This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its beginning in the 7th century to present day
Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down orally for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
Muslim historians say that it was the caliph Uthman (the third caliph, or successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been Muhammad's secretary), who first urged Muslims both to write down the Qur'an in a fixed form, and to write down the hadith. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Uthman (a=عثمان|t=Othman Osman Usman Ozman is a male Arabic given name meaning "the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people" "honest" Uthman's labors were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved soldiers, in 656.
The Muslim community (ummah) then fell into a prolonged civil war, termed the Fitna by Muslim historians. Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the The First Islamic Civil War (656–661 also called the First Fitna (a=فتنة مقتل عثمان|t=Fitnah Maqtal Uthmān was the first major Civil After the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was assassinated, control of the Islamic empire was seized by the Umayyad dynasty in 661.
There were very few Arabs that could read or write in the beginning of Muhammad's era: The majority were unlettered, and according to Sunni traditions, so was Muhammad . Shi'a only content that he was not formally educated. When the Qur’an began to be revealed, its first verse contained the command to read. Sūrat al-‘Alaq ( ar العلق "The Clot" is the 96th Sura or chapter of the Qur'an. Thus, a desire to learn to read and write was aroused among the Arabs, and Muhammad encouraged them to do so . One example of Muslims reading from the Qur'an is Fatimah bint al-Khattab. Fatimah bint al- Khattab was the sister of the second Sunni Caliph Umar.
Despite this, there are very few hadith from that period. As an explanation, Sunnis cite hadith were Muhammad is quoted as "Do not write anything belonging to me. Whoever has written something received from me outside the Qur’an let him destroy it" and other hadith , arguing that Muhammad feared that it would be confused with the ongoing "revelation" and collection of the Qur'an . Shi'a do not hold the quoted hadith as authentic, and ascribe the lack of hadith to a ban imposed by the Sunni Caliphs in combinations with book and hadith burnings, in order to control the population.
Among the prisoners of war taken at the Battle of Badr those who were literate were released after each taught ten Muslims how to read and write . This is a sub-article to Islamic military jurisprudence and Prisoner of war Ma malakat aymanukum ("what your right hands possess" The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر fought March 17, 624 AD (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz
Sahih Bukhari states that Abd-Allah ibn Amr wrote down his hadith . Abd-Allah ibn Amr ( عبدالله بن عمرو) was the son of the famous Sahaba and military leader Amr ibn al-A'as and also a transmitter of Hadith As reported from himself, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr used to write down whatever he heard from Muhammad. Some people said to him: ‘You are writing down every-thing coming from the mouth of Muhammad. Muhammad is a human being. There are times when he is angered and times when he is pleased. ’ ‘Abdullah referred the matter to Muhammad, who answered him, pointing to his mouth: Write down, for, I swear by Him in Whose hand is my life, nothing comes out from this except truth.  
A man came to Muhammad and complained about his memory, saying: ‘O Messenger of Allah: We hear many things from you. But most of them slip our minds because we cannot memorize them’. Muhammad replied: Ask your right hand for help. . Muhammad meant that he should write down what he heard.
When Rafi‘ ibn Khadij asked Muhammad whether they could write what they heard from him, the answer came: Write, no harm! . Another sources quotes Muhammad advising: Record knowledge by writing. 
During the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave a sermon. Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan[[ AH]] A man from the Yemen, named Abu Shah, stood up and said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Please write down these [words] for me!’ Muhammad ordered: Write down for Abu Shah! 
Muhammad sent a letter which contained commandments about the blood money for murders and injuries and the law of retaliation to Amr ibn Hizam. This letter was handed down to his great grandson, Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad . Among other things, like some of his letters other head of states, some scroll transferred to Abu Rafi was handed down to Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Harith, belonging to the first generation after the Companions. This is a sub-article to Muhammad in Medina. After the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Muhammad decided to send letters to many rulers of the world 
Among Sunnis, Umar ibn al-Khattab is the primary locus for many accounts about hadith collection. Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great He is portrayed by Sunnis as desiring to initiate this project but as unwilling to do so, fearing that Muslims might then neglect the Qur'an . Shi'a give the opposite view, stating that Umar forbade people to talk the privous events, what Shi'a view was a military Coup d'état against Ali and ordered the burning of several hadith collections. ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH
Umar is also said by Sunnis that he due to fear and concerns, he sometimes warned people against careless narration of hadith .
Starting the first Islamic civil war of the 7th century, those receiving the hadith started to question the sources of the saying, something that resulted in the development of the Isnad. The First Islamic Civil War (656–661 also called the First Fitna (a=فتنة مقتل عثمان|t=Fitnah Maqtal Uthmān was the first major Civil The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A Hadith was originally just an Arabic story As the stories began to be used formally it became common to provide their chain of transmitters (or sanad سند plural
|“||[the traditionalists] were not used to inquiring after the isnad, but when the fitna occurred they said: Name us your informants. Thus if these were Ahl al-Sunna their traditions were accepted, but if they were Ahl al-Bid'ah, their traditions were not accepted. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Ahl al-Bida (أهل البدعة is a Pejorative semi Political Islamic term.||”|
Ibn Abbas left behind a camel-load of books, which mostly contain what he had heard from Muhammad and other Sahaba  . Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) was a cousin of Muhammad. In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة "Companions" were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
Ummayad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna), re-established, then ended in 758, when the Abbasid dynasty seized the caliphate, to hold it, at least in name, until 1258.
