European research universities have a long history that arguably dates back to the founding of the University of Bologna in 1088, although the University of Paris and the University of Magnaura are other contenders for this position. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnaura in the Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University In the 19th and 20th centuries, European universities focused on science and research, and their structures and philosophies have shaped the university as we now know it. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The original medieval universities are thought to have arisen from schools in churches before developing into what can now be definitively considered the “university. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university ” Aims of early universities included training professionals, investigating science, improving society, and teaching students to research and think for themselves. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot Many external influences, such as eras of humanism, Enlightenment, Reformation, and revolution, shaped research universities during their development, and the discovery of the New World in 1492 added human rights and international law to the university curriculum. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University.
By the 18th century, universities published their own research journals, and by the 19th century, the German and the French university models had arisen. An academic journal is a peer-reviewed Periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular Academic discipline is published The German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt and based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to the importance of freedom, seminars, and laboratories in universities. Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt ( June 22, 1767 April 8, 1835) government functionary Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (ˈʃlaɪɐmaxɐ ( November 21, 1768 &ndash February 12, 1834) was a German theologian Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that Seminar is generally a form of Academic instruction either at a University or offered by a commercial or professional organization A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and The French university model involved strict discipline and control over every aspect of the university.
Universities concentrated on science in the 19th and 20th centuries, and they started to become accessible to the masses after 1914. Until the 19th century, religion played a significant role in university curricula; however, the role of religion in research universities decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of the 19th century, the German university model had spread around the world. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The British also established universities worldwide, and higher education became available to the masses not only in Europe. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges In a general sense, the basic structure and aims of universities have remained constant over the years.
The first European university is often considered to be the University of Bologna, founded in 1088, although some dispute this statement based on the intangibility of the definition of “university. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects ” In addition, the concept of the University of Bologna as the “mother of European Universities” was created as a symbol for Italy’s national unity, which detracts from the legitimacy of its being considered the first.  If the term "university" requires that a single corporate body be made up of students and professors of different disciplines, rather than that a corporate body simply exists, the University of Paris, founded in 1208, can be considered the first university; however, the University at Magnaura Palace was founded much earlier, in the 9th century. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The University of Magnaura can be defined as a university because it brought prominent scholars together to create a “focal point of medieval Greek science and culture”. The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnaura in the Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University  The first universities in Europe were influenced in many ways by the Madrasah institutions in Islamic Spain, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Crusader states. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily from 965 to 1072. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and 
Traditional medieval universities are thought to have arisen from schools in churches, which began to require more structure as a result of their increasing popularity. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university This need, along with the advancing complexity of society, which required specialized training for administrators, lawyers, doctors, notaries, and ecclesiastics, and the rediscovery of ancient knowledge, such as new translations of Aristotle and Roman law, led to the development of student guilds, or universitates, and eventually the definitive university.  Early universities, according to Professor of sociology and general editor of A History of the University in Europe Walter Rüegg, were meant to allow people to develop “knowledge for the sake of knowledge;” however, around the 16th century, knowledge was seen to be valuable as a part of the civil community.  Universities at this time aimed to train clergymen, lawyers, government officials, and doctors.  At the same time, according to Rüegg, people studied in order to further scientific investigation and attend to the demands of society.  Science during the 16th century was an essential part of university curriculum, incorporating “openness to novelty” and the search for the means to control nature into the course of study. 
The European University proliferated in part because groups decided to secede from the original universities to promote their own ideals; the University of Paris fostered many universities in Northern Europe, while the University of Bologna fostered many in the South. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world  Some leaders also created universities in order to use them to increase their political power and popularity. For example, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor founded the University of Naples in 1224 to train lawyers and administrators who could rival the University of Bologna's influence, which served the hostile Lombard League. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title The University of Naples Federico II (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II is a university located in Naples, Italy. The Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of Northern Italy (although its membership changed in 
The structure of these early classes involved a master reading from texts and commenting on the readings, as well as students learning by teaching other students. Masters also offered disputed questions to their classes for discussion.  Moving into the 18th century, professors became less focused on simply training university teachers and more focused on “forming the minds of the elite” of a larger society. 
While humanistic ideas of the 14th-16th century Renaissance were slow to catch on, they eventually spread from France, to Germany, to England during the 16th century Reformation. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time  Under the influence of the increasingly popular humanist mode of thought, university education began to include the preparation of students for lives of civility, civilization, and culture, along with a response to social concerns.  Important to the medieval university curriculum were the trivium and quadrivium, two classifications of the liberal arts intended to prepare students for further learning, usually in the areas of theology, law, or medicine. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Trivium included the three verbal disciplines: grammar, rhetoric, and logic, while Quadrivium included the four mathematical disciplines: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. The quadrivium comprised the four subjects or arts taught in Medieval universities after the trivium. Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time.  The discovery of the New World in 1492 prompted additions to the European University curriculum, as subjects such as human rights and international law became relevant to current times (Rüegg v. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards 2, 22). Newly conquered Spanish territories raised questions about aboriginals’ rights, and discussion stemmed from the Bible, medieval natural law theories, and humanistic ideas of toleration.  Rüegg links the idea of the ‘New’ World to the idea of ‘new’ knowledge as opposed to the old works of the ancients. In the mid-16th century, scholarly and scientific journals became a popular way to “spread innovations among the learned,” and by the 18th century, universities were publishing their own research journals. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal.  Enlightenment in the 18th century also encouraged the transition from the “preservation and transmission of accepted knowledge” to the “discovery and advancement of new knowledge,” although newer universities more quickly adapted ideas of Enlightenment and Absolutism than older ones. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century 
Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag[ing] productive thinking. ” Two main university models, the German and the French, arose and gave rise to other models such as the British and Russian. The German model, conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt, was also known as the Humboldtian model. Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt ( June 22, 1767 April 8, 1835) government functionary In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas; the goal was to demonstrate the process of the discovery of knowledge and to teach students to “take account of fundamental laws of science in all their thinking, ” thus, seminars and laboratories started to evolve. Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (ˈʃlaɪɐmaxɐ ( November 21, 1768 &ndash February 12, 1834) was a German theologian  Humboldt envisioned the university education as a student-centered activity of research:
Just as primary instruction makes the teacher possible, so he renders himself dispensable through schooling at the secondary level. The university teacher is thus no longer a teacher and the student is no longer a pupil. Instead the student conducts research on his own behalf and the professor supervises his research and supports him in it. 
Freedom was an important concept in the German university model, and the system of professors was based on competition and freedom: although professors served as state functionaries, they had the freedom to choose between several states, and their identity and prestige arose from the specialization of scientific disciplines. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
The French University model lacked the freedom of the German model, consisting of severe discipline and control over the curriculum, awarding of degrees, conformity of views, and personal habits (for example, there was a ban on beards in 1852).  French university professors trained at the École Normale Supérieure, and much of their prestige depended on their schools’ reputations. École Normale de Musique de ParisThe École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup’, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or  By 1866, though, the German model had begun to influence the strict French model. 
The German university model was also used in Russian universities, which hired lecturers trained in Germany and which dedicated themselves to science. At the same time, Russian universities were meant to train the bureaucracy in the same way as the French grandes écoles. The Grandes écoles ("Graduate schools" literally in French "Grand Schools" or "Elite Schools" of France are higher Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Russian universities underwent much variation in their degrees of strictness and control. 
British universities also modeled themselves after the German university. They enjoyed a great deal of freedom because the state granted them an autonomy that allowed them initiative and flexibility. Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than even German universities, which were subject to state authority. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. 
Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. Seminar is generally a form of Academic instruction either at a University or offered by a commercial or professional organization A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and  According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge.  The German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France.  In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research, teaching and study. ”
University professors, according to Schleiermacher in 1956, had to “reproduce [their] own realization[s]” so that students could observe the “act of creation” of knowledge. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies  He asserted that professors served as models of how to “intelligently produce knowledge. ” Appointment to professorship was awarded to distinguished scholars who were only relieved of their positions if guilty of serious crimes.  From Kansas State University president emeritus James McCain’s point of view, professors in 20th century Europe were more prestigious and well respected than those in the United States.  They had a great deal of freedom while keeping to formal relationships with their students.  In addition, professors shifted from being mainly lecturers, and research became "an integral part of the professor's task. 
The accessibility of higher education slowly began to expand to the masses after 1914. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges  A remaining obstacle to students was the high cost of a university education. Great Britain continued to offer only a costly education to aristocrats for most of the 19th century, and it was not until the early 20th century that new universities such as the University of London opened higher education to the masses. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK.  Universities first accepted women after the middle of the 19th century; however, women faced considerate difficulties. Lacking basic civil rights and facing strong prejudices against their capacity and right to be a part of the higher education system, women only slowly became a part of the university system.  The influx of non-elite, non-aristocratic students into European universities presented challenges to the German model, because suddenly there existed a variety of students from different backgrounds and with different expectations, resulting in a less concretely Humboldtian university. 
European university students in the 19th and 20th centuries were largely responsible for their own educations (McCain, 206). Professors did not take attendance, the only exams occurred at the end of courses, and students chose their own courses of study. This article is about a type of examination for other uses see Final examination (disambiguation A final examination (or final  Rüegg suggests that students’ propensity to develop student movements based on current political situations echoed their attitude of freedom and responsibility. Student activism is work done by students to effect political environmental economic or social change 
With new educational and political philosophies came changes in the role of religion in European universities. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos During the 18th century, most universities had a strong connection to the church, and both the appointment of teachers and the admission of students took into account the religious orientations of students.  In the 19th century, religion ceased to be part of the “compulsory curriculum. ” New universities like the University of London were non-denominational, and chapel attendance decreased at Oxford and Cambridge In France, specifically, Napoleon’s secular Université de France troubled Catholics. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The University of France (Université de France originally the Imperial University of France) was a highly centralized educational state organization founded by Napoleon TheLoi Falloux of 1850 attempted to give some power back to the church, but the Université de France essentially controlled higher education. Frédéric-Alfred-Pierre comte de Falloux ( May 7, 1811 - January 16, 1886) was a French Politician and Author  At the same time, in Great Britain, the Oxford Act of 1854 passed, getting rid of religious requirements at Oxford and Cambridge, and from that time on, the role of religion in universities declined. 
European research universities ultimately developed lasting traditions of university education that spread around the world. By the end of the 19th century, the German university model had spread throughout Europe, to the United States, and to Japan. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  In America, the Spanish, and then the English and French, founded universities in lands that they conquered in the early 16th century.  These universities aimed to fulfill the needs of colonists, spread religion, provide professional training to colonists, and help overseas rulers with effective administration. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. By the 19th century, the British had established institutes of higher learning in Canada, Australia, and the Cape Colony, all of which were modeled after European universities. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Japan, the Near East, and Africa all had universities based on European models in the 19th century. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century These universities disseminated Western European science and technology and trained natives to develop resources. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt . Entering into the 20th century, higher education became available to the masses of the world as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one  Some of these universities promoted the aims of rulers, while others had a revolutionary impact on the power structure of the countries in which they were located.  Generally speaking, the most basic structure and aims of research universities have remained constant over the years; according to author Clark Kerr, universities “are among the least changed of institutions. ”