itself remained for a decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only on September 20, 1870, the final date of Italian unification. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian The Vatican is now an independent enclave surrounded by Italy, as is San Marino. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains.
At the beginning of World War I Italy remained neutral. The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Italian government claimed that the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes. The Triple Alliance was a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I Therefore, the Triple Alliance did not apply to a war that was started by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Triple Alliance was a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I However, both the central empires and the Triple Entente continued efforts to attract Italy on their side. The Triple Entente (" entente " — French for "agreement" was the name given to the loose alignment of the United Kingdom, the In April of 1915, the Italian government agreed to sign the London Pact and to declare war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire in exchange for several territories. London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple The London Pact awarded Trento, Trieste, Istria, and part of Dalmatia to Italy, claimed by the Irredentism. London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern
The Fascist government of Prime Minister and dictator Benito Mussolini that took over in 1922 led to the alliance with Germany (the Axis) and Japan. During the era of World War II (1939 - 1945 the Kingdom of Italy had a very varied and tumultuous Military history. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Italy conquered an empire in Ethiopia in 1936 and did an expansionary policy annexing in 1939 Albania. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Ultimately the alliance with Hitler's Germany led to defeat in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Allied Powers invaded Sicily in 1943 and gradually made their way to the Italian mainland. In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Mussolini was thrown out on July 25, 1943, and a new government under Pietro Badoglio and King Victor Emmanuel III joined the Allied Powers. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Initially Badoglio's government only controlled the liberated portions of southern Italy. Mussolini, after being rescued by the Germans, set up the Italian Social Republic in the north of Italy. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the
After the war, on June 2, 1946, a referendum on the monarchy resulted in the establishment of the Italian Republic, which led to the adoption of a new constitution on January 1, 1948. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Italy is a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolini's fascist regime, Italy's history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats The North Atlantic Treaty The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in It joined the growing political and economic unification of Western Europe, including the introduction of the Euro in 1999. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e
A new constitution was written for the new republic, taking effect on January 1, 1948, while the desperate fascist Salo Republic attempt was crushed by the Allies in April 1945. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The referendum at the origin of the Italian republic was, however, the object of deep discussion, mainly because of some contested results. Under the 1947 peace treaty, minor adjustments were made to Italy's frontier with France, the eastern border area was transferred to Yugoslavia, and the area around the city of Trieste was designated a free territory. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to In the 1950s, Italy became a member of the NATO alliance and an ally of the United States, which helped to revive the Italian economy through the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger
The following period came to be known as the anni di piombo ("lead years") because of a wave of bombings, attributed to far-right, far-left and secret services' actions. Italy endured a period of political turmoil in the 1970s and early 1980s Piazza Fontana bombing in the centre of Milan, on December 12, 1969, marked the beginning of this violent period. Piazza Fontana bombing (strage di Piazza Fontana identifies the massacre that was a result of a serious terrorist attack occurred on December 12 1969 when Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The police arrested 4 000 people in left-wing circles, among whom Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist who was initially blamed for the bombing. Giuseppe "Pino" Pinelli (1928-1969 was an Italian Railway worker and Anarchist activist who died in the custody of Italian police in 1969 after In December 1970, a coup dubbed the Golpe Borghese failed. The Golpe Borghese (also known as " Tora Tora " was allegedly a failed Italian Coup d'état that was planned to take place in the night of 7 Christian Democrat (DC) politician Aldo Moro was kidnapped by the Red Brigades, a paramilitary group, on March 16, 1978, the day the historic compromise with the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which had embraced eurocommunism with Enrico Berlinguer, was supposed to be enacted, insuring the PCI's return to government for the first time since May 1947. The Christian Democratic Party ( Partito Democratico Cristiano) is a minor christian-democratic Italian political party. Aldo Moro ( September 23, 1916 &ndash May 9, 1978) was an Italian Politician and two-time Prime Minister of Italy This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. The term Historic Compromise ( Italian: "compromesso storico") most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that Enrico Berlinguer (berliŋˈgwɛr ( May 25, 1923 - June 11, 1984) was an Italian Politician; he was national secretary Aldo Moro's corpse was then discovered on May 9, in via Caetani in Rome, in a site equidistant between the DC and the PCI headquarters. Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of a Pisan noble family and a Roman princely family which played a great part in the history of Pisa - one of the four
In the 1980s, for the first time, two governments were led by a republican and a socialist (Bettino Craxi) rather than by a member of DC (which nonetheless remained the main force behind the government). Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party From 1992 to 1997, Italy faced significant challenges as voters (disenchanted with past political paralysis, massive government debt, extensive corruption, and organized crime's considerable influence collectively called Tangentopoli after being uncovered by Mani pulite - "Clean hands") demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. Tangentopoli ( Italian for bribesville) was the name used to indicate the corruption -based system in politics that had its heyday in Italy The 1994 elections also swept media magnate Silvio Berlusconi (leader of "Pole of Freedoms" coalition, which included Forza Italia, the regionalist far-right ‘‘Lega Nord’’ party and the far-right Alleanza Nazionale) into office as Prime Minister. (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor However, his government collapsed after only a few months because the Northern League split out.
A technocratic cabinet led by Lamberto Dini, supported by the left-wing parties and the Northern League, lasted until Romano Prodi's new center-left coalition won the 1996 general election. Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves (born March 1, 1931) is an Italian politician and economist former Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May An early national general election was held in Italy on April 21, 1996 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of In 2001 the center-right took the government and Berlusconi was able to remain in power for the complete five year mandate but having to pass through a crisis and a government's reshuffle. A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic The elections in 2006 returned Prodi in the government with a slim majority, but Berlusconi won the 2008 elections and now the center-right coalition is back in power. In the Italian general election 2006 for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy held on April 9 and April 10, 2006