Muslim historians say that hadith collection and evaluation continued during the first Fitna and the Umayyad period. However, much of this activity was presumably oral transmission from early Muslims to later collectors, or from teachers to students. If any of these early scholars committed any of these collections to writing, they have not survived. The histories and hadith collections we possess today were written down at the start of the Abbasid period, more than one hundred years after the death of Muhammad.
The scholars of the Abbasid period were faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions, some of them flatly contradicting each other. Many of these traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic narrations and which had been invented for various political or theological purposes. For this purpose, they used a number of techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.
Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c 682 - February 720 (عمر بن عبد العزيز was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 717 to 720 This is a sub-article of Hadith. According to Muslims tradition the collection of ahadith or sayings by or about the Prophet Muhammad was a meticulous and thorough Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar II’s behest . Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm ( أبو بكر بن محمد بن حزم) (d TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (ابن شهاب الزهري
The efforts culminated with the six canonical collections after having received impetus from the establishment of the sunna as the second source of law in Islam, particularly through the efforts of the famous jurist Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i . Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the Events By Place Europe Cuthred of Wessex leads a successful rebellion against Aethelbald of Mercia at Battle Edge, Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging
The method of criticism and the conclusions it has reached have not changed significantly since the ninth century. Even much of modern Muslim scholarship, while continuing to debate the validity or authenticity of individual hadiths or perhaps the hadiths of a particular transmitter, employs the same methods and biographical (or rijal) materials .
The classification of Hadith into Sahih (sound), Hasan (good) and Da'if (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (d. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Al-Shafi'i, Arabic Jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD Ali ibn al-Madini ( 161 AH 234 AH). 234 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X &ndash X CE
Later, al-Madini's student Muhammad al-Bukhari (d. Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, popularly known as Al-Bukhari ( البخاري) or Imam Bukhari (810-870 was a famous Sunni 256 AH. 256 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to 869 &ndash 870 CE ) authored a collection that he stated contained only Sahih hadith.
al-Tirmidhi (d. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Tirmidhī (ترمذی also transliterated as Tirmizi, full name 279 AH) was the first traditionist to base his book on al-Madini's classification . 279 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X &ndash X CE
In 1848, Gustav Weil, noted that Muhammad al-Bukhari deemed only 4,000 of his original 600,000 hadiths to be authentic and argued that a European critic was required to reject without hesitation at least half of these 4,000. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi ( عبدالغاني المقديسي) is a classical TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi ( Gustav Weil ( April 25, 1808, Sulzburg, Baden - August 29, 1889, Freiburg -im-Breisgau was a German Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, popularly known as Al-Bukhari ( البخاري) or Imam Bukhari (810-870 was a famous Sunni He was soon followed by Aloys Sprenger, who also suggests that many of the hadiths cannot be considered authentic . Aloys Sprenger (1813 – 1893) was an Austrian orientalist
Ignaz Goldziher was a large contributor of innovative theories to the West. Ignác (Yitzhaq Yehuda Goldziher ( June 22, 1850 – November 13, 1921) often credited as Ignaz Goldziher was a Hungarian Orientalist The subsequent direction the Western debate took, a direction which has focussed on the role of hadiths in the origin and development of early Muslim jurisprudence, is largely due to the work of Joseph Schacht . Joseph Schacht, born in Ratibor, 15 March 1902, died in Englewood, 1 August 1969, was a British-German professor of The Common-Link Theory, invented by Joseph Schacht and widely accepted in modern scholarship, argues that hadith authorities knowingly and purposefully placed traditions in circulation with little care to support these hadiths with satisfactory isnads (chains of transmitters). G. H. A. Juynboll, Michael Cook and other Schachtians subsequently embraced and elaborated upon this theory. In 2006, Fahad A. Alhomoudi in his thesis “On the Common-Link Theory” challenges the accuracy of Schacht’s founding theory. Because of the interconnectedness of Schacht’s many theses about hadith and Islamic law, the findings of Alhomoudi’s thesis did not only challenge the significant Common-Link Theory in legal hadith studies, but also open the door for scholars to question other important theories held by Schacht and his followers with regard to larger issues in Islamic legal history.
The Turkish government's Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı has commissioned a team of scholars at Ankara University to draft a new compilation of the hadith that follows a liberal interpretation of Islam, and that would omit numerous hadith considered historically inauthentic by these scholars. Ankara University (Ankara Üniversitesi is a Public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي