History of Dalmatia
|Dalmatia (Roman province)|
|Republic of Ragusa|
|Republic of Poljica|
|Kingdom of Dalmatia|
Dalmatia's name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae who lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in the 1st millennium BC. Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly The Dalmatae (or Greek language Delmatoi - Δελματοί) were an ancient people who inhabited the core of what would then become known as Dalmatia after The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires The history of Dalmatia began when the Dalmatae tribe declared itself independent of Gentius, the King of ancient Illyria, and established a Republic. Gentius (ruled 180–168 BC was the last king of Illyria. He was the son of the Illyrian king Pleuratus II, of the tribe of the Labeates. Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the The name "Dalmatia" was in use probably from the second half of the 2nd century and certainly from the first half of the 1st century BC, defining a coastal area of the eastern Adriatic between the Krka and Neretva rivers. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. Krka is a River in Croatia 's Dalmatia region with length circa 73 km it is famous for its numerous Waterfalls The river has its Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The total length is 225 km of which 203 km are in Herzegovina, while the final 22 km are in the  Its territory stretched northwards from the river Neretva to the river Cetina, and later to the Krka, where it met the confines of Liburnia. Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The total length is 225 km of which 203 km are in Herzegovina, while the final 22 km are in the Cetina is also a place in Zaragoza, Spain. Cetina is a River in southern Croatia. Krka is a River in Croatia 's Dalmatia region with length circa 73 km it is famous for its numerous Waterfalls The river has its Liburnia in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe, which is today part of Croatia Its capital during this period was Delminium. Delminium was an Illyrian settlement See also List of Illyrian cities
The Roman Republic attempted to subdue the Illyrian tribes during the Illyrian Wars of 220 and 168 BC, and succeded, forming the Roman province of Illyricum. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC and 219 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva river valley and suppressed the Events By place Greece Together with fellow Illyrian Scerdilaidas, Demetrius of Pharos attacks Illyrian cities under In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa The Romans, however, were often faced by rebellions of various Illyrian tribes. In 156 BC the Dalmatae themselves were attacked by a Roman army for the first time, and were defeated but not fully subdued. They raised a number of formidable revolts, more notable of which was that of 33 BC. Year 33 BC was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. In AD 9 the Dalmatians formed an alliance with the Pannonians and rebelled for the last time, but were finally crushed by Tiberius. Year 9 ( IX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman In AD 10, Illyricum was divided by Emperor Augustus into two provinces: Pannonia and Dalmatia which spread into a larger area inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride  This event was followed by total submission and a ready acceptance of Roman culture which spread all over Illyria. Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the
The province of Dalmatia spread inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast, while its new capital was Salona. The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride Salona was an ancient Illyrian Delmati city in the first millennium BC. During the general reorganization of Roman Empire in 297 AD, the existing provincial organization in Dalmatia was changed, with the southern part of the Narona district becoming the Roman province of Praevalitana. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Events By Place Roman Empire Galerius conquers Ctesiphon from the Persians however as part of the peace treaty it Narona was the name of the ancient Roman city that was located in the Neretva valley in present day Croatia. Praevalitana (also Praevaliana or Prevalis) was an ancient Roman province The Narona district was a region from Budva to the river Cetina, while Liburnia, also one of the provincia Dalmatiarum, was north of the Cetina and included Scardona. Budva ( Montenegrin language / Serbian language: Будва Budva Italian: Budua is a coastal town in Montenegro. Cetina is also a place in Zaragoza, Spain. Cetina is a River in southern Croatia. Liburnia in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe, which is today part of Croatia Skradin ( Latin: Scardona) is a small town in the Šibenik-Knin county of Croatia, population about 3986 (2001 census Liburnia enjoyed the status of a separate administrative-territorial unit later on during the Empire's final decades. 
Later on, Dalmatia was the birthplace of Emperor Diocletian who constructed the famous Diocletian's Palace for his retirement a few kilometers south of Salona, in Spalatum. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Diocletian's Palace ( Dioklecijanova palača in Croatian) is a building in Split in Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest The Palace is now the heart of the modern-day capital of Dalmatia, Split. Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest 
The historian Theodore Mommsen wrote in his book, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, that all Dalmatia was fully romanized by the 4th century AD. Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen ( 30 November 1817 &ndash 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century However, analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process of romanization was rather selective. In Linguistics, romanization (or latinization, also spelled romanisation or latinisation) is the representation of a Word or While urban centers, both coastal and inland, were almost completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was completely different. Despite the Illyrians being subject to a strong process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their own gods and traditions, and follow their own social-political tribal organization which was adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities. 
The collapse of the Western Roman Empire, with the beginning of the Migration Period, left the region subject to Gothic rulers, Odoacer and Theodoric the Great. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of They ruled Dalmatia from 476 to 535 AD, when it was restored to the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire by Justinian I (Liburnia stayed in Gothic possession as Liburnia Tarsatica). Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire Events By Place Byzantine Empire Justinian I orders Belisarius to start the reconquest of Italy; Mundus Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or
In 568 AD the Avar invasions devastated Dalmatia, and the decimated Roman population survived only in the fortified Dalmatian coastal cities. The Kingdom of Croatia was an independent state from circa 925 until 1102 covering most of what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans The Medieval Dalmatian principalities were Early Medieval states that existed in what was roughly considered southern Dalmatia Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro Events By Place Europe April 1 — King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy refugees fleeing from them go on The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. The exception was Salona, the capital of Dalmatia, who's size made it difficult to defend. Salona was an ancient Illyrian Delmati city in the first millennium BC. It was sacked some years later in 639 AD, while the inhabitants who escaped by sea later established themselves in the nearby long-abandoned Diocletian's Palace, thus greatly increasing the size and significance of the city of Spalatum, Salona's successor. Events By Place Europe Clovis II succeeds Dagobert I as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy Diocletian's Palace ( Dioklecijanova palača in Croatian) is a building in Split in Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest The romanized population of the interior survived only in mountainous regions, as a shepherd people called Morlachs. Morlachs (in Serbian Morlaci or Морлаци in Greek Μαυροβλάχοι Mavrovlachi or Mauro-Vlachs, meaning "Black Vlachs " in Some inhabitants managed to take refuge in the Adriatic islands, founding new settlements. Cut off from the remnants of the Roman world, the romanized Dalmatians evolved their own Romance language, Dalmatian, which is now extinct but not until it exerted a strong influence on the local Slavic Chakavian dialect. Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro Chakavian dialect ( Čakavian; Croatian: čakavski, proper name čakavica or čakavština) is a dialect of the Croatian language The Avars were followed by the great South Slavic migrations. The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of The Slavs, loosely allied with the Avars, permanently settled the region in the first half of the 7th century AD and remained its predominant population ever since. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
Because of these dramatic events, the territorial meaning of the term "Dalmatia" shrunk in the Middle Ages. Up to the Avar invasions, "Dalmatia" referred to a much larger area that stretched far inland, whereas from the 6th century onwards it usually referred to the eastern Adriatic coast and the immediate hinterland. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Politically, Dalmatia was not a unififed entity. It consisted of Slavic towns with Byzantine enclaves interspersed randomly along the coast. Some authors use the term to exclusively refer to Byzantine Dalmatia (i. e. the few cities and islands nominally under Byzantine authority).
In the 7th century AD, Dalmatia became distinctly divided between two different communities:
These cities and towns remained influential as they were well fortified and maintained their connection with the Byzantine Empire. The two communities were somewhat hostile at first, but as the Slavs became Christianized this tension increasingly subsided. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity A degree of cultural mingling soon took place, in some enclaves stronger, in others weaker, as Slavic influence and culture was more accentuated in Ragusa, Spalatum, and Tragurium.
The Slavs soon formed their own realm: the Principality of Dalmatia, a Medieval Croatian state ruled by native Princes of Guduscan origin. The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a In 806 the Principality was temporarily added to the Frankish Empire, but the cities were restored to Byzantium by the Treaty of Aachen in 812. Events By Place Asia Emperor Heizei succeeds Emperor Kammu as Emperor of Japan. A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Events By Place Europe The second Battle of Roncevaux Pass is fought between the Basques and the Franks. The treaty had also slightly expanded the Principality of Dalmatia eastwards. The Saracens raided the southernmost cities in 840 and 842, but this threat was eliminated by a common Frankish-Byzantinian campaign of 871. Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Events By Place Europe After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German Events By Place Europe February 14 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty Events By Place Europe Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex.
During this time (the first half of the 9th century), Prince Ljudevit Posavski of the northern Croat Principality of Pannonia fought wars with Prince Borna of Dalmatia, who was a Guduscan. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Ljudevit Posavski ( Trans- Savian) was a Slavic Prince of Pannonian Croatia from 810 to 823 Pannonian Croatia (Panonska Hrvatska or Savia Southern Pannonia Lower Pannonia Principality of Southern Pannonia Transsavian Croatia or just Pannonia was a medieval The Guduscans, his own, indigenous people of Dalmatia, abandoned Borna's army in the heat of battle and crossed to Ljudevit's side, ensuring his victory. Borna's personal guard saved him from certain death on the battlefield. Ljudevit was soon forced out of his Pannonian realm by the Frankish forces that according to their historians controlled the greater part of Dalmatia. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the
The establishment of cordial relations between the cities and the Croatian dukedom seriously began with the reign of Prince Mislav (835), who signed an official peace treaty with the Venetian Doge Pietro Tradonico in 840, and began donating lands to the churches and monasteries. Mislav was the Prince (Croatian Knez) of Littoral Croatia in 835&ndash845 Events By Place Europe Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date Pietro Tradonico (Latin Petrus Tradonicus Pola) died 13 September 864, an Istrian by birth was the Doge of Venice from 836 to 864 Events By Place Europe After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German Dalmatia's first Croatian ruler and founder of the Trpimirović dynasty, Duke Trpimir, reestablished the Principality of Dalmatia as the Duchy of the Croats. Trpimirović dynasty was a native Croat dynasty that ruled in Croatia, with interruptions from 845 until 1091. Trpimir I, Prince (Knez of Littoral Croatia in 845&ndash864 He is the founder of the Croatian House of Trpimirović. The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia In his wars against the Bulgar Khans and their Serbian subjects, he greatly expanded the Duchy's territory to include all the lands up to the river of Drina, thereby including the majority of Bosnia. The Drina ( Serbian and Bosnian: Дрина or Drina) is a river in the Balkan Peninsula. Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging His powerful realm extended influence further southwards to Zachlumia slightly. Zachlumia ( Croatian: Zahumlje Serbian: Захумље also known as the Land of the Hum and Chelm, was a Medieval In AD 920 Duke Tomislav was granted the governance of the Byzantine Dalmatian city enclaves by Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus with the support of Pope John X. 920 AD was a year in the 10th century Events By Place Africa The golden age of the Ghana Empire begins in Africa. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος John X, Pope from March 914 to May 928 was Deacon at Bologna when he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact Tomislav managed to subdue the northern Croatian Principality of Pannonia to his authority. Pannonian Croatia (Panonska Hrvatska or Savia Southern Pannonia Lower Pannonia Principality of Southern Pannonia Transsavian Croatia or just Pannonia was a medieval In 925 AD he was crowned in Tomislavgrad, establishing the Kingdom of Croatia, and extending his influence further southwards to Zachlumia. For the area code see Area code 925. For the hallmark 925 see Sterling silver. Tomislavgrad, known as Duvno in the former Yugoslavia is a town in southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Kingdom of Croatia was an independent state from circa 925 until 1102 covering most of what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans Zachlumia ( Croatian: Zahumlje Serbian: Захумље also known as the Land of the Hum and Chelm, was a Medieval
The most notable Croatian noble families from Dalmatia are: the Karinjan, Lapčan, Polečić, Tugomirić, Kukar, Snačić, Gusić, Šubić (later the Zrinski), Mogorović, Lačničić, Jamometić, and Kačić. The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria in The Zrinski family known also as Zrínyi in Hungarian, was a Croatian noble family, influential in the Hungarian Kingdom during the Within the borders of ancient Roman Dalmatia, on the island of Krk, ruled the noble family Krčki (later Frankopan). Krk ( Italian Veglia, German: Vegl; Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea The Frankopans are a Croatian noble family Also called Frankapan Frangepán in Hungarian, and Frangipani in Turkish.
The Croatian kings exacted tribute from the Byzantine cities and consolidated their power in the purely Croatian-settled littoral cities such as Nin, Biograd and Šibenik, which was founded by Croatian kings. Biograd na Moru ( Italian: Zaravecchia, Venetian: Xara Vècia) is a city and municipality in northern Dalmatia, Croatia Šibenik is a historic town in Croatia, population 51553 (2001 They also asserted control over the bordering southern duchies. Rulers of the medieval Croatian state who had control over the Dalmatian littoral and the cities were the dukes Trpimir, Domagoj, Branimir, and the kings Tomislav, Trpimir II, Krešimir I, Stjepan Držislav, Petar Krešimir IV and Demetrius Zvonimir. The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia Trpimir I, Prince (Knez of Littoral Croatia in 845&ndash864 He is the founder of the Croatian House of Trpimirović. Domagoj (died in 876 was a Duke of Dalmatian Croatia in 864&ndash876 Branimir (died in 892 was a Duke of Dalmatian Croatia, reigned 879&ndash892 Trpimir II (died c 935 was a King of Croatia from 928 to 935 He was from the House of Trpimir. Krešimir I was a King of Croatian Kingdom from 935 until his death in 945 Stjepan Držislav was a King of Croatia from 969 until his death in 997 Petar Krešimir IV, called the Great, was a notably energetic King of Croatia from 1059 to his death in 1074 Dmitar Zvonimir or Demetrius (died 20 April 1089) was the King of Croatia of the Svetoslavić branch of the House of Trpimirović.
The High Middle Ages in Dalmatia are marked by the fluctuating and waning influence of the Byzantine Empire, and by the struggle of the neighboring powers, the Venetian Republic, the Kingdom of Croatia, and (later) the Kingdom of Hungary, to fill the power vacuum. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c  The early medieval Dalmatia had still included much of the hinterland covered by the old Roman province of Dalmatia. However, the toponym "Dalmatia" started to shift more towards including only the coastal, Adriatic areas, rather than the mountains inland. By the 15th century, use of other regional names would be introduced, marking the shrinking of the borders of Dalmatia to the narrow littoral area where the Dalmatian language was spoken. Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro
The Empire continuously held formal suzerainty over the entire area, including Croatia and Venice, but the de facto impact of this was very periodic and increasingly irrelevant. The Dalmatian littoral cities, being unable to form a league due to their internal dissensions, were caught in the midst of a power struggle they were unable to influence. Their own political situation thus became increasingly complex. They were surrounded by the waning Kingdom of Croatia, which was increasingly under the influence of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Kingdom of Croatia was an independent state from circa 925 until 1102 covering most of what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c However, the Croatian South Slavs surrounded and increasingly inhabited the coastal cities and the Adriatic islands, particularly Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Spalatum (Split), greatly influencing the local Romance Dalmatian language and culture. The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro
The cities acknowledged the suzerainty of Byzantium, but when the Empire's power weakened, functioned increasingly as city-states. Croatia and the Venetian Republic also acknowledged nominal Imperial rule. While Venice, due to its increasing financial wealth was able to almost completely ignore this, Croatia came under de facto Hungarian control whenever the Empire could no longer maintain its influence on the region.
The city-states, Venice, and Croatia, while under nominal byzantine suzerainty, acknowledged the administration of the Latin Pope over the local church, with the consent of the Emperors. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and However, while the Croatian-held branch of the Catholic Church with its seat in Nin was under Papal jurisdiction, it used Slavic liturgy, the Croatian population preferred domestic priests, who were married, bearded, and held masses in Croatian. Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring The city-states and the Holy See, on the other hand, used Latin liturgy. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic After the East-West Schism of 1054, the Papal influence in Dalmatia was increased and Byzantine practices were further suppressed on the general synods of 1059–1060, 1066, 1075–1076 and on other local synods, notably by demoting the bishopric of Nin, installing the archbishopric of Spalatum (Split) and archbishopric of Dioclea (Montenegro), which explicitly forbade the use of any liturgy other than Latin or Greek. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest
At the beginning of the High Medieval period, having just achieved a crushing victory in the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Empire was capable of controlling the area (Croatia, the city-states, Venice) to a significant extent. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 However, with the rising Norman threat in southern Italy and the East-West Schism, the Battle of Manzikert finally left it powerless to maintain its power in the far west. The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert Croatia was slipping away from Byzantine rule: King Demetrius Zvonimir rose to the throne with Papal blessing after aiding the Normans in their war against Byzantium. Dmitar Zvonimir or Demetrius (died 20 April 1089) was the King of Croatia of the Svetoslavić branch of the House of Trpimirović. After his death, however, the Kingdom found itself in a struggle for independence against King Coloman of Hungary who laid claim to the throne. In 1102 Coloman forced the Croatian feudal lords to enter into a personal union with Hungary with the Pacta conventa. Pacta conventa ( Lat agreed accords) was an agreement between King Coloman of Hungary and the Croatian nobility in 1102 Hungary extended its influence to the Dalmatian coast. Venice during this time forced the Dalmatian city-states into submission, but in 1105 Coloman forced the Venetians to abandon Dalmatia granting the cities the autonomy of "Free Royal Cities" within his feudal realm (which now included both Hungary and Croatia). Based on economic reasons, both Venice and Hungary had support within the Dalmatian city states. The farmers and the merchants who traded in the interior favored Hungary as their most powerful neighbor on land that affirmed their municipal privileges, while the cities feared Venetian suppression of their trade and economy.
Subject only to the Royal Assent the cities enjoyed the right to elect their own chief magistrate, bishop, and judges. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an Their ancient Roman law remained valid, and they were even permitted to conclude separate alliances. No alien, not even a Hungarian, could reside in a city if he was unwelcome, while any man who disliked Hungarian suzerainty could emigrate with all his household and property. In lieu of tribute, the revenue from customs was in most cases shared equally by the king, chief magistrate, bishop and the municipality. On the other hand, the rights and analogous privileges granted by Venice were, however, too frequently infringed. While Hungarian garrisons were being quartered on unwilling towns, Venice interfered with trade, the appointment of bishops, or the tenure of communal domains. Consequently the Dalmatians remained loyal only while it suited their interests, and insurrections frequently occurred. In Iadera (Zadar) alone, four separate rebellions are recorded between 1180 and 1345, although the city was treated with special consideration by its Venetian masters, who regarded its possession as essential to their maritime ascendancy. The doubtful allegiance of the Dalmatian cities tended to protract the struggle between Venice and Hungary, which was further complicated by internal discord due largely to the spread of the Bogomil heresy, and by many outside influences. Bogomilism (Богомилство is the Gnostic dualistic Sect, the Synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic
Dalmatia was, however, once again to be returned to Imperial Byzantine rule, as the Empire regained some of its former strength during the Komnenian restoration. The Komnenian restoration is the term used by Byzantinists to describe the military financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian Emperor Manuel I the Great of the Komnenian dinasty invaded and defeated the Kingdom of Hungary at the Battle of Sirmium in 1167. For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c The Battle of Sirmium or Battle of Zemun (Hungarian zimonyi csata) was fought on July 8, 1167 between the Byzantine Empire (also By 1168 nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands.  After his death in 1180, however, and the subsequent coup d'état against his son, Byzantium's influence once again withdrew from the area. Hungary/Croatia also lost its grip on the cities at this time, and they found themselves increasingly under Venetian influence, but King Béla III reasserted his power in Dalmatia. Béla III ( Hungarian: III Béla, Croatian: Bela II, Slovak: Belo III) (c
This was to change after the King's his death. In 1202, the armies of the Fourth Crusade were forced, due to the Crusades financial difficulties, to render assistance to Venice by taking the city of Zadar for the republic. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. In 1204 the same crusader army was ironically persuaded by Doge Enrico Dandolo to treacherously attack the Christian capital of Constantinople, finally eliminating the Byzantine Empire from the list of contenders on Dalmatian territory. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Enrico Dandolo (also Anglicised Henry Dandolo or in Latin Henricus Dandulus, 1107? &ndash June 21 1205) was the Doge Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
Hungary and Venice were now intermittently controlling Dalmatia. The cities of Spalatum, Iadera, Tragurium and Ragusa with the surrounding territories each changed hands several times between Venice and Hungary during the early 13th century. However, this period was marked by a decline in external hostilities as the Dalmatian cities started accepting de facto foreign sovereignty, having been mainly independent for nearly 700 years. The exception was the southernmost city of Ragusa, then known by its Slavic inhabitants as Dubrovnik (its modern name). Even more isolated by land than the other cities, Ragusa established its own Republic which quickly began to develop a specific culture. Its geographically isolated position in the uttermost south of Dalmatia meant that the Republic of Ragusa exhibited a strong ethnic mix of Romance Dalmatians and Slavic Croat Dalmatians. The Republic of By the 13th century, the councilmen in the Republic's council were mixed, and in the 15th century the ragusan literature was written in the Slavic language (from which Croatian language is directly descended), while the city was often called by its Slavic name, Dubrovnik. Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring This state, though often recognizing the suzerainty of foreign powers, kept its de facto independence all the way up to the Napoleonic era, when it was abolished by the French. Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a Timeline of the Napoleonic eraThe Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
A consistent period of Hungarian rule in Dalmatia was ended with the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241. The Mongol invasions of Europe, under the leadership of Subutai, centered on the destruction of East Slavic principalities such as Kiev and Vladimir The Mongols severely impaired the feudal state, so much so that that same year, King Béla IV had to take refuge in Dalmatia, as far south as the Klis fortress. Béla IV (IV Béla (1206 &ndash 3 May 1270 King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270 Duke of Styria (1254-1258 Klis is a village located around a mountain fortress bearing the same name The Mongols attacked the Dalmatian cities for the next few years but eventually withdrew without major success, as the mountainous terrain and distance were not suitable for Mongol warfare. Soon afterwards, the Venetians once again took advantage of temporary Hungarian weakness to once again take control of Dalmatia.
In 1346, Dalmatia was struck by the Black Death. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia The economic situation was also poor, and the cities became more and more dependent on Venice. However, having thoroughly recovered from the Mongol invasion, Hungary began restoring its influence. In the same year (1346), King Louis I the Great of Hungary and Croatia began a military campaign to expel the Venetians from Dalmatia. Louis I the Great (I (Nagy Lajos Ludwik Węgierski Serbian: Lajoš I/Лајош I Croatian: Ludovik I Czech: Ludvík I He was defeated at Zadar, though, and was compelled to withdraw. Thirteen years later, in 1357, the King waged a new war against Venice for the rule of Dalmatia. After successfully organizing an anti-Venetian league, Louis defeated the Venetian Republic expelling all Venetians from Dalmatia. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica By the Treaty of Zadar (1358), all Louis' demands in the region were recognized. The Treaty of Zadar, also known as the Treaty of Zara, was a Peace treaty signed in Zadar, Dalmatia on Feb 18 1358 by which Having won the land war, he immediately formed an Adriatic fleet.
After King Louis' death in 1382, Hungary was once again weakened by internal struggles. In 1389 Tvrtko I, the founder of the Bosnian Kingdom, was able to control the Adriatic littoral between Kotor and Šibenik, and even claimed control over the northern coast up to Rijeka, and his own independent ally, Dubrovnik (Ragusa). Stephen Tvrtko I ( Bosnian, Croatian: Stjepan Tvrtko; Serbian: Stefan Tvrtko, Cyrillic: Стефан (1338 The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century but not for long as it was soon taken by Emperor Samuil of Bulgaria. Kotor ( Cyrillic script: Котор Acruvium Greek Askrèvion, Ασκρηβιον; Italian Cattaro is a coastal town in Montenegro Šibenik is a historic town in Croatia, population 51553 (2001 Rijeka (other Croatian dialects Rika and Reka, Reka Italian and Hungarian: Fiume, Sankt Veit am Pflaumb is This was only temporary, as Hungary and the Venetians continued their struggle over Dalmatia after Tvrtko's death in 1391. By this time Hungary was facing increasing internal difficulties, as a 20-year civil war ensued between the Capetian House of Anjou from the Kingdom of Naples, and King Sigismund of the House of Luxembourg. The Capetian House of Anjou, or the Second Angevin dynasty, was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, established by Charles Count of Anjou The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund ( February 14, 1368 – December 9, The House of Luxembourg was a mediæval Luxembourgian noble family During the war, the Neapolitan fleet arrived in Dalmatia and was welcomed by all cities except Ragusa (Dubrovnik), which was by this time an independent merchant republic. The Anjou contender, Ladislaus of Naples, remained in control of Dalmatia throughout the conflict. Ladislas the Magnanimous (also spelled Ladislaus; July 14, 1376 / February 11, 1377 &ndash August 6 However, Ladislaus was eventually defeated and forced to sail away for Naples, on his departure he sold his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for a relatively meager sum of 100,000 ducats. The ducat (ˈdʌkət is a Gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. The much more centralized Republic took over the city-states by the year 1420, it was to remain under Venetian rule for 377 years (1420 - 1797). Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The city of Omiš was the last to yield to Venice in 1444, while only the Republic of Ragusa preserved its independence. Omiš (Population 15800; Area 266 km² (103 mi² - the City and port in Dalmatia Croatia (Dalmacija Hrvatska located approximately 25 km (16 miles south-east of the Croatia's The Republic of 
An interval of peace ensued, but meanwhile the Ottoman advance continued. The Republic of The Hvar Rebellion ( Croatian: Hvarska buna) ( 1510 - 1514) was a popular uprising of the people and citizens of the Dalmatian island The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the
Hungary was itself assailed by the Turks, and could no longer afford to try to control Dalmatia. Christian kingdoms and regions in the east fell one by one, Constantinople in 1453, Serbia in 1459, neighbouring Bosnia in 1463, and Herzegovina in 1483. Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging Thus the Venetian and Ottoman frontiers met and border wars were incessant.
Dubrovnik sought safety in friendship with the invaders, and in one particular instance, actually sold two small strips of its territory (Neum and Sutorina) to the Ottomans in order to prevent land access from the Venetian territory. Neum ( Latin Neum, Greek Nèon, Νεον) is the only seaside town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The village of Sutorina and surrounding territory including a short stretch of the Adriatic coast was named after the little vale of the river Sutorina
In 1508 the hostile League of Cambrai compelled Venice to withdraw its garrison for home service, and after the overthrow of Hungary in 1526 the Turks were able easily to conquer the greater part of Dalmatia by 1537. The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The peace of 1540 left only the maritime cities to Venice, the interior forming a Turkish province, governed from the fortress of Klis by a Sanjak beg (an administrator with military powers). Klis is a village located around a mountain fortress bearing the same name
Christian Croats from the neighbouring lands now thronged to the towns, outnumbering the Romanic population even more, and making their language the primary one. The pirate community of the "uskoks" had originally been a band of these fugitives, esp. The Uskoci ( Pronounced: "uskoczy" meaning "Uskoks" Singular: Uskok) were Croatian Habsburg soldiers that inhabited near Senia; its exploits contributed to a renewal of war between Venice and Turkey (1571-1573). Senj (Segna Senia or Segnia Greek Attienities, Αθυινιτες, German and Hungarian Zengg) is An extremely curious picture of contemporary manners is presented by the Venetian agents, whose reports on this war resemble some knightly chronicle of the Middle Ages, full of single combats, tournaments and other chivalrous adventures. They also show clearly that the Dalmatian levies far surpassed the Italian mercenaries in skill and courage. Many of these troops served abroad; at the Battle of Lepanto, for example, in 1571, a Dalmatian squadron assisted the allied fleets of Spain, Venice, Austria and the Papal States to crush the Turkish navy. The Battle of Lepanto ( Greek: Ναύπακτος Naupaktos, pron
The continental bits of Dalmatia were under Ottoman rule, parts of the Viyalet of Bosnia or the Klis Sanjak. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish This is a History of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pre-Slavic period See also History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (until 958 Bosnia has been Klis is a village located around a mountain fortress bearing the same name Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants sinjaq sanjaq) are the most common English transcriptions of the Turkish word sancak The desolated areas of the Knin Frontier and Bukovica were inhabited by Orthodox Serbs from Bosnia, while Boka received constant Serb migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro. Knin ( Croatian: Knin Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin, Italian Tenin, Serbian: Книн is a historical town in the Bukovica (Буковица in Serbian is a geographical region in Croatia. Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging The Serbs formed one quarter of Dalmatia's population in the 16th century. They had absolute majority in the Knin Frontier, Bukovica and Boka. Knin ( Croatian: Knin Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin, Italian Tenin, Serbian: Книн is a historical town in the Bukovica (Буковица in Serbian is a geographical region in Croatia. The Ottomans have resettled this populace to create a living defence towards the territories of the Venetian Republic. A great portion of this population fled to Venetian land and gladly fought against the Ottomans. The number of Serbs in Venetian Dalmatia rapidly increased during the War of Crete in 1645–1669 and the Great Viennese War war in 1683–1699, after which peace of Karlowitz gave the whole of Dalmatia to Ston and from Sutorina to Boka kotorska to the Venetian Republic. The Treaty (Peace of Karlowitz (Karlovci was signed on January 26, 1699 in Sremski Karlovci ( Serbian Cyrillic: Сремски Карловци Ston is a village and municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia, located at the south of isthmus of the Pelješac peninsula The village of Sutorina and surrounding territory including a short stretch of the Adriatic coast was named after the little vale of the river Sutorina History The nearby hamlet of Risan was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay then known as Rhizonicus After the Venetian-Turkish war of 1714–1718, Venetian territorial gains were confirmed by the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the Peace treaty signed in Požarevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац The number of Dalmatian Serbs remained between 20% and 25% by the end of Venetian rule. Serbs are the largest National minority in the Republic of Croatia.
The Serbian peasant population of infertile Upper Dalmatia was freed of Feudal bounds, according that they fight wars for the Venetian Republic. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Serbs living in Urban cities of Dalmatia were much wealthier. The Serbs in Dalmatia with Boka have had strong national and religious determination through numerous old monasteries as beacons of culture and faith. Such were the early 14th century Krupa, Krka and Dragović monasteries in the Knin Frontier and Bukovica. Krka is a River in Croatia 's Dalmatia region with length circa 73 km it is famous for its numerous Waterfalls The river has its Knin ( Croatian: Knin Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin, Italian Tenin, Serbian: Книн is a historical town in the Bukovica (Буковица in Serbian is a geographical region in Croatia. The Serbs in Boka kotorska had much more cultural advancement due to the nearby Cetinje Metropolitan and the Venetians had to fall back from influencing the religious life of people there. History The nearby hamlet of Risan was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay then known as Rhizonicus Cetinje ( Montenegrin: Цетиње Cetinje, Serbian: Цетиње Cetinje, Croatian: Cetinje, Bosnian: In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or
Dalmatia was the largest Europe's concentration of Roman Catholic Christian Bishops, Priesthood, Churches, Monasteries and religious institutions. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. A church building is a Building or Structure whose primary purpose is to facilitate the meeting of a church. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The Catholic Bishops controlled the Orthodox Episcopy in Dalmatia by naming the Eastern Othodox Christian Episcopes themselves.
Dalmatia experienced a period of intense economic and cultural growth in the 18th century, given how trade routes with the hinterland were reestablished in peace. Christians that noticeably migrated from the Ottoman-held territory into the Dalmatian cities converted from Orthodoxy to Catholicism. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described
Because the Venetians were able to reclaim some of the inland territories in the north during the Turkish wars, the region of Dalmatia was no longer restricted to the coastline and the islands. However, the Venetian influence wasn't as strong in the former southern Dalmatia, meaning that the toponym did not extend inland into areas of Herzegovina or Montenegro.
This period was abruptly interrupted with the fall of the Venetian republic in 1797.
Later in 1797, in the treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Dalmatia to Austria in return for Belgium. The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire Year VI of the French Republic by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The republics of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Poljica retained their independence, and Ragusa grew rich by its neutrality during the earlier Napoleonic wars. Poljica (Poglizza is a name of several localities in modern-day coastal Croatia: a village halfway between Zadar and Nin, Zadar county
By the peace of Pressburg in 1805, Istria, Dalmatia and the Bay of Kotor were handed over to France. The Peace of Pressburg refers to four peace treaties concluded in Pressburg (today Bratislava, Slovakia) History The nearby hamlet of Risan was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay then known as Rhizonicus This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
In 1805 Napoleon created his Kingdom of Italy around the Adriatic sea, annexing to it the former venetian Dalmatia from Istria to Cattaro (Kotor). In 1809 he removed the venetian Dalmatia from his Kingdom of Italy and created the Illyrian Provinces, that were annexed to France. The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were
In 1806, the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) finally succumbed to foreign (French) troops under general Marmont, the same year a Montenegrin force supported by the Russians tried to contest the French by seizing Boka Kotorska. The Republic of Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, 1st Duc de Ragusa ( 20 July 1774 &ndash 22 March 1852) was a French The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries History The nearby hamlet of Risan was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay then known as Rhizonicus The allied forces have pushed the French to Ragusa. The Russians induced the Montenegrins to render aid and they proceeded to take the islands of Korčula and Brač but made no further progress, and withdrew in 1807 under the treaty of Tilsit. Korčula ( Greek Κορκυρα Μελαινα Latin Corcyra Nigra, Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic Krkar, Venetian Brač (ˈbɾaːtʃ Latin Bretia, Brattia; Italian: Brazza; German: Bratz; is an island in the Adriatic The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland in the town of Tilsit The Republic of Ragusa was officially annexed to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. The Republic of The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia, but also Regno Italico; 17 March 1805 – 11 April
The major part of the Dalmatian population was Roman Catholic Christian.
In 1809, war again broke out between France and Austria. In the summer, Austrian forces retook Dalmatia, but this lasted only until the Treaty of Schönbrunn in the autumn of the same year. The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn Friede von Schönbrunn sometimes known as the Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria Austria-Hungary declared war on France in 1813, restored control over Dalmatia by 1815 and formed a temporary Kingdom of Illyria. In 1822, this was eliminated and Dalmatia was placed under Austrian administration.
During the period of the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Dalmatia was a separate administrative unit of the Empire. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Kingdom of Dalmatia was an administrative division (kingdom of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1815 to 1918 Since 1867, the Empire was fundamentally reorganised into the a dual monarchic union of the Austrian and the Hungarian lands, while the country was renamed into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich Kiegyezés established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct
While retaining exceptionally significant autonomy, the Kingdom of Croatia was assigned to the Hungarian part of the Empire, while Dalmatia remained in the Austrian (mostly for naval strategic reasons). The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia ( Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Hungarian: Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; German The Croats in Dalmatia resented this as it permanently forbade the union of all Croatian lands.
After the revolutions of 1848 and particularly since the 1860s, in the age of romantic nationalism, two factions appeared. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives
The first was the pro-Croatian or Unionist faction (later also known as the "Puntari"), led by the People's Party (Narodna Stranka) and, to a lesser extent, the Party of Rights (Stranka Prava), which advocated the union of Dalmatia with the remaining parts of Croatia which were under Hungarian overall administration.
The second was the pro-Italian Autonomist faction (also called the "Irredentist" faction), the political goals of which varied from autonomy within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, to a political union with Italy. There have been several distinct entities known as the Kingdom of Italy.
The 1880 Austrian census gives the following data for Dalmatia: 371,565 Croats, 78,714 Serbs and 27,305 Italians.
The Unionist faction won the elections in Dalmatia in 1870, but they were prevented from following through with the merger with the rest of Croatia due to the intevention of the Austrian imperial government, which dreaded the loss of precious coastline territories to the Hungarians.
The political alliances in Dalmatia shifted over time. At the beginning, the unionists and autonomists were allied together, against centralism of Vienna. Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization particularly those regarding decision-making become concentrated within After a while, when the national question came to prominence, they split. A third splintering happened when the local Orthodox population, few of whom were nationally conscious Serbs, heard of the ideas of unification of all Serbs through of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which acted as Serbia's agit-prop agency abroad. The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the As a result, Serbian Orthodox population started to side with the autonomists and irredentists rather than the unionists.
In World War I, Austria-Hungary was defeated and it disintegrated, which helped solve the internal political conflict in Dalmatia. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Following the conclusion of World War I and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary, the vast majority of Dalmatia became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija
During the war, the Kingdom of Italy turned on its pre-war Triple Alliance allies, the German Empire and Austro-Hungary, due to the many guarantees of territorial gains made by the Entente in the 1915 secret London Pact, which included a large part of Dalmatia and (especially) the port of Zadar (Zara). There have been several distinct entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. The Triple Alliance was a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple However, the pact was nullified in the Treaty of Saint Germain due to the objections of American president Woodrow Wilson and the Slavic delegates. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. In Dalmatia Italy received the city of Zara (Zadar), as well as the islands of Krk (Cherso), Lošinj (Lussino) and Lastovo (Làgosta). Krk ( Italian Veglia, German: Vegl; Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea Lošinj (pronounced loh-sheen ( Italian Lussino; German: Lötzing; Latin Apsorrus, Greek: Apsorros Lastovo ( Italian: Lagosta, German: Augusta, Latin: Augusta Insula, Greek: Ladestanos, Illyrian
When the Croatian Banate was in 1939 formed, the biggest part of Dalmatia was in it. The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia ( Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian: Banovina Hrvatska) was a province ( Banovina
In April 1941, during World War II, Nazi Germany invaded and conquered Yugoslavia. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers A month later, large sections of Dalmatia were annexed by the Kingdom of Italy (in the Governatorato di Dalmazia), the rest being formally left to the Independent State of Croatia, but in reality occupied by Italian forces which later supported Chetniks in Serb-populated areas. The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. The Chetnik movement or the Chetniks ( Serbian: Četnici, Cyrillic script: Четници were a Serbian -nationalist/ royalist Many Croats from Dalmatia joined the resistance movement led by Tito's Partisans, while others joined the fascist Croatia of Ante Pavelić. A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani For the vice president of the National assembly of the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs see Ante Pavelić (1869 Ante Pavelić ( July The result was a terrible guerrilla war that ravaged all Dalmatia.
In September 1943, following the capitulation of Italy, large sections of Dalmatia were temporarily controlled by Partisans, only to be reoccupied, this time by the German Wehrmacht. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 In later stages of the war, many Dalmatian Croats went in exile, in fear from Third Reich's vindictive actions, especially after strong rumours that a second front would be formed and that there would be an invasion on the Croatian coast. In the second of half of 1944, Partisans, supplied by the Allies, finally took control of all Dalmatia. In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose The Italian population of Dalmatia, concentrated in Zadar, suffered civilian losses due to allies bombardments in 1944.
After 1945, most of the remaining Italians fled the region. They were treated as remnants of the occupation force and were given an option to leave for Italy. Some died in the so-called foibe massacres, although this was more common in Istria and elsewhere than in Dalmatia. The Foibe massacres were killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II in Istria. The "disappearance" of the Italian speaking populations in Dalmatia was nearly complete after World War II. The linguist Matteo Bartoli calculated that the Italians were 33% of the Dalmatian population during the Napoleonic wars, while currently there are only 300 Italians in Croatian Dalmatia and 500 Italians in coastal Montenegro. Matteo Giulio Bartoli ( 22 November 1873, Albona &ndash 23 January 1946, Turin) was an Italian linguist from Dalmatian Italians are a mostly historical Italian National minority in the region of Dalmatia, part of the Republics of Croatia and Montenegro
Dalmatia was divided between three republics of socialist Yugoslavia - almost all of the territory went to Croatia, leaving Cattaro Bay of Kotor to Montenegro and a small strip of coast at Neum to Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: History The nearby hamlet of Risan was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay then known as Rhizonicus Neum ( Latin Neum, Greek Nèon, Νεον) is the only seaside town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
Following the collapse of SFR Yugoslavia in the 1990s the states of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina became independent, and in 2006 the new state of Montenegro declared independence as well. The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Today's Dalmatia is, thus, divided politically between these three independent countries.
In 1991, when Yugoslavia began to disintegrate, Croatia declared independence. The Homeland war (Domovinski rat) affected sections of northern Dalmatia, where there lived a significant population of Serbs. They rebelled, under encouragement and with assistance from a variety of Serbian nationalist circles, and seceded into the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK). The Republic of Serbian Krajina abbreviated RSK (Република Српска Крајина РСК sometimes also translated "Republic of Serb Krajina" The center of the RSK was in the northern Dalmatian town of Knin. Knin ( Croatian: Knin Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin, Italian Tenin, Serbian: Книн is a historical town in the
The establishment of the RSK was helped by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), as well as paramilitary troops that came from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status The Serbian forces had a prevalence in equipment and munitions because of JNA support, and they proceeded to commit various acts of terrorism, including shelling attacks on civilian targets.
The Yugoslav People's Army operated from their barracks, that were mostly positioned in bigger cities and stategically important points. Barracks are living quarters for personnel on a Military post In some bigger cities JNA had built large residential blocs, and in the opening stages of the war it was believed that those buildings will be used by sharpshooters or for reconnaisanse purposes. This widespread belief, although justified in few cases, served mostly as an excuse for various Croatian paramilitary and vigilante groups to forcibly evict members of JNA families from their homes, rob their property and sometimes even subject them to torture, rape and murder.
First attempts to take over JNA facilities occurred in August in Sinj and failed, but the major action took place in September 1991. Battle of the barracks (Bitka za vojarne - sometimes also called War for the barracks - is a term given to a series of engagement that took place throughout Croatia Sinj is a town in the continental part of Split-Dalmatia county, Croatia, at. Croatian Army and police were then more successful, although most of the objects taken were repair shops, warehouses and similar facilities, either poorly defended or commanded by officers sympathetic to Croatian cause. Major bases, commanded by die-hard officers and manned by reservists from Montenegro and Serbia, became the object of standoffs that usually ended with JNA personnel and equipment being evacuated under supervision of EEC observers. This process was completed shortly after Sarajevo armistice in January 1992.
All non-Serb population was ethnically cleansed from controlled areas, notably the villages of Škabrnja (Škabrnja massacre) and Kijevo. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity Škabrnja is a village in northern Dalmatia, Croatia, located halfway between Zadar and Benkovac in the lowland region of Ravni Kotari Škabrnja massacre (Masakr u Škabrnji was a War crime, atrocities committed by Serb forces during the Croatian War of Independence. Kijevo is a small village in the Dalmatian hinterland southeast of Knin in the Šibenik-Knin county. Croatian refugees, tens of thousands of them, found shelter in many of the Dalmatian coastal towns where they were placed in empty tourist facilities.
In 1991, the Dalmatian anti-Serb riots of May 1991 happened, in which up to 350 Serb housing, most notably in Zadar and Trogir was destroyed by angry Croatian civilians. The anti-Serb riots in Dalmatia was an Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia,
By early 1992, the military positions were mostly entrenched, and further expansion of the RSK was stopped. The Serbian forces continued terrorist actions by way of random shelling of Croatian cities, and this continued occasionally over the next four years.
Besides the northern hinterland that bordered with Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Yugoslav People's Army also occupied sections of southern Dalmatia around Dubrovnik, as well as the islands of Vis and Lastovo. Siege of Dubrovnik ( Croatian: Opsada Dubrovnika) is a term marking the battle and siege of the city of Dubrovnik and the surrounding area in Vis ( Greek: Issa) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest inhabited island Lastovo ( Italian: Lagosta, German: Augusta, Latin: Augusta Insula, Greek: Ladestanos, Illyrian These lasted until 1992.
The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) was deployed throughout the UNPA zones, including those in northern Dalmatia, as well as on Prevlaka. The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR, was the first UN peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Prevlaka is a small Peninsula in southern Croatia at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor in the eastern Adriatic.
The Croatian government gradually restored control over all of Dalmatia, in the following military operations:
During Operation Storm majority of Serb population from Krajina has left their homes, while minority of those who stayed - mostly elderly people - were occasionally subjected to acts of murder. Homes left by ethnic Serbs were taken over by ethnic Croatian refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina with the help and encouragement of Croatian authorities. Through the past decade, number of ethnic Serb refugees have returned and gradually reverted demographic results of war in certain areas, although it is very unlikely that their proportion in region's population will ever reach pre-war level.
Dalmatia has arguably suffered in war more than other Croatian regions, with its infrastructure ruined, while tourism industry - previously the most important source of income - was deeply affected by negative publicity and didn't properly recover until late 1990s. Dalmatian population in general suffered dramatic drop in living standard which created chasm between Dalmatia and relatively more prosperous northern sections of Croatia. This chasm reflected in extreme nationalism enjoying visibly higher levels of support in Dalmatia than in the rest of Croatia, which embraced more moderate course.
This phenomenon manifested not only in Dalmatia being reliable stronghold for HDZ and other Croatian right-wing parties, but also in mass protests against Croatian Army generals being prosecuted for alleged war crimes. The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica HDZ is the main Center-right Political party in Croatia. Indictment and against General Mirko Norac in early 2001 drew 150,000 people to the streets of Split - which is arguably the largest protest in the history of modern Croatia. Mirko Norac (born September 19 1967) is a former general of the Croatian Army and is regarded by many Croatians as a national hero
Vrhovni savjet odbrane RSK (The Supreme Council of Defense of Republic of Serb Krajina) brought a decision 4. August 1995 in 16. 45. This decision was signed by Milan Martić and later verified in Glavni štab SVK (Headquarters of Republic of Serb Krajina Army) in 17. 20.
This is the document of Republic headquarters of Civil Protection of RSK. In this document it was ordered to all subordinated headquarters of RSK to immediately give all reports about preparations for the evacuation, sheltering and taking care of evacuated civilians ("evakuacija, sklanjanje i zbrinjavanje") (the deadline for the report was 3. August 1995 in 19 h).
This was the next order from the Republican HQ of Civil Protection. It was referred to all Municipal Headquarters of Civil Protection. In that document was ordered to all subordinated HQ's to implement the preparation of evacuation of all material and all mobile cultural goods, archives, evidentions and materials that are highly confidential/top secret, money, lists of valuable stuff (?) ("vrednosni popisi") and referring documentations.