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The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion and the Christian Church, from Jesus and his twelve Apostles to contemporary times. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Church (disambiguation Christian Church and the word church are used to denote both a Christian association of people and a Place of worship Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e Christianity is the trinitarian monotheistic religion which is based on the revelation of Jesus Christ. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) In many Christian denominations "The Church" is understood theologically as the institution founded by Jesus for the salvation of humankind. List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of This understanding is sometimes called High Church. " High Church " relates to Ecclesiology and Liturgy in Anglican theology and practice In contrast, Low Church denominations generally emphasize the personal relationship between a believer and Jesus Christ. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches initially designed to be pejorative Other Christians, however, would say that the Church is not an institution at all. Instead, it is the gathering of believers, individually, and ultimately in heaven where all believers from all nations and times will be gathered together; so, church history is not just about the history of institutions, but the major happenings amongst believers throughout the world, throughout time.
Christianity began in 1st century AD Jerusalem It ultimately became the state religion of Armenia in either 301 or 314, the state religion of Ethiopia in 325, the state religion of Georgia in 337, and then the state religion of the Roman Empire in 380. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c See also Religious significance of Jerusalem For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance in addition to its A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428 The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial During the Age of Exploration(C15th to C17th), Christianity expanded throughout the world, becoming the world's largest religion. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The world's principal Religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups or world religions'. 
Throughout its history, the religion has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct Churches. The largest branches of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Protestant churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
Scholars generally agree that Jesus was born circa 6-4 BC, and that he grew up in Nazareth in Galilee; his ministry included recruiting disciples, who regarded him as a wonderworker, exorcist, healer and/or the Son of God; he was executed by crucifixion in Jerusalem circa AD 33 on orders of the Roman Governor of Iudaea Province, Pontius Pilate; and after his crucifixion, Jesus was buried in a tomb. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Introduction The chronology of Jesus is linked to a number of Jewish festivals The four canonical Gospels of the New Testament are the main sources of information for the doctrinal Christian narrative of Jesus ' life The genealogy of Jesus through Joseph is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew and Luke. The Desposyni (plural from Greek ( desposynos) "of or belonging to the master or lord" as in Gr Scholars examine the cultural and historical background of Jesus in order to better understand Jesus his ministry and the origins of Christianity Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. According to the canonical Gospels Jesus worked many Miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures Exorcisms Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure is the practice of evicting Demons or other evil Son of God is a phrase found in the Hebrew Bible, various other Jewish texts and the New Testament. Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Joseph of Arimathea was according to the Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus' Crucifixion 
Though the Greek word stau·ros' is rendered “cross” in many modern Bible versions, in classical Greek, this word meant merely an upright stake, or pale, see also Cross or stake as gibbet on which Jesus died. Writers hold different views on the form of the Gibbet used in the execution of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, and differ about the meaning of the Greek Later it also came to be used for an execution stake having a crosspiece. The Imperial Bible-Dictionary acknowledges this, saying: “The Greek word for cross, [stau·ros′], properly signified a stake, an upright pole, or piece of paling, on which anything might be hung, or which might be used in impaling [fencing in] a piece of ground. . . . Even amongst the Romans the crux (from which our cross is derived) appears to have been originally an upright pole. ”—Edited by P. Fairbairn (London, 1874), Vol. I, p. 376.
Christians believe that three days after his death, Jesus bodily rose from the dead and that the empty tomb story is a historical fact. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth None of the four Gospels gives an inclusive or definitive account of the Resurrection of Jesus or of his appearances  Early works by Jesus's followers document a number of resurrection appearances and the resurrection of Jesus formed the basis and impetus of the Christian faith. The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial and prior to his Ascension  His followers wrote that he appeared to the disciples in Galilee and Jerusalem and that Jesus was on the earth for 40 days before his Ascension to heaven and that he will return to earth again to fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment and the full establishment of the Kingdom of God. In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, The general and most common understanding of the Christian Doctrine of Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to Heaven in the presence In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven to earth an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions This article concerns itself with the belief in the final Resurrection at the End of time, commonly found in the Abrahamic religions. In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Day of the Lord is the judgment by God of every human who ever lived
The main sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical Gospels and to a lesser extent the writings of Paul. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος as the first
Early Christianity refers to the period when the religion spread in the Greco-Roman world and beyond, from its beginnings as a 1st century Jewish sect, to the end of imperial persecution of Christians after the ascension of Constantine the Great in AD 313, to the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The history of early Christianity spans from the Death of Jesus Christ and birth of the Apostolic Age in about the year 30 to the First Council of Nicaea Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut In its first three centuries the Christian church endured periods of persecution at the hands of Roman authorities Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Events By Place Roman Empire February — Conference at Milan Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine It may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, and the post-apostolic period, when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops (overseers). However, the latter case was greatly frowned upon until the eras of Constantine, Gregory, and Pope Boniface II.
The Apostolic Church, called by some the Primitive Church, was the community led by Jesus' apostles and his relatives. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e The Desposyni (plural from Greek ( desposynos) "of or belonging to the master or lord" as in Gr  According to the Great Commission, the resurrected Jesus commanded the disciples to spread his teachings to all the world. The Great Commission, in Christian tradition is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial and prior to his Ascension In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. The principal source of information for this period is the Acts of the Apostles, which gives a history of the Church from the Great Commission (1:3–11) and Pentecost (2) and the establishment of the Jerusalem Church to the spread of the religion among the gentiles (10) and Paul's conversion (9, 22, 26) and eventual imprisonment (house arrest: 28:30–31) in Rome in the mid-first century. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. Pentecost (πεντηκοστή, pentekostē, "the fiftieth day" is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian Liturgical year, celebrated the The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head Bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in The Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul is a feast celebrated during the Liturgical year on January 25, recounting the Conversion of Saul of Tarsus, who However, the historical accuracy of Acts is also disputed and may conflict with accounts in the Epistles of Paul. The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος as the first 
The first Christians were essentially all ethnically Jewish or Jewish Proselytes. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for "stranger" i In other words, Jesus preached to the Jewish people and called from them his first disciples, though the earliest documented "group" of appointed evangelizers, called the Seventy Disciples, was not specifically ethnically Jewish. The Seventy Disciples or Seventy-two Disciples were early followers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. An early difficulty arose concerning the matter of Gentile (non-Jewish) converts as to whether they had to "become Jewish" (usually referring to circumcision and adherence to dietary law, see also Judaize) as part of becoming Christian. Today most Christian denominations are neutral about biblical male circumcision, neither requiring it nor forbidding it Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws. Judaizers, see also WiktionaryJudaization, generally describes those who inculcate to Christians the adherence to Torah Laws, which is normally considered The decision of Peter, as evidenced by conversion of the Centurion Cornelius, was that they did not, and the matter was further addressed with the Council of Jerusalem, see also Primacy of Simon Peter. Cornelius (in Greek, Κορνήλιος) was a Roman Centurion who is considered by Christians to be the first Gentile Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to A number of Christian denominations and scholars hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favored by Jesus of Nazareth with the first See Biblical law in Christianity for the modern debate. Biblical law in Christianity generally refers to a discussion as to what and how the biblical law applies in a Christian context. For the parallel in Judaism, see Noahide Law. The Seven Laws of Noah ( Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva mitzvot B'nei Noach) often referred to as the Noahide Laws, are a set of seven moral
The doctrines of the apostles brought the Early Church into conflict with some Jewish religious authorities, and this eventually led to the martyrdom of SS. Stephen and James the Great and expulsion from the synagogues, see also Council of Jamnia. For people and places called Saint James, see the Saint James disambiguation page A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of Even before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai relocated to the city of Yavne / Jamnia and received permission Thus, Christianity acquired an identity distinct from Rabbinic Judaism, see also List of events in early Christianity and Christianity and Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism ( Hebrew: " Yehadut Rabanit " - יהדות רבנית is the mainstream religious system of post- diaspora See also Schisms among the Jews, Origins of Christianity The split between Pharisaic / Rabbinic Judaism (the period of the Tannaim) This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each The name "Christian" (Greek Χριστιανός) was first applied to the disciples in Antioch, as recorded in Acts 11:26. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also 
The sources for the beliefs of the apostolic community include the Gospels and New Testament Epistles. The very earliest accounts are contained in these texts, such as early Christian creeds and hymns, as well as accounts of the Passion, the empty tomb, and Resurrection appearances; often these are dated to within a decade or so of the crucifixion of Jesus, originating within the Jerusalem Church. This article describes the Christian Passion For other meanings see Passion. 
The earliest Christian creeds and hymns express belief in the risen Jesus, e. g. , that preserved in 1Corinthians 15:3–4 quoted by Paul: "For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures. " The antiquity of the creed has been located by many scholars to less than a decade after Jesus' death, originating from the Jerusalem apostolic community, and no scholar dates it later than the 40s.  Other relevant and very early creeds include 1John 4:2, 2Timothy 2:8, Romans 1:3–4, and 1Timothy 3:16, an early creedal hymn. 
Early Christianity retained some of the doctrines and practices of first-century Judaism while rejecting others. Anti-Judaism has been called "a total or partial opposition to Judaism &mdashand to Jews as adherents of it&mdashby persons who accept a competing system Jewish Christians (sometimes called also "Hebrew Christians" or "Christian Jews") is a term which can have two meanings a historical one and a Biblical law in Christianity generally refers to a discussion as to what and how the biblical law applies in a Christian context. They held the Jewish scriptures to be authoritative and sacred, employing mostly the Septuagint or Targum translations, later called the Old Testament, and added other texts as the New Testament canon developed. See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the A targum ( Hebrew: תרגום plural targumim, lit "translation interpretation" is an Aramaic Translation of the Hebrew In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. The Biblical canon is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and thus constituting the Christian Bible. Christianity also continued other Judaic practices: baptism, liturgical worship, including the use of incense, an altar, a set of scriptural readings adapted from synagogue practice, use of sacred music in hymns and prayer, and a religious calendar, as well as other distinctive features such as an exclusively male priesthood, and ascetic practices (fasting etc. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of Religious music (also sacred music) is Music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all Food, Drink, or both for a period of time ). Circumcision was rejected as a requirement at the Council of Jerusalem. Today most Christian denominations are neutral about biblical male circumcision, neither requiring it nor forbidding it Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to Quartodecimanism (the day of preparation for Passover) was rejected at the First Council of Nicaea and Sabbath observance was modified, see Sabbath in Christianity for details. See also Easter controversy, Easter Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima, meaning fourteen Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine In Christianity, the Sabbath is generally a weekly religious Day of rest as ordained by one of the Ten Commandments (the third by Roman Catholic
The early Christians in first century believed Yahweh to be the Only true God, the God of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament. For information about Yahweh see God in Abrahamic religions, which provides useful links God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed "
Alister McGrath claimed that many of the Jewish Christians were fully faithful religious Jews, only differing in their acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah. Alister E McGrath (born January 23, 1953) is a Christian theologian, with a DPhil in Molecular biophysics, noted for his work on Jewish Christians (sometimes called also "Hebrew Christians" or "Christian Jews") is a term which can have two meanings a historical one and a 
The organization of the apostolic church was Overseers (Bishops, Elders, Presbyters, Pastures), and Servants (Deacons); always a plurality of men. Clement, a Bishop of Rome, refers to the leaders of the Corinthian church as bishops and presbyters indifferently. He writes that the bishops are to lead God's flock by virtue of the chief Shepherd-Jesus Christ. The congregation under them cannot disavow them as Elders (unless for good reason).
Important bishops of the apostolic era include Clement of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch. Saint Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John
A few early church fathers, such as Polycarp, reportedly knew apostles personally and are sometimes called apostolic fathers.
The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations, and continues during the time of persecutions until the legalization of Christian worship with the advent of Constantine the Great. For other uses see Valerian. Publius Licinius Valerianus (c 200 - after 260 commonly known in English as Valerian The earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity (Greek Χριστιανισμός) and Catholic (Greek καθολικός), dates to this period, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John 107. 
From the beginning, Christians were subject to various persecutions. See also Persecution of Christians Christianity began as a Jewish sect during the period of the Second Temple. In its first three centuries the Christian church endured periods of persecution at the hands of Roman authorities The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era This involved even death for Christians such as Stephen (Acts 7:59) and James, son of Zebedee (12:2). For people and places called Saint James, see the Saint James disambiguation page Larger-scale persecutions followed at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire, beginning with the year 64, when, as reported by the Roman historian Tacitus, the Emperor Nero blamed them for that year's great Fire of Rome. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year AD 64, among the shops clustered around the
According to Church tradition, it was under Nero's persecution that SS. Peter and Paul were each martyred in Rome. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Similarly, several of the New Testament writings mention persecutions and stress endurance through them. For 250 years Christians suffered from sporadic persecutions for their refusal to worship the Roman emperor, considered treasonous and punishable by execution. The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of a few select emperors as gods once they were deceased the only emperor to In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. In spite of these at-times intense persecutions, the Christian religion continued its spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea.
By the late first and early second century, a hierarchical and episcopal structure becomes clearly visible. Post-apostolic bishops of importance are SS Polycarp of Smyrna and Irenaeus of Lyons. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Saint Polycarp of Smyrna (ca 69 – ca 155 was a second century Bishop of Smyrna. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France This structure was based on the doctrine of Apostolic Succession where, by the ritual of the laying on of hands, a bishop becomes the spiritual successor of the previous bishop in a line tracing back to the apostles themselves. The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms Each Christian community also had presbyters, as was the case with Jewish communities, who were also ordained and assisted the bishop; as Christianity spread, especially in rural areas, the presbyters exercised more responsibilities and took distinctive shape as priests. Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop Lastly, deacons also performed certain duties, such as tending to the poor and sick. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions
As Christianity spread, it acquired certain members from well-educated circles of the Hellenistic world; they sometimes became bishops but not always. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, subtitled "The Writings of the Fathers Down to A They produced two sorts of works: theological and "apologetic", the latter being works aimed at defending the faith by using reason to refute arguments against the veracity of Christianity. These authors are known as the Church Fathers, and study of them is called Patristics. Notable early Fathers include Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, etc. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John Saint Polycarp of Smyrna (ca 69 – ca 155 was a second century Bishop of Smyrna. Saint Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher, Latin Iustinus Martyr or Flavius Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca Saint Clement of Alexandria (born Titus Flavius Clemens) (c150 - 211/216 was the first notable member of the Church of Alexandria, and one of its most Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca
Christian art only emerged relatively late, and the first known Christian images emerge from about 200 AD. Christian art is Art produced in an attempt to illustrate supplement and portray in tangible form the principles of Christianity.  This early rejection of images, although never proclaimed by theologians, leaves us with little archaeological records regarding early Christianity and its evolution.  The oldest Christian paintings are from the Roman Catacombs, dated to about 200 AD, and the oldest Christian sculptures are from sarcophagi, dating to the beginning of the 3rd century. The first Burial galleries to be referred to as catacombs lie beneath San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. A sarcophagus is a Funeral receptacle for a Corpse, most commonly carved or cut from stone 
The New Testament itself speaks of the importance of maintaining orthodox doctrine and refuting heresies, showing the antiquity of the concern. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox  Because of the biblical proscription against false prophets (notably the Gospels of Matthew and Mark) Christianity has always been preoccupied with the "correct", or orthodox, interpretation of the faith. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In Religion, the term false prophet is a label given to a person who is viewed as illegitimately claiming Charismatic authority within a Religious group The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel Content Authorship The gospel itself is anonymous but as early as Papias in the early 2nd century a text was attributed to Mark, a cousin The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion Indeed one of the main roles of the bishops in the early Church was to determine the correct interpretations and refute contrarian opinions (referred to as heresy). A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief As there were differing opinions among the bishops, defining orthodoxy would consume the Church for some time (and still does, hence, "denominations").
In his book Orthodoxy, Christian Apologist and writer G. K. Chesterton asserts that there have been substantial disagreements about faith from the time of the New Testament and Jesus. Orthodoxy (1908 is a book by G K Chesterton that has become a classic of Christian apologetics. Christian apologetics is a field of Christian theology that aims to present a rational basis for the Christian faith, defend the faith against objections Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) He pointed out that the Apostles all argued against changing the teachings of Christ as did the earliest church fathers including Ignatius of Antioch, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr and Polycarp (see false prophet, the antichrist, the gnostic Nicolaitanes from the Book of Revelation and Man of Sin). The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France Saint Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher, Latin Iustinus Martyr or Flavius Saint Polycarp of Smyrna (ca 69 – ca 155 was a second century Bishop of Smyrna. In Religion, the term false prophet is a label given to a person who is viewed as illegitimately claiming Charismatic authority within a Religious group For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Nicolaism (also Nicholaism, Nicolationism, or Nicolaitanism) is a Christian Heresy whose adherents are called nicolaitans The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου In Christian eschatology, the Man of Sin, or Man of Lawlessness in some translations is a person who according to 2 Thessalonians 23 will be revealed Jesus also refers to false prophets (Mark 13:21–23) and the "darnel" (Matthew 13:25–30, 13:36–43) of the flock and how their distortion of the Christian faith is to be rejected. Lolium temulentum, typically known as darnel or cockle, is an annual plant that forms part of the Poaceae family and part of the Lolium
The earliest controversies were generally Christological in nature; that is, they were related to Jesus' (eternal) divinity or humanity. Christology (from Christ and Greek grc -λογία -logia) is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with Docetism held that Jesus' humanity was merely an illusion, thus denying the incarnation. In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek, "to seem" is the belief that Jesus ' physical body was an illusion as was his Crucifixion Arianism held that Jesus, while not merely mortal, was not eternally divine and was, therefore, of lesser status than God the Father ( John 14:28). Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. In many religions the supreme Deity ( God) is given the title and attributions of Father. Trinitarianism held that God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit were all strictly one being with three hypostases. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных God the Son is the second person of the Trinity in Christian Theology. In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance Many groups held dualistic beliefs, maintaining that reality was composed into two radically opposing parts: matter, usually seen as evil, and spirit, seen as good. Dualism denotes a state of two parts The word's origin is the Latin duo, "two". Others held that both the material and spiritual worlds were created by God and were therefore both good, and that this was represented in the unified divine and human natures of Christ. 
The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship between the various opinions is a matter of continuing academic debate. Since most Christians today subscribe to the doctrines established by the Nicene Creed, modern Christian theologians tend to regard the early debates as a unified orthodox position against a minority of heretics. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of Other scholars, drawing upon, among other things, distinctions between Jewish Christians, Pauline Christians, and other groups such as Gnostics and Marcionites, argue that early Christianity was fragmented, with contemporaneous competing orthodoxies. Jewish Christians (sometimes called also "Hebrew Christians" or "Christian Jews") is a term which can have two meanings a historical one and a Pauline Christianity is a term used to refer to a branch of Early Christianity associated with the beliefs and doctrines espoused by Paul the Apostle through Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Marcionism is the dualist Belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c 
The Biblical canon is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and thus constituting the Christian Bible. Though the Early Church used the Old Testament according to the canon of the Septuagint (LXX), the apostles did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead the New Testament developed over time. The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the
The writings attributed to the apostles circulated amongst the earliest Christian communities. The Pauline epistles were circulating in collected form by the end of the first century AD. The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος as the first Justin Martyr, in the early second century, mentions the "memoirs of the apostles", which Christians called "gospels" and which were regarded as on par with the Old Testament.  A four gospel canon (the Tetramorph) was in place by the time of Ireanaeus, c. 160, who refers to it directly.  By the early 200's, Origen may have been using the same 27 books as in the modern New Testament, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of Hebrews, James, II Peter, II and III John, and Revelation, see also Antilegomena. Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca Antilegomena (from Greek, meaning things contradicted or disputed literally spoken against) was an Epithet used by the Church Fathers to denote those Likewise the Muratorian fragment shows that by 200 there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included the four gospels. The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of the books of the New Testament.  Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the second century. 
In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books as what would become the New Testament canon, and he used the word "canonized" (kanonizomena) in regards to them.  The African Synod of Hippo, in 393, approved the New Testament, as it stands today, together with the Septuagint books, a decision that was repeated by Councils of Carthage in 397 and 419. The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 AD which was hosted in Hippo Regius in Northern Africa during the early Christian Church. Synods of Carthage During the 3rd 4th and 5th centuries the town of Carthage in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods of which however only  These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.  Pope Damasus I's Council of Rome in 382, if the Decretum Gelasianum is correctly associated with it, issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above, or if not the list is at least a sixth century compilation. Pope The Council of Rome was a meeting of Western church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I. The so-called Decretum Gelasianum or Gelasian Decree was traditionally attributed to the prolific Pope Gelasius I, bishop of Rome 492&ndash496  Likewise, Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West.  In 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. Pope For other uses see Exuperius (disambiguation. Saint Exuperius (also Exsuperius) (Saint Exupéry Saint Soupire (died c When these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church. " Thus, from the fourth century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon (as it is today), and by the fifth century the East, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon.  Nonetheless, a full dogmatic articulation of the canon was not made until the Council of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism, the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England, the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism, and the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Greek Orthodox. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were established in 1563 and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed Confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Greek Orthodox Patriarch Dositheos Notaras convened a Synod in Jerusalem on March 1672. The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches
Christianity in Late Antiquity begins with the ascension of Constantine to the Emperorship of Rome in the early fourth century, and continues until the advent of the Middle Ages. The terminus of this period is variable because the transformation to the sub-Roman period was gradual and occurred at different times in different areas. It may generally be dated as lasting to the late sixth century and the reconquests of Justinian, though a more traditional date is 476, the year that Romulus Augustus, traditionally considered the last western emperor, was deposed. Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from
Galerius issued an edict permitting the practice of the Christian religion under his rule in April of 311. Galerius Maximianus ( ca. 260&ndashlate April or early May 311 formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311  In 313 Constantine I and Licinius announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. Constantine would become the first Christian emperor. By 391, under the reign of Theodosius I, Christianity had become the most popular, or state religion. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially Constantine I, the first emperor to embrace Christianity, was also the first emperor to openly promote the newly legalized religion.
The Emperor Constantine I was exposed to Christianity by his mother, Helena. Persecutions See also Persecution of Christians The first recorded significant persecution of Christians at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine There is scholarly controversy, however, as to whether Constantine adopted his mother's humble Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life. 
Christian sources record that Constantine experienced a dramatic event in 312 at the Battle of Milvian Bridge, after which Constantine would claim the emperorship in the West. The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312, between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius According to these sources, Constantine looked up to the sun before the battle and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words "ΕΝ ΤΟΥΤΩ ΝΙΚΑ" ("by this, conquer!", often rendered in the Latin "in hoc signo vinces"); Constantine commanded his troops to adorn their shields with a Christian symbol (the Chi-Ro), and thereafter they were victorious. In hoc signo vinces is the rendition in Latin of the Greek phrase "εν τούτω νίκα" en toutōi nika, meaning "in this you will The Labarum (☧ was a military standard that displayed the first two Greek letters of the word " Christ " ( Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ or Χριστός  How much Christianity Constantine adopted at this point is difficult to discern; most influential people in the empire, especially high military officials, were still pagan, and Constantine's rule exhibited at least a willingness to appease these factions. The Roman coins minted up to eight years subsequent to the battle still bore the images of Roman gods.  Nonetheless, the accession of Constantine was a turning point for the Christian Church. After his victory, Constantine supported the Church financially, built various basilicas, granted privileges (e. g. , exemption from certain taxes) to clergy, promoted Christians to high ranking offices, and returned property confiscated during the Great Persecution of Diocletian.  Between 324 and 330, Constantine built, virtually from scratch, a new imperial capital at Byzantium on the Bosphorus (it came to be named for him: Constantinople)–the city employed overtly Christian architecture, contained churches within the city walls (unlike "old" Rome), and had no pagan temples.  In accordance with the prevailing customs, Constantine was baptized on his deathbed.
Constantine also played an active role in the leadership of the Church. In 313, he issued the Edict of Milan, legalizing Christian worship. The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. In 316, he acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the Donatist controversy. The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea, effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), to deal mostly with the Arian controversy, but which also issued the Nicene Creed, which among other things professed a belief in One Holy Catholic Apostolic Church, the start of Christendom. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian Emperor in the Church. Emperors considered themselves responsible to God for the spiritual health of their subjects, and thus they had a duty of maintain orthodoxy.  The emperor did not decide doctrine — that was the responsibility of the bishops — rather his role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, and uphold ecclesiastical unity.  The emperor ensured that God was properly worshiped in his empire; what proper worship consisted of was the responsibility of the church. This precedent would continue until certain emperors of the fifth and six centuries sought to alter doctrine by imperial edict without recourse to councils, though even after this Constantine's precedent generally remained the norm. 
The reign of Constantine, nonetheless, does not represent a complete acceptance, or end of persecution, of Christianity in the empire. His successor in the East, Constantius II, was an Arian who kept Arian bishops at his court and installed them in various sees, expelling the orthodox bishops. Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor
Constantius's successor, Julian, known in the Christian world as Julian the Apostate, was a philosopher who upon becoming emperor renounced Christianity and embraced a Neo-platonic and mystical form of paganism shocking the Christian establishment. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Intent on re-establishing the prestige of the old pagan beliefs, he modified them to resemble Christian traditions such as the episcopal structure and public charity (hitherto unknown in Roman paganism). Julian eliminated most of the privileges and prestige previously afforded to the Christian Church as the official state religion. His reforms attempted to create a form of religious heterogeneity by, among other things, reopening pagan temples, accepting Christian bishops previously exiled as heretics, promoting Judaism, and returning Church lands to their original owners. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut However, Julian's short reign ended when he died while campaigning in the East.
Christianity came to dominance during the reign of Julian's successors, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens (the last Eastern Arian Christian Emperor). For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation. Flavius Iovianus, Anglicized to Jovian, ( 331 - 17 February Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, ( 321 - November 17, 375) was Roman Emperor from 364 until his death This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS On February 27, 380, Theodosius I issued the edict De Fide Catolica establishing "Catholic Christianity" as the exclusive official state religion, outlawed other faiths, and closed pagan temples. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially (Theodosian Code XVI. 1. 2; and Sozomen, "Ecclesiastical History", VII, iv. ) Additional prohibitions were passed by Theodosius I in 391 further proscribing remaining pagan practices.
After legalization, the Church adopted the same organizational boundaries as the Empire: geographical provinces, called dioceses, corresponding to imperial governmental territorial division. The bishops, who were located in major urban centers as per pre-legalization tradition, thus oversaw each diocese. The bishop's location was his "seat", or "see"; among the sees, five held special eminence: Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. Pentarchy is a Greek -derived word meaning "rule by five" The prestige of these sees depended in part on their apostolic founders, from whom the bishops were therefore the spiritual successors, e. g. , St. Mark as founder of the See of Alexandria, St. Peter of the See of Rome, etc. There were other significant elements: Jerusalem was the location of Christ's death and resurrection, the site of a first century council, etc. , Antioch was where Jesus' followers were first labelled as Christians, it was used in a derogatory way to berate the followers of Jesus the Christ. Rome was where SS. Peter and Paul had been martyred (killed), Constantinople was the "New Rome" where Constantine had moved his capital c. 330, and, lastly, all these cities had important relics.
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and the office is the "papacy. The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches The History of the Papacy is the history of both the spiritual role and the temporal role over a timespan of almost 2000 years from the arrival of Peter in Rome to the present day " As a bishopric, its origin is consistent with the development of an episcopal structure in the first century. The papacy, however, also carries the notion of primacy: that the See of Rome is preeminent amongst all other sees. The origins of this concept are historically obscure; theologically, it is based on three ancient Christian traditions: (1) that the apostle Peter was preeminent among the apostles, see Primacy of Simon Peter, (2) that Peter ordained his successors for the Roman See, and (3) that the bishops are the successors of the apostles (apostolic succession). A number of Christian denominations and scholars hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favored by Jesus of Nazareth with the first As long as the Papal See also happened to be the capital of the Western Empire, the prestige of the Bishop of Rome could be taken for granted without the need of sophisticated theological argumentation beyond these points; after its shift to Milan and then Ravenna, however, more detailed arguments were developed based on Matthew 16:18–19 etc.  Nonetheless, in antiquity the Petrine and Apostolic quality, as well as a "primacy of respect", concerning the Roman See went unchallenged by emperors, eastern patriarchs, and the Eastern Church alike.  The Ecumenical Council of Constantinople in 381 affirmed the primacy of Rome.  Though the appellate jurisdiction of the Pope, and the position of Constantinople, would require further doctrinal clarification, by the close of Antiquity the primacy of Rome and the sophisticated theological arguments supporting it were fully developed. Just what exactly was entailed in this primacy, and its being exercised, would become a matter of controversy at certain later times.
During this era, several Ecumenical Councils were convened. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. These were mostly concerned with Christological disputes. The two Councils of Nicaea (325, 382) condemned Arian teachings as heresy and produced a creed (see Nicene Creed). The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of The Council of Ephesus condemned Nestorianism and affirmed the Blessed Virgin Mary to be Theotokos ("God-bearer" or "Mother of God"). Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Perhaps the most significant council was the Council of Chalcedon that affirmed that Christ had two natures, fully God and fully man, distinct yet always in perfect union. The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of This was based largely on Pope Leo the Great's Tome. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. Thus, it condemned Monophysitism and would be influential in refuting Monothelitism. Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Monothelitism (a Greek Loanword meaning "one will" is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a However, not all denominations accepted all the councils, for example Nestorianism and the Assyrian Church of the East split over the Council of Ephesus of 431, Oriental Orthodoxy split over the Council of Chalcedon of 451, Pope Sergius I rejected the Quinisext Council of 692, and the Fourth Council of Constantinople of 869–870 and 879–880 is disputed by Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of Pope The Quinisext Council was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
The early Church Fathers have already been mentioned above; however, Late Antique Christianity produced a great many renowned Fathers who wrote volumes of theological texts, including SS. Augustine, Gregory Nazianzus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ambrose of Milan, Jerome, and others. Gregory of Nazianzus (329 – January 25 389) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop Saint Cyril of Jerusalem (Κύριλλος Α΄ Ἱεροσολύμων was a distinguished theologian of the early Church (ca Saint Ambrose (c 338 &ndash 4 April 397) was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος What resulted was a golden age of literary and scholarly activity unmatched since the days of Virgil and Horace. Some of these fathers, such as John Chrysostom and Athanasius, suffered exile, persecution, or martyrdom from heretical Byzantine Emperors. This article refers to the Christian saint For other uses of the name see Chrysostomos. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Many of their writings are translated into English in the compilations of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers is a set of books containing translations of early Christian writings into English
By the fifth century, the ecclesiastical had evolved a hierarchical "pentarchy" or system of five sees (patriarchates), with a settled order of precedence, had been established. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - Pentarchy is a Greek -derived word meaning "rule by five" A patriarchate is the Office or jurisdiction of a Patriarch. A patriarch as the term is used here is either one of the highest-ranking Rome, as the ancient center and largest city of the empire, was understandably given the presidency or primacy of honor within the pentarchy into which Christendom was now divided; though it was and still held that the patriarch of Rome was the first among equals.
The list below are the five Pentarchs of the original Pentarchy of the Roman Empire.
Monasticism is a form of asceticism whereby one renounces worldly pursuits (in contempu mundi) and concentrates solely on heavenly and spiritual pursuits, especially by the virtues humility, poverty, and chastity. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms Monks (men and Nuns (women Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms Monks (men and Nuns (women It began early in the Church as a family of similar traditions, modeled upon Scriptural examples and ideals, and with roots in certain strands of Judaism. St. John the Baptist is seen as the archetypical monk, and monasticism was also inspired by the organization of the Apostolic community as recorded in Acts of the Apostles.
There are two forms of monasticism: eremetic and cenobitic. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" Eremetic monks, or hermits, live in solitude, whereas cenobitic monks live in communities, generally in a monastery, under a rule (or code of practice) and are governed by an abbot. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. Originally, all Christian monks were hermits, following the example of Anthony the Great. Saint Anthony the Great (c 251–356 also known as Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, However, the need for some form of organized spiritual guidance lead Saint Pachomius in 318 to organize his many followers in what was to become the first monastery. Saint Pachomius (ca 292-348 also known as Abba Pachomius and Pakhom in Arabic الأنبا باخوميوس, is generally recognized as the founder of Soon, similar institutions were established throughout the Egyptian desert as well as the rest of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Central figures in the development of monasticism were, in the East, St. Basil the Great, and St. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin Benedict in the West, who created the famous Benedictine Rule, which would become the most common rule throughout the Middle Ages.
The cracks and fissures in Christian unity which led to the Great Schism started to become evident as early as the fourth century. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the Although 1054 is the date usually given for the beginning of the Great Schism, there is, in fact, no specific date on which the schism occurred. What really happened was a complex chain of events whose climax culminated with the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
The events leading to schism were not exclusively theological in nature. Cultural, political, and linguistic differences were often mixed with the theological. Any narrative of the schism which emphasizes one at the expense of the other will be fragmentary. Unlike the Copts or Armenians who broke from the Church in the fifth century, the eastern and western parts of the Church remained loyal to the faith and authority of the seven ecumenical councils. History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan They were united, by virtue of their common faith and tradition, in one Church.
Nonetheless, the transfer of the Roman capital to Constantinople inevitably brought mistrust, rivalry, and even jealousy to the relations of the two great sees, Rome and Constantinople. It was easy for Rome to be jealous of Constantinople at a time when it was rapidly losing its political prominence. In fact, Rome refused to recognize the conciliar legislation which promoted Constantinople to second rank. But the estrangement was also helped along by the German invasions in the West, which effectively weakened contacts. The rise of Islam with its conquest of most of the Mediterranean coastline (not to mention the arrival of the pagan Slavs in the Balkans at the same time) further intensified this separation by driving a physical wedge between the two worlds. The once homogenous unified world of the Mediterranean was fast vanishing. Communication between the Greek East and the Latin West by the 600s had become dangerous and practically ceased. 
Two basic problems — the primacy of the bishop of Rome and the procession of the Holy Spirit — were involved. These doctrinal novelties were first openly discussed in Photius's patriarchate.
By the fifth century, Christendom was divided into a pentarchy of five sees with Rome holding the primacy. This was determined by canonical decision and did not entail hegemony of any one local church or patriarchate over the others. However, Rome began to interpret her primacy in terms of sovereignty, as a God-given right involving universal jurisdiction in the Church. The collegial and conciliar nature of the Church, in effect, was gradually abandoned in favor of supremacy of unlimited papal power over the entire Church. These ideas were finally given systematic expression in the West during the Gregorian Reform movement of the eleventh century. The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050&ndash1080 which dealt with the The Eastern churches viewed Rome's understanding of the nature of episcopal power as being in direct opposition to the Church's essentially conciliar structure and thus saw the two ecclesiologies as mutually antithetical.
This fundamental difference in ecclesiology would cause all attempts to heal the schism and bridge the divisions to fail. Characteristically, Rome insisted on basing her monarchical claims to "true and proper jurisdiction" (as the Vatican Council of 1870 put it) on St. Peter. This "Roman" exegesis of Mathew 16:18, however, was unknown to the patriarchs of Eastern Orthodoxy. For them, specifically, St. Peter's primacy could never be the exclusive prerogative of any one bishop. All bishops must, like St. Peter, confess Jesus as the Christ and, as such, all are St. Peter's successors. The churches of the East gave the Roman See, primacy but not supremacy. The Pope being the first among equals, but not infallible and not with absolute authority. 
The other major irritant to Eastern Orthodoxy was the Western interpretation of the procession of the Holy Spirit. Like the primacy, this too developed gradually and entered the Creed in the West almost unnoticed. This theologically complex issue involved the addition by the West of the Latin phrase filioque ("and from the Son") to the Creed. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed The original Creed sanctioned by the councils and still used today by the Orthodox Church did not contain this phrase; the text simply states "the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father. " Theologically, the Latin interpolation was unacceptable to Eastern Orthodoxy since it implied that the Spirit now had two sources of origin and procession, the Father and the Son, rather than the Father alone.  In short, the balance between the three persons of the Trinity was altered and the understanding of the Trinity and God confused.  The result, the Orthodox Church believed, then and now, was theologically indefensible. But in addition to the dogmatic issue raised by the filioque, the Byzantines argued that the phrase had been added unilaterally and, therefore, illegitimately, since the East had never been consulted. In the final analysis, only another ecumenical council could introduce such an alteration. Indeed the councils, which drew up the original Creed, had expressly forbidden any subtraction or addition to the text.
The Church in the Early Middle Ages covers the time from the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476 and his replacement with a barbarian king, Odoacer, to the coronation of Charlemagne as "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas Day, 800. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic The year 476, however, is a rather artificial division.  In the East, Roman imperial rule continued through the period historians now call the Byzantine Empire. Even in the West, where imperial political control gradually declined, distinctly Roman culture continued long afterwards; thus historians today prefer to speak of a "transformation of the Roman world" rather than a "fall of the Roman Empire. " The advent of the Early Middle Ages was a gradual and often localized process whereby, in the West, rural areas became power centers whilst urban areas declined. With the Muslim invasions of the seventh century, the Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) areas of Christianity began to take on distinctive shapes. Whereas in the East the Church maintained its structure and character and evolved more slowly, in the West the Bishops of Rome (i. e. , the Popes) were forced to adapt more quickly and flexibly to drastically changing circumstances. In particular whereas the bishops of the East maintained clear allegiance to the Eastern Roman Emperor, the Bishop of Rome, while maintaining nominal allegiance to the Eastern Emperor, was forced to negotiate delicate balances with the "barbarian rulers" of the former Western provinces. Although the greater number of Christians remained in the East, the developments in the West would set the stage for major developments in the Christian world during the later Middle Ages.
As the political boundaries of the Western Roman Empire diminished and then collapsed, Christianity spread beyond the old borders of the Empire and into lands that never had been Romanized. Sergei Vasilyevich Ivanov (Сергей Васильевич Иванов (&ndash 16 August, 1910) was a Russian painter and graphic artist.
Beginning in the fifth century, a unique culture developed around the Irish Sea consisting of what today would be called Wales and Ireland. In this environment, Christianity spread from Roman Britain to Ireland, especially aided by the missionary activity of St. Patrick. Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 Saint Patrick (Patricius Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Roman Britain -born Christian Missionary and is the Patron saint Patrick had been captured into slavery in Ireland and, following his escape and later consecration as bishop, he returned to the isle that had enslaved him so that he could bring them the Gospel. Soon, Irish missionaries such as SS. Columba and Columbanus spread this Christianity, with its distinctively Irish features, to Scotland and the Continent. WikipediaPersondata --> See Columba (disambiguation and St Columb for other uses Not to be confused with St Columba, also Irish and partly his contemporary One such feature was the system of private penitence, which replaced the former practice of penance as a public rite. 
Although southern Britain had been a Roman province, in 407 the imperial legions left the isle, and the Roman elite followed. Some time later that century, various barbarian tribes went from raiding and pillaging the island to settling and invading. These tribes are referred to as the "Anglo-Saxons", predecessors of the English. They were entirely pagan, having never been part of the Empire, and although they experienced Christian influence from the surrounding peoples, they were converted by the mission of St. Augustine sent by Pope Gregory the Great. Augustine of Canterbury OSB (born c first third of the 6th century - died 26 May 604 was a Benedictine Monk who became the first Archbishop Later, under Archbishop Theodore, the Anglo-Saxons enjoyed a golden age of culture and scholarship. Theodore (602&ndash19 September 690 was the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury, best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury Soon, important English missionaries such as SS. Wilfrid, Willibrord, Lullus and Boniface would begin evangelizing their Saxon relatives in Germany. Wilfrid (c 634 - 24 April 709 was an English Bishop and Saint. Saint Willibrord (c 658 – November 7, 739) was a Northumbrian missionary known as the "Apostle to the Frisians " in the modern Saint Lullus (Lull or Lul (born about 710 in Wessex, died 16 October 786 in Hersfeld) was the first permanent Archbishop of Mainz Saint Boniface ( Latin: Bonifacius c 672 – June 5, 754) the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid or Wynfrith at
The largely Christian Gallo-Roman inhabitants of Gaul (modern France) were overrun by Germanic Franks in the early 5th century. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The native inhabitants were persecuted until the Frankish King, Clovis I converted from paganism to Roman Catholicism in 496. Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler Clovis insisted that his fellow nobles follow suit, strengthening his newly-established kingdom by uniting the faith of the rulers with that of the ruled.
In 698 the Northumbrian Benedictine monk, St Willibrord was commissioned by Pope Sergius I as bishop of the Frisians in what is now the Netherlands. Saint Willibrord (c 658 – November 7, 739) was a Northumbrian missionary known as the "Apostle to the Frisians " in the modern Pope The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Willibrord established a church in Utrecht.
Much of Willibrord's work was wiped out when the pagan Radbod, king of the Frisians destroyed many Christian centres between 716 and 719. Radbod or Redbad (died 719 was the duke (or king of Frisia from c In 717, the English missionary Boniface was sent to aid Willibrord, re-etablishing churches in Frisia and continuing to preach throughout the pagan lands of Germany. Saint Boniface ( Latin: Bonifacius c 672 – June 5, 754) the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid or Wynfrith at Boniface was killed by pagans in 754.
Early evangelisation in Scandinavia was begun by Ansgar, Archbishop of Bremen, "Apostle of the North". Saint Ansgar, Anskar or Oscar, ( September 8 ? 801 &ndash February 3, 865) was an Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. The Archdiocese of Bremen is a historical Roman Catholic diocese and a former eccesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. Ansgar, a native of Amiens, was sent with a group of monks to Jutland Denmark in around 820 at the time of the pro-Christian Jutish king Harald Klak. Amiens (amjɛ̃ is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The mission was only partially successful, and Ansgar returned two years later to Germany, after Harald had been driven out of his kingdom. In 829 Ansgar went to Birka on Lake Mälaren, Sweden, with his aide friar Witmar, and a small congregation was formed in 831 which included the king's own steward Hergeir. Lake Mälaren ( (historically occasionally referred to as Lake Malar in English is the third-largest Lake in Sweden, after Lakes Vänern and Conversion was slow, however, and most Scandinavian lands were only completely Christianised at the time of rulers such as Saint Canute IV of Denmark and Olaf I of Norway in the years following 1000 AD. Canute (or Knut IV (c 1043 &ndash July 10, 1086) also known as Canute the Saint and Canute the Holy ( Danish: Knud IV Olaf Tryggvason ( Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason) (960s &ndash September 9 ? 1000 was King of
The city of Rome was embroiled in the turmoil and devastation of Italian peninsular warfare during the Early Middle Ages. Emperor Justinian I attempted to reassert imperial dominion in Italy against the Gothic aristocracy. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or The subsequent campaigns were more or less successful, and the Imperial Exarchate was established in Ravenna to oversee Italy, though actually imperial influence was often limited. This article is about Byzantine governors and ecclesiastical ranks However, the weakened peninsula then experienced the invasion of the Lombards, and the resulting warfare essentially left Rome to fend for itself. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Thus the popes, out of necessity, found themselves feeding the city with grain from papal estates, negotiating treaties, paying protection money to Lombard warlords, and, failing that, hiring solders to defend the city.  Eventually, the failure of the Empire to send aid resulted in the popes turning for support from other sources, most especially the Franks.
The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival during the late 8th and 9th centuries, mostly during the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor There was an increase of literature, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical and scriptural studies. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions The period also saw the development of Carolingian minuscule, the ancestor of modern lower-case script, and the standardization of Latin which had hitherto become varied and irregular (see Medieval Latin). Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval To address the problems of illiteracy among clergy and court scribes, Charlemagne founded schools and attracted the most learned men from all of Europe to his court, such as Theodulf, Paul the Deacon, Angilbert, Paulinus of Aquileia, and Alcuin of York. Theodulf of Orléans (ca 750-60 to 821 was the Bishop of Orléans (ca Paul the Deacon (c 720 &ndash 13 April probably 799 also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefred and Cassinensis (i Saint Angilbert (died 18 February 814) was a Frank who served Charlemagne as a diplomat abbot poet and semi-son-in-law Saint Paulinus II (between 730 and 740 - 802 was an Italian ecclesiastic scholar and poet who served as the Patriarch of Aquileia. Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c
The High Middle Ages is the period from the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the close of the fifteenth century, which saw the fall of Constantinople (1453), the end of the Hundred Years War (1453), the discovery of the New World (1492), and thereafter the Protestant Reformation (1515).
Though by 800 Western Europe was ruled entirely by Christian kings, Eastern Europe remained an area of missionary activity. For the village of the same name see Radhošť (Ústí nad Orlicí District. For example, in the ninth century SS. Cyril and Methodius had extensive missionary success in Eastern Europe among the Slavic peoples, translating the Bible and liturgy into Slavonic. Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ The Baptism of Kiev in the 988 spread Christianity throughout Kievan Rus', establishing Christianity among the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
In the ninth and tenth centuries, Christianity made great inroads into Eastern Europe, including Kievan Rus'. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The evangelization, or Christianization, of the Slavs was initiated by one of Byzantium's most learned churchmen — the Patriarch Photius. The Byzantine emperor Michael III chose Cyril and Methodius in response to a request from Rastislav, the king of Moravia who wanted missionaries that could minister to the Moravians in their own language. The two brothers spoke the local Slavonic vernacular and translated the Bible and many of the prayer books. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin As the translations prepared by them were copied by speakers of other dialects, the hybrid literary language Old Church Slavonic was created. to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ
Methodius later went on to convert the Serbs. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Some of the disciples returned to Bulgaria where they were welcomed by the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I who viewed the Slavonic liturgy as a way to counteract Greek influence in the country. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail (Michael (Борис I (Михаил also known as Bogoris (died 2 May 907 In a short time the disciples of Cyril and Methodius managed to prepare and instruct the future Slav Bulgarian clergy into the Glagolitic alphabet and the biblical texts. The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic Alphabet.
Bulgaria was officially recognized as a patriarchate by Constantinople in 945, Serbia in 1346, and Russia in 1589. All these nations, however, had been converted long before these dates.
The missionaries to the East and South Slavs had great success in part because they used the people's native language rather than Latin as the Roman priests did, or Greek. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
When Rastislav, the king of Great Moravia and a known wizard, asked Byzantium for teachers who could minister to the Moravians in their own language, Byzantine emperor Michael III chose two brothers, Constantine and Methodius. Rastic or Rastiz (in modern Slovak Rastislav) (died after 870 was the second ruler of Great Moravia between 846 and 870 Great Moravia (see Name section was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe from the 9th century to the early 10th century Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born As their mother was a Slav from the hinterlands of Thessaloniki, the two brothers had been raised speaking the local Slavonic vernacular. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Once commissioned, they immediately set about creating an alphabet, the Cyrillic alphabet; they then translated the Scripture and the liturgy into Slavonic. The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by This Slavic dialect became the basis of Old Church Slavonic which later evolved into Church Slavonic which is the common liturgical language still used by the Russian Orthodox Church and other Slavic Orthodox Christians. to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox The missionaries to the East and South Slavs had great success in part because they used the people's native language rather than Latin or Greek. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Great Moravia, Constantine and Methodius encountered Frankish missionaries from Germany, representing the western or Latin branch of the Church, and more particularly representing the Holy Roman Empire as founded by Charlemagne, and committed to linguistic, and cultural uniformity. They insisted on the use of the Latin liturgy, and they regarded Moravia and the Slavic peoples as part of their rightful mission field.
When friction developed, the brothers, unwilling to be a cause of dissension among Christians, went traveled to Rome to see the Pope, seeking an agreement that would avoid quarreling between missionaries in the field. Constantine entered a monastery in Rome, taking the name Cyril, by which he is now remembered. However, he died only a few weeks thereafter.
Pope Adrian II gave Methodius the title of Archbishop of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica in Yugoslavia) and sent him back in 869, with jurisdiction over all of Moravia and Pannonia, and authorization to use the Slavonic Liturgy. Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II) (792&ndash872 Pope from December 14 867 to December 14 872 was a member of a noble Roman family and became pope in Soon, however, Prince Ratislav, who had originally invited the brothers to Moravia, died, and his successor did not support Methodius. In 870 the Frankish king Louis and his bishops deposed Methodius at a synod at Ratisbon, and imprisoned him for a little over two years. Pope John VIII secured his release, but instructed him to stop using the Slavonic Liturgy. John VIII was Pope from December 13, 872 to December 16, 882.
In 878, Methodius was summoned to Rome on charges of heresy and using Slavonic. This time Pope John was convinced by the arguments that Methodius made in his defense and sent him back cleared of all charges, and with permission to use Slavonic. The Carolingian bishop who succeeded him, Wiching, suppressed the Slavonic Liturgy and forced the followers of Methodius into exile. Many found refuge with King Boris of Bulgaria (852–889), under whom they reorganized a Slavic-speaking Church. Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail (Michael (Борис I (Михаил also known as Bogoris (died 2 May 907 The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Meanwhile, Pope John's successors adopted a Latin-only policy which lasted for centuries.
Methodius later went on to convert the Serbs. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Some of the disciples, namely St. Kliment, St. Naum who were of noble Bulgarian descent and St. The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language Angelaruis, returned to Bulgaria where they were welcomed by the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I who viewed the Slavonic liturgy as a way to counteract Greek influence in the country. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail (Michael (Борис I (Михаил also known as Bogoris (died 2 May 907 In a short time the disciples of Cyril and Methodius managed to prepare and instruct the future Slav Bulgarian clergy into the Glagolitic alphabet and the biblical texts and in AD 893, Bulgaria expelled its Greek clergy and proclaimed the Slavonic language as the official language of the church and the state. The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic Alphabet. Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group
The success of the conversion of the Bulgarians facilitated the conversion of other East Slavic peoples, most notably the Rus', predecessors of Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians, as well as Rusyns. Rus’ (Русь rusʲ Русичи Русы are an ancient people whose name survives in the cognates Russians, Rusyns, and Ruthenians Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Rusyns (also referred to as Русины Ruthenians Ruthenes Rusins Carpatho-Rusyns and Rusnaks) are a Slavic Ethnic group that speaks By the beginning of the eleventh century most of the pagan Slavic world, including Russia, Bulgaria and Serbia, had been converted to Byzantine Christianity.
The traditional event associated with the conversion of Russia is the baptism of Vladimir of Kiev in 989, on which occasion he was also married to the Byzantine princess Anna, the sister of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 However, Christianity is documented to have predated this event in the city of Kiev and in Georgia.
Today the Russian Orthodox Church is the largest of the Orthodox Churches. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure
Iconoclasm as a movement began within the Eastern Christian Byzantine church in the early 8th century, following a series of heavy military reverses against the Muslims. Andrei Rublev (Andrew Rublev Andrey Rublev Andrey Roublyov Russian: Андре́й Рублёв (c SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sometime between 726–730 the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian ordered the removal of an image of Jesus prominently placed over the Chalke gate, the ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople, and its replacement with a cross. Leo III the Isaurian ' or the Syrian ' ( Greek: Λέων Γ΄ Leōn III) (c The Byzantine Great Palace of Constantinople, (Μέγα Παλάτιον Turkish: Büyük Saray also known as the Sacred Palace ( Latin This was followed by orders banning the pictorial representation of the family of Christ, subsequent Christian saints, and biblical scenes. In the West, Pope Gregory III held two synods at Rome and condemned Leo's actions. Gregory III (died November 29, 741) was Pope from 731 to 741 A Syrian by birth he succeeded Gregory II in March 731 In Leo's realms, the Iconoclast Council at Hieria, 754 ruled that the culture of holy portraits (see icon) was not of a Christian origin and therefore heretical. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity.  The movement destroyed much of the Christian church's early artistic history, to the great loss of subsequent art and religious historians. The iconoclastric movement itself was later defined as heretical in 787 under the Seventh Ecumenical council, but enjoyed a brief resurgence between 815 and 842. The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh Ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council
From the 6th century onward most of the monasteries in the West were of the Benedictine Order. This article concerns Roman Catholic Order of Saint Benedict see also Benedictine Confederation and Benedictine. Owing to the stricter adherence to a reformed Benedictine rule, the abbey of Cluny became the acknowledged leader of western monasticism from the later 10th century. The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France. A sequence of highly competent abbots of Cluny were statesmen on an international level. The Abbot of Cluny was the head of the powerful monastery of Cluny Abbey in medieval France. The monastery of Cluny itself became the grandest, most prestigious and best endowed monastic institution in Europe. Cluny created a large, federated order in which the administrators of subsidiary houses served as deputies of the abbot of Cluny and answered to him. Free of lay and episcopal interference, responsible only to the papacy, the Cluniac spirit was a revitalizing influence on the Norman church. The height of Cluniac influence was from the second half of the 10th century through the early 12th.
The next wave of monastic reform came with the Cistercian Movement. The first Cistercian abbey was founded by Robert of Molesme in 1098, at Cîteaux Abbey. An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or Saint Robert of Molesme (c 1028 &ndash 1111 was a Christian Saint and Abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order in France Cîteaux Abbey (French Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic Abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon, The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to a literal observance of the Rule of Saint Benedict. Rejecting the developments that the Benedictines had undergone, they tried to reproduce the life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time, indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in "Saint Benedict" redirects here This article is about the founder of Western monasticism for other saints named Benedict see Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, and especially to field-work, which became a special characteristic of Cistercian life.
Inspired by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. Bernard of Clairvaux, OCist ( 1090 - August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order By the end of the 12th century the Cistercian houses numbered 500; in the 13th a hundred more were added; and at its height in the 15th century, the order claimed to have close to 750 houses. Most of these were built in wilderness areas, and played a major part in bringing such isolated parts of Europe into economic cultivation.
A third level of monastic reform was provided by the establishment of the Mendicant orders. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is Commonly known as Friars mendicants are members of religious communities that live under a monastic rule but, rather than residing in the seclusion of a monastery, they emphasize public evangelism and are thus known for preaching, missionary activity, and education, as well as the traditional vows of poverty chastity and obedience. Beginning in the twelfth century, the Franciscan order was instituted by the followers of St. Francis, and thereafter the Dominican order was begun by St. Dominic. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. Saint Dominic (Domingo also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 &ndash August 6
The Investiture Controversy, or Lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over The relationship between church and state during the Medieval period went through a number of developments roughly from the end of the Roman Empire through It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and Pope Gregory VII concerning who would appoint bishops (investiture). The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until Pope Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe' is a rather general term for the formal installation of an The end of lay investiture threatened to undercut the power of the Empire and the ambitions of noblemen for the benefit of Church reform.
Bishops collected revenues from estates attached to their bishopric. Noblemen who held lands (fiefdoms) hereditarily passed those lands on within their family. However, because bishops had no legitimate children, when a bishop died it was the king's right to appoint a successor. So, while a king had little recourse in preventing noblemen from acquiring powerful domains via inheritance and dynastic marriages, a king could keep careful control of lands under the domain of his bishops. Kings would bestow bishoprics to members of noble families whose friendship he wished to secure. Furthermore, if a king left a bishopric vacant, then he collected the estates' revenues until a bishop was appointed, when in theory he was to repay the earnings. The infrequence of this repayment was an obvious source of dispute. The Church wanted to end this lay investiture because of the potential corruption, not only from vacant sees but also from other practices such as simony. Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Thus, the Investiture Contest was part of the Church's attempt to reform the episcopate and provide better pastoral care. Pastoral care is the ministry of care and Counseling provided by Pastors Chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their Church,
Pope Gregory VII issued the Dictatus Papae, which declared that the pope alone could appoint or depose bishops, or translate them to other sees. Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 axiomatic statements of powers arrogated to the Pope that was included in Pope Gregory VII 's register under the year Henry VI's rejection of the decree lead to his excommunication and a ducal revolt; eventually Henry received absolution after dramatic public penance barefoot in Alpine snow and cloaked in a hairshirt (see Walk to Canossa), though the revolt and conflict of investiture continued. The Walk to Canossa (sometimes called the Way to Canossa; German, Gang nach Canossa; Italian, l'umiliazione di Canossa) refers to Likewise, a similar controversy occurred in England between King Henry I and St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, over investiture and ecclesiastical revenues collected by the king during an episcopal vacancy. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official The English dispute was resolved by the Concordat of London, 1107, where the king renounced his claim to invest bishops but continued to require an oath of fealty from them upon their election. This was a partial model for the Concordat of Worms (Pactum Calixtinum), which resolved the Imperial investiture controversy with a compromise that allowed secular authorities some measure of control but granted the selection of bishops to their cathedral canons. The Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the As a symbol of the compromise, lay authorities invested bishops with their secular authority symbolized by the lance, and ecclesiastical authorities invested bishops with their spiritual authority symbolized by the ring and the staff. ecclesiastical ring is a Finger ring worn by a clergyman such as a Bishop's ring A crosier ( crozier, pastoral staff, paterissa, pósokh) is the stylized staff of office ( Pastoral staff) carried by high-ranking
The nobility of the Middle Ages was a military class; in the Early Medieval period a king (rex) attracted a band of loyal warriors (comes) and provided for them from his conquests. The Peace and Truce of God was a Medieval European movement of the Catholic Church that applied spiritual sanctions in order to limit the violence of Private war A paladin (from Latin palatinus, plural palatini; cf derivative spellings below was a high-level official in numerous countries of medieval Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. As the Middle Ages progressed, this system developed into a complex set of feudal ties and obligations. As Christianity had been accepted by barbarian nobility, the Church sought to prevent ecclesiastical land and clergymen, both of which came from the nobility, from embroilment in martial conflicts. By the early eleventh century, clergymen and peasants were granted immunity from violence — the Peace of God (Pax Dei). Soon the warrior elite itself became "sanctified", for example fighting was banned on holy days — the Truce of God (Treuga Dei). The concept of chivalry developed, emphasizing honor and loyalty amongst knights, and, with the advent of Crusades, holy orders of knights were established who perceived themselves as called by God to defend Christendom against Muslim advances in Spain, Italy, and the Holy Land, and pagan strongholds in Eastern Europe.
The Crusades were a series of military conflicts conducted by Christian knights for the defense of Christians and for the expansion of Christian domains. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Generally, the crusades refer to the campaigns in the Holy Land against Muslim forces sponsored by the Papacy. There were other crusades against Islamic forces in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily, as well as the campaigns of Teutonic knights against pagan strongholds in Eastern Europe (see Battle of Grunwald). The Battle of Grunwald (or 1st Battle of Tannenberg) took place on 15 July 1410 with the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by A few crusades such as the Fourth Crusade were waged within Christendom against groups that were considered heretical and schismatic (also see the Battle of the Ice and the Northern Crusades). The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Battle of the Ice (Ледовое побоище Ledovoe poboishche; Schlacht auf dem Eise Jäälahing Ledus kauja also known as the Battle of Lake Peipus The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian
The Holy Land had been part of the Roman Empire, and thus Byzantine Empire, until the Islamic conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries. Thereafter, Christians had generally been permitted to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land until 1071, when the Seljuk Turks closed Christian pilgrimages and assailed the Byzantines, defeating them at the Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert Emperor Alexius I asked for aid from Pope Urban II (1088–1099) for help against Islamic aggression. Pope He probably expected money from the pope for the hiring of mercenaries. Instead, Urban II called upon the knights of Christendom in a speech made at the Council of Clermont on 27 November 1095, combining the idea of pilgrimage to the Holy Land with that of waging a holy war against infidels. The Council of Clermont was a mixed Synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held on November 27 1095 at Clermont France Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont
The First Crusade captured Antioch in 1099 and then Jerusalem. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing The Second Crusade occurred in 1145 when Edessa was retaken by Islamic forces. The Second Crusade (1147&ndash1149 was the second major Crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity Jerusalem would be held until 1187 and the Third Crusade, famous for the battles between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c The Fourth Crusade, begun by Innocent III in 1202, intended to retake the Holy Land but was soon subverted by Venetians who used the forces to sack the Christian city of Zara. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January Innocent excommunicated the Venetians and crusaders. Eventually the crusaders arrived in Constantinople, but due to strife which arose between them and the Byzantines, rather than proceed to the Holy Land the crusaders instead sacked Constantinople and other parts of Asia Minor effectively establishing the Latin Empire of Constantinople in Greece and Asia Minor. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the This was effectively the last crusade sponsored by the papacy; later crusades were sponsored by individuals. Thus, though Jerusalem was held for nearly a century and other strongholds in the Near East would remain in Christian possession much longer, the crusades in the Holy Land ultimately failed to establish permanent Christian kingdoms. Islamic expansion into Europe would renew and remain a threat for centuries culminating in the campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent in the sixteenth century. Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566 On the other hand, the crusades in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily eventually lead to the demise of Islamic power in the regions; the Teutonic knights expanded Christian domains in Eastern Europe, and the much less frequent crusades within Christendom, such as the Albigensian Crusade, achieved their goal of maintaining doctrinal unity. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar 
The Medieval Inquisition is a series of Inquisitions (Roman Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s). Pope Boniface VIII (c 1235 &ndash October 11, 1303) born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam which historians consider one of the most extreme statements The Medieval Inquisition is a series of Inquisitions ( Roman Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing Heresy) from around 1184, including the Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief It was in response to movements within Europe considered apostate or heretical to Western Catholicism, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians in southern France and northern Italy. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox General description The earliest Waldensians believed in poverty and austerity promoting true poverty public preaching and the personal study of the scriptures These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow. The inquisitions in combination with the Albigensian Crusade were fairly successful in ending heresy. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar
Modern western universities have their origins directly in the Medieval Church. They began as cathedral schools, and all students were considered clerics. This was a benefit as it placed the students under ecclesiastical jurisdiction and thus imparted certain legal immunities and protections. The cathedral schools eventually became partially detached from the cathedrals and formed their own institutions, the earliest being the University of Paris (c. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century 1150), the University of Bologna (1088), and the University of Oxford (1096). The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the
In the 9th-century-AD, a controversy arose between Eastern (Byzantine, later Orthodox) and Western (Latin, Roman Catholic) Christianity that was precipitated by the opposition of the Roman Pope John VII to the appointment by the Byzantine emperor Michael III of Photius I to the position of patriarch of Constantinople. The Photian schism is a term for a controversy lasting from 863 - 867 between Eastern (Byzantine later Orthodox and Western (Roman Catholic Christianity John VII (died October 18, 707) was Pope from 705 to 707 The successor of John VI, he was (like his predecessor of Greek nationality Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος Mikhaēl III ho Methysos) ( January 19, 840 &ndash September 23–24 867 Photios was refused an apology by the pope for previous points of dispute between the East and West. Photius refused to accept the supremacy of the pope in Eastern matters or accept the filioque clause. The Latin delegation at the council of his consecration pressed him to accept the clause in order to secure their support.
The controversy also involved Eastern and Western ecclesiastical jurisdictional rights in the Bulgarian church, as well as a doctrinal dispute over the Filioque ("and from the Son") clause. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed That had been added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin church, which was later the theological breaking point in the ultimate Great East-West Schism in the eleventh century. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the
Photius did provide concession on the issue of jurisdictional rights concerning Bulgaria and the papal legates made do with his return of Bulgaria to Rome. This concession, however, was purely nominal, as Bulgaria's return to the Byzantine rite in 870 had already secured for it an autocephalous church. Without the consent of Boris I of Bulgaria, the papacy was unable to enforce any its claims. Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail (Michael (Борис I (Михаил also known as Bogoris (died 2 May 907
In the 11th century the Great Schism took place between Rome and Constantinople, which led to separation of the Church of the West, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS There were doctrinal issues like the filioque clause and the authority of the Pope involved in the split, but these were exacerbated by cultural and linguistic differences between Latins and Greeks. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Prior to that, the Eastern and Western halves of the Church had frequently been in conflict, particularly during periods of iconoclasm and the Photian schism. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The Photian schism is a term for a controversy lasting from 863 - 867 between Eastern (Byzantine later Orthodox and Western (Roman Catholic Christianity 
The East-West Schism, or Great Schism, separated the Church into Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) branches, i. e. , Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. It was the first major division since certain groups in the East rejected the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy), and was far more significant. The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Though normally dated to 1054, the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between Latin and Greek Christendom over the nature of papal primacy and certain doctrinal matters like the filioque, but intensified by cultural and linguistic differences. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
The "official" schism in 1054 was the excommunication of Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople, followed by his excommunication of papal legates. Michael I Cerularius (c 1000-1059 also known as Michael Keroularios or Patriarch Michael I, was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059 Attempts at reconciliation were made in 1274 (by the Second Council of Lyon) and in 1439 (by the Council of Basel), but in each case the eastern hierarchs who consented to the unions were repudiated by the Orthodox as a whole, though reconciliation was achieved between the West and what are now called the "Eastern Rite Catholic Churches. The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council took place in 1245 The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See " More recently, in 1965 the mutual excommunications were rescinded by the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople, though schism remains. The Catholic-Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 was read out on 7 December 1965 simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council in
Both groups are descended from the Early Church, both acknowledge the apostolic succession of each other's bishops, and the validity of each other's sacraments. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active Though both acknowledge the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, Eastern Orthodoxy understands this as a primacy of honor with limited or no ecclesiastical authority in other dioceses.
The Orthodox East perceived the Papacy as taking on monarch type characteristics that where not in line with the church's tradition.
The final breach is often considered to have arisen after the capture and sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Crusades against Christians in the East by Roman Catholic crusaders was not exclusive to the Mediterranean though (see also the Northern Crusades and the Battle of the Ice). The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian The Battle of the Ice (Ледовое побоище Ledovoe poboishche; Schlacht auf dem Eise Jäälahing Ledus kauja also known as the Battle of Lake Peipus The sacking of Constantinople and the Church of Holy Wisdom and establishment of the Latin Empire as a seeming attempt to supplant the Orthodox Byzantine Empire in 1204 is viewed with some rancor to the present day. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the Many in the East saw the actions of the West as a prime determining factor in the weakening of Byzantium. This led to the Empire's eventual conquest and fall to Islam. In 2004, Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204; the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. Pope Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I Many things that were stolen during this time: holy relics, riches, and many other items, are still held in various Western European cities, particularly Venice. A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the
About the year 1337 Hesychasm attracted the attention of a learned member of the Orthodox Church, Barlaam of Calabria who at that time held the office of abbot in the Monastery of St Saviour's in Constantinople and who visited Mount Athos. Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in Barlaam of Seminara (ca 1290-1348 or Barlaam of Calabria was a Greek / Italian scholar ( Aristotelian scholastic) and clergyman of Mount Athos was then at the height of its fame and influence under the reign of Andronicus III Palaeologus and under the 'first-ship' of the Protos Symeon. Mount Athos (Όρος Άθως is a mountain on the Peninsula of the same name in Macedonia, of northern Greece, called in Greek Άγιον Andronikos III Palaiologos or Andronicus III Palaeologus ( Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος Andronikos III Paleologos; Անդրանիկ On Mount Athos, Barlaam encountered Hesychasts and heard descriptions of their practices, also reading the writings of the teacher in Hesychasm of St Gregory Palamas, himself an Athonite monk. Saint Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς (1296 - 1359 was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later the Archbishop of Trained in Western Scholastic theology, Barlaam was scandalized by Hesychasm and began to combat it both orally and in his writings. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries As a private teacher of theology in the Western Scholastic mode, Barlaam propounded a more intellectual and propositional approach to the knowledge of God than the Hesychasts taught. Hesychasm is a form of constant purposeful prayer or experiential prayer, explicitly referred to as contemplation. Theoria (Greek) is Greek for Contemplation or 'the perception of Beauty regarded as a Moral faculty' ( OED) Descriptions of the Hesychast practices can be found in the Philokalia, The Way of a Pilgrim, and St. The Philokalia ( Gk φιλοκαλείν "Love of the Beautiful" is a collection of texts by masters of the Eastern Orthodox, hesychast The Way of a Pilgrim is the English title of a 19th century anonymous Russian work detailing the narrator's journey across the country while discovering John Climacus' The Ladder of Divine Ascent. Saint John Climacus ( c 525 – March 30 606) also known as John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus and John Sinaites, was a The Ladder of Divine Ascent or Ladder of Paradise (Κλίμαξ Scala or Climax Paradisi) is an important work for Monasticism
Barlaam took exception to, as heretical and blasphemous, the doctrine entertained by the Hesychasts as to the nature of the uncreated light, the experience of which was said to be the goal of Hesychast practice. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. It was maintained by the Hesychasts to be of divine origin and to be identical to that light which had been manifested to Jesus' disciples on Mount Tabor at the Transfiguration. Mount Tabor ( הר תבור, Greek:) is located in Lower Galilee, at the eastern end of the Jezreel Valley, 17 kilometres (11 mi west of the This Barlaam held to be polytheistic, inasmuch as it postulated two eternal substances, a visible and an invisible God. Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals
On the Hesychast side, the controversy was taken up by St Gregory Palamas, afterwards Archbishop of Thessalonica, who was asked by his fellow monks on Mt Athos to defend Hesychasm from the attacks of Barlaam. Saint Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς (1296 - 1359 was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later the Archbishop of Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia St Gregory himself, was well-educated in Greek philosophy. St Gregory defended Hesychasm in the 1340s at three different synods in Constantinople, and he also wrote a number of works in its defense. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
In these works, St Gregory Palamas uses a distinction, already found in the 4th century in the works of the Cappadocian Fathers, between the energies or operations (Gr. The Cappadocians (or Cappadocian philosophers, Cappadocian Fathers) are significant figures in the history of the Church Fathers, who significantly Historical context The Energies of God are a central principle of Theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers energeies) of God and the essence (ousia) of God (see the Essence-Energies distinction). Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle Historical context The Energies of God are a central principle of Theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers St Gregory taught that the energies or operations of God were uncreated. He taught that the essence of God can never be known by his creations even in the next life, but that his uncreated energies or operations can be known both in this life and in the next, and convey to the Hesychast in this life and to the righteous in the next life a true spiritual knowledge of God (see theoria). Theoria (Greek) is Greek for Contemplation or 'the perception of Beauty regarded as a Moral faculty' ( OED) In Palamite theology, it is the uncreated energies of God that illumine the Hesychast who has been vouchsafed an experience of the Uncreated Light. Palamas referred to this experience as an apodictic (see Aristotle) validation of God rather than a scholastic contemplative or dialectical validation of God. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. The word Contemplation comes from the Latin root templum (from Greek temnein to cut or divide and means to separate something from its environment and to enclose it in a sector In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions
In 1341 the dispute came before a synod held at Constantinople and was presided over by the Emperor Andronicus; the synod, taking into account the regard in which the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius were held, condemned Barlaam, who recanted and returned to Calabria, afterwards becoming a bishop in the Roman Catholic Church. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Andronicus or Andronikos may refer to Livius Andronicus (c284 BC–204 BC introduced drama to the Romans and produced the first formal play in Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as Pseudo-Denys, is the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of
One of Barlaam's friends, Gregory Akindynos, who originally was also a friend of St Gregory Palamas, took up the controversy, and three other synods on the subject were held, at the second of which the followers of Barlaam gained a brief victory. Gregory Akindynos (Gr grc Γρηγόριος Ἀκίνδυνος; ca But in 1351 at a synod under the presidency of the Emperor John VI Cantacuzenus, Hesychast doctrine was established as the doctrine of the Orthodox Church. John VI Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzene ( Greek: Ιωάννης ΣΤ΄ Καντακουζηνός Iōannēs VI Kantakouzēnos) (c
Up to this day, the Roman Catholic Church has never fully accepted Hesychasm, especially the distinction between the energies or operations of God and the essence of God, and the notion that those energies or operations of God are uncreated. In Roman Catholic theology as it has developed since the Scholastic period circa 1100–1500, the essence of God can be known, but only in the next life; the grace of God is always created; and the essence of God is pure act, so that there can be no distinction between the energies or operations and the essence of God (see, e. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries g. , the Summa Theologiae of St Thomas Aquinas). Some of these positions depend on Aristotelian metaphysics.
The contemporary historians Cantacuzenus and Nicephorus Gregoras deal very copiously with this subject, taking the Hesychast and Barlaamite sides respectively. Nicephorus Gregoras (Νικηφόρος Γρηγοράς (c 1295-1360 Byzantine Historian, man of learning and religious controversialist was born at Heraclea Respected fathers of the church have held that these councils that agree that experiential prayer is Orthodox, refer to these as councils as Ecunemical Councils Eight and Nine. Father John S. Romanides, Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos, and the Very Rev. Prof. Dr. George Metallinos, Professor of theology at Athens Greece (see gnosiology). The term gnosiology (μελέτη της γνώσης is derived from the Greek words Gnosis ('knowledge' γνώση and logos ('word' or
In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish By this time Egypt had been under Muslim control for some seven centuries, but Orthodoxy was very strong in Russia which had recently acquired an autocephalous status; and thus Moscow called itself the Third Rome, as the cultural heir of Constantinople. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of The term " New Rome " has been used in the following contexts
Under Ottoman rule, the Greek Orthodox Church acquired substantial power as an autonomous millet. History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder The ecumenical patriarch was the religious and administrative ruler of the entire "Greek Orthodox nation" (Ottoman administrative unit), which encompassed all the Eastern Orthodox subjects of the Empire.
As a result of the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, and the Fall of Constantinople, the entire Orthodox communion of the Balkans and the Near East became suddenly isolated from the West. The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar For the next four hundred years, it would be confined within a hostile Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally. The Russian Orthodox Church was the only part of the Orthodox communion which remained outside the control of the Ottoman empire. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure It is, in part, due to this geographical and intellectual confinement that the voice of Eastern Orthodoxy was not heard during the Reformation in sixteenth century Europe. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time As a result, this important theological debate often seems strange and distorted to the Orthodox. They never took part in it and thus neither Reformation nor Counter-Reformation is part of their theological framework. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the
The new Ottoman government that arose from the ashes of Byzantine civilization was neither primitive nor barbaric. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Islam not only recognized Jesus as a great prophet, but tolerated Christians as another People of the Book. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. This article is about the theological concept in Islam. For the novel by Geraldine Brooks see People of the Book (novel. As such, the Church was not extinguished nor was its canonical and hierarchical organization significantly disrupted. Its administration continued to function. One of the first things that Mehmet the Conqueror did was to allow the Church to elect a new patriarch, Gennadius Scholarius. Gennadius II (in Greek Γεννάδιος Β' (lay name Georgios Kourtesios Scholarios, in Greek Γεώργιος Κουρτέσιος Σχολάριος The Hagia Sophia and the Parthenon, which had been Christian churches for nearly a millennium were, admittedly, converted into mosques, yet countless other churches, both in Constantinople and elsewhere, remained in Christian hands. Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later The Parthenon ( Ancient Greek:) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis Moreover, it is striking that the patriarch's and the hierarchy's position was considerably strengthened and their power increased. They were endowed with civil as well as ecclesiastical power over all Christians in Ottoman territories. Because Islamic law makes no distinction between nationality and religion, all Christians, regardless of their language or nationality, were considered a single millet, or nation. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Millet is an Ottoman Turkish term for a Confessional community in the Ottoman Empire. The patriarch, as the highest ranking hierarch, was thus invested with civil and religious authority and made ethnarch, head of the entire Christian Orthodox population. Ethnarch (Εθνάρχης refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or heterogeneous kingdom Practically, this meant that all Orthodox Churches within Ottoman territory were under the control of Constantinople. Thus, the authority and jurisdictional frontiers of the patriarch were enormously enlarged.
However, these rights and privileges (see Dhimmitude), including freedom of worship and religious organization, were often established in principle but seldom corresponded to reality. Dhimmitude is a Neologism, imported from the French language, and derived from the Arabic language adjective Dhimmi, which literally The legal privileges of the patriarch and the Church depended, in fact, on the whim and mercy of the Sultan and the Sublime Porte, while all Christians were viewed as little more than second-class citizens. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Ottoman Porte (also Sublime Porte, High Porte, or in Ottoman Turkish, Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court Moreover, Turkish corruption and brutality were not a myth. That it was the "infidel" Christian who experienced this more than anyone else is not in doubt. Nor were pogroms of Christians in these centuries unknown (see Greco-Turkish relations). Greece-Turkey relations have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire Devastating, too, for the Church was the fact that it could not bear witness to Christ. Missionary work among Moslems was dangerous and indeed impossible, whereas conversion to Islam was entirely legal and permissible. Converts to Islam who returned to Orthodoxy were put to death as apostates. No new churches could be built and even the ringing of church bells was prohibited. Education of the clergy and the Christian population either ceased altogether or was reduced to the most rudimentary elements.
The Orthodox Church found itself subject to the Turkish system of corruption. The patriarchal throne was frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government. In order to recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops taxed the local parishes and their clergy. Nor was the patriarchal throne ever secure. Few patriarchs between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries died a natural death while in office. The forced abdications, exiles, hangings, drownings, and poisonings of patriarchs are well documented. But if the patriarch's position was precarious so was the hierarchy's. The hanging of patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday 1821 was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops. Gregory V was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1797 to 1798 from 1806 to 1808 and from 1818 to 1821
Devshirmeh was the system of the collection of young boys from conquered Christian lands by the Ottoman sultans as a form of regular taxation in order to build a loyal army (formerly largely composed of war captives) and the class of (military) administrators called the "Janissaries", or other servants such as tellak in hamams. Devşirme or devshirme (derived from devşirme meaning "collection gathering" was the systematic collection of non-Muslim children Devşirme or devshirme (derived from devşirme meaning "collection gathering" was the systematic collection of non-Muslim children A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Turkish bath (hamam from حمّام) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the The word devşirme means "collecting, gathering" in Ottoman Turkish. Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca or tr ''Osmanlı Türkçesi'' Ottoman Turkish ota-Latn ''lisân-ı Osmânî'' is the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the Boys delivered to the Ottomans in this way were called ghilmán or acemi oglanlar ("novice boys"). Ghilman (singular ghulam) describes young eunuch servants in two contexts
The Western Schism, or Papal Schism, was a prolonged period of crisis in Latin Christendom from 1378 to 1416, when there were two or more claimants to the See of Rome and there was conflict concerning the rightful holder of the papacy. The Great Schism of Western Christianity or Papal Schism (also known as the Western Schism) was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon The conflict was political, rather than doctrinal, in nature.
In 1309, Pope Clement V, due to political considerations, moved to Avignon in southern France and exercised his pontificate there. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de For sixty-nine years popes resided in Avignon rather than Rome. This was not only an obvious source of not only confusion but of political animosity as the prestige and influence of city of Rome waned without a resident pontiff. Though Pope Gregory XI, a Frenchman, returned to Rome in 1378, the strife between Italian and French factions intensified, especially following his subsequent death. See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI. In 1378 the conclave, elected an Italian from Naples, Pope Urban VI; his intransigence in office soon alienated the French cardinals, who withdrew to a conclave of their own, asserting the previous election was invalid since its decision had been made under the duress of a riotous mob. Pope Urban VI (c 1318 &ndash October 15, 1389) born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389 They elected one of their own, Robert of Geneva, who took the name Pope Clement VII. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September By 1379, he was back in the palace of popes in Avignon, while Urban VI remained in Rome.
For nearly forty years, there were two papal curias and two sets of cardinals, each electing a new pope for Rome or Avignon when death created a vacancy. Each pope lobbied for support among kings and princes who played them off against each other, changing allegiance according to political advantage. In 1409, a council was convened at Pisa to resolve the issue. The council declared both existing popes to be schismatic (Gregory XII from Rome, Benedict XIII from Avignon) and appointed a new one, Alexander V. But the existing popes refused to resign and thus there were three papal claimants. Another council was convened in 1414, the Council of Constance. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Council of Constance is the 16th Ecumenical council. In March 1415 the Pisan pope, John XXIII, fled from Constance in disguise; he was brought back a prisoner and deposed in May. The Roman pope, Gregory XII, resigned voluntarily in July. The Avignon pope, Benedict XIII, refused to come to Constance; nor would he consider resignation. The council finally deposed him in July 1417. The council in Constance, having finally cleared the field of popes and antipopes, elected Pope Martin V as pope in November. Pope Martin V (c 1368 &ndash February 20, 1431) born Odo (or
The Renaissance was a period of great cultural change and achievement, marked in Italy by a classical orientation and an increase of wealth through mercantile trade. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Christian Humanism is the belief that human freedom and individualism are intrinsic (natural parts of or are at least compatible with Christian doctrine and practice The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The City of Rome, the Papacy, and the Papal States were all affected by the Renaissance. On the one hand, it was a time of great artistic patronage and architectural magnificence, where the Church pardoned such artists as Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Bramante, Raphael, Fra Angelico, Donatello, and da Vinci. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian Architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Fra Angelico (c 1395 &ndash February 18 1455) born Guido di Pietro, was an Early Italian Renaissance painter referred to in Vasari Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer On the other hand, wealthy Italian families often secured episcopal offices, including the papacy, for their own members, some of whom were known for immorality, such as Alexander VI and Sixtus IV. Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484
In addition to being the head of the Church, the Pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers, and pontiffs such as Julius II often waged campaigns to protect and expand their temporal domains. Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 Furthermore, the popes, in a spirit of refined competition with other Italian lords, spent lavishly both on private luxuries but also on public works, repairing or building churches, bridges, and a magnificent system of aqueducts in Rome that still function today. It was during this time that St. Peter's Basilica, perhaps the most recognized Christian church, was built on the site of the old Constantinian basilica. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St It was also a time of increased contact with Greek culture, opening up new avenues of learning, especially in the fields of philosophy, poetry, classics, rhetoric, and political science, fostering a spirit of humanism–all of which would influence the Church. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal
In the early 16th century, movements were begun by two theologians, Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli, that aimed to reform the Church; these reformers are distinguished from previous ones in that they considered the root of corruptions to be doctrinal (rather than simply a matter of moral weakness or lack of ecclesiastical discipline) and thus they aimed to change contemporary doctrines to accord with what they perceived to be the "true gospel. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1 January 1484 &ndash 11 October 1531 was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. " The word Protestant is derived from the Latin protestatio meaning declaration which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms against the Reformation. On April 19, 1529 six Fürsten (princes and 14 Imperial Free Cities, representing the Protestant minority petitioned the Reichstag at Speyer Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Second Diet of Speyer was convened in March 1529, for action against the Turks, whose armies were pressing forward in Hungary and would besiege The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms was a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Emperor that took place in Worms, a small town  Since that time, the term has been used in many different senses, but most often as a general term refers to Western Christianity that is not subject to papal authority. Western Christianity is a term used to cover the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Churches of the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Church .  The term "Protestant" was not originally used by Reformation era leaders; instead, they called themselves "evangelical", emphasizing the "return to the true gospel (Greek: euangelion). "
The beginning of the Protestant Reformation is generally identified with Martin Luther and the posting of the 95 Theses on the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, were written by Martin Luther in 1517 Early protest was against corruptions such as simony, episcopal vacancies, and the sale of indulgences. Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven The Protestant position, however, would come to incorporate doctrinal changes such as sola scriptura and sola fide. Sola scriptura ( Latin ablative, "by scripture alone" is the assertion that the Bible as God's written word is self-authenticating Sola fide ( Latin: by Faith alone also historically known as the doctrine of justification by faith is a doctrine that distinguishes most The three most important traditions to emerge directly from the Protestant Reformation were the Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist, Presbyterian, etc. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity ), and Anglican traditions, though the latter group identifies as both "Reformed" and "Catholic", and some subgroups reject the classification as "Protestant. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs "
The Protestant Reformation may be divided into two distinct but basically simultaneous movements, the Magisterial Reformation and the Radical Reformation. The Magisterial Reformation was an element of the Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther and many others The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to what was believed to be both the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial The Magisterial Reformation involved the alliance of certain theological teachers (Latin: magistri) such as Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Cramner, etc. with secular magistrates who cooperated in the reformation of Christendom. Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, often employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of tenants of the Councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon. Often the division between magisterial and radical reformers was as or more violent than the general Catholic and Protestant hostilities.
The Protestant Reformation spread almost entirely within the confines of Northern Europe, but did not take hold in certain northern areas such as Ireland and parts of Germany. By far the magisterial reformers were more successful and their changes more widespread than the radical reformers. The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation is known as the Counter Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, which resulted in a reassertion of traditional doctrines and the emergence of new religious orders aimed at both moral reform and new missionary activity. The Counter Reformation reconverted approximately 33% of Northern Europe to Catholicism and initiated missions in South and Central America, Africa, Asia, and even China and Japan. Protestant expansion outside of Europe occurred on a smaller scale through colonization of North America and areas of Africa.
Martin Luther was an Augustinian friar and professor at the University of Wittenberg. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The theology of Martin Luther was fairly instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg also referred to as MLU, is a public University in the cities of In 1517, he published a list of 95 Theses, or points to be debated, concerning the illicitness of selling indulgences. The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, were written by Martin Luther in 1517 Luther had a particular disdain for Aristotelian philosophy, and as he began developing his own theology, he increasingly came into conflict with Thomistic scholars, most notably Cardinal Cajetan. Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Cardinal Cajetan ( Ca'jê-tan or Caj'e-tan, also known as Gaetanus) real name Tommaso de Vio ( February 20, 1468  Soon, Luther had begun to develop his theology of justification, or process by which one is "made right" (righteous) in the eyes of God. In Christian theology, justification is God 's act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God In Catholic theology, one is made righteous by a progressive infusion of grace accepted through faith and cooperated with through good works. Luther's doctrine of justification differed from Catholic theology in that justification rather meant "the declaring of one to be righteous", where God imputes the merits of Christ upon one who remains without inherent merit.  In this process, good works are more of an unessential byproduct that contribute nothing to one's own state of righteousness. Conflict between Luther and leading theologians lead to his gradual rejection of authority of the Church hierarchy. In 1520, he was condemned for heresy by the papal bull Exsurge Domine, which he burned at Wittenberg along with books of canon law. Exsurge Domine is a Papal bull issued on June 15, 1520 by Pope Leo X in response to the teachings of Martin Luther in his Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches 
Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss scholar and parish priest who was likewise influential in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. Zwingli claimed that his theology owed nothing to Luther, and that he had developed it in 1516, before Luther's famous protest, though his doctrine of justification was remarkably similar to that of the German friar.  In 1518, Zwingli was given a post at the wealthy collegiate church of the Grossmünster in Zürich, where he would remain until his death at a relatively young age. The Grossmünster ("great minster" is a Romanesque-style church that played an important role in the history of the Protestant Reformation Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Soon he had risen to prominence in the city, and when political tension developed between most of Switzerland and the Catholic Habsburg Emperor Charles V. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was In this environment, Zwingli began preaching his version of reform, with certain points as the aforementioned doctrine of justification, but others (with which Luther vehemently disagreed) such as the position that veneration of icons was actually idolatry and thus a violation of the first commandment, and the denial of the real presence in the Eucharist. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that in the Eucharist, Jesus Christ is really present in what was The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those  Soon the city council had accepted Zwingli's doctrines and Zürich became a focal point of more radical reforming movements, and certain admires and followers of Zwingli pushed his message and reforms far further than even he had intended, such as rejecting infant baptism.  This split between Luther and Zwingli formed the essence of the Protestant division between Lutheran and Reformed theology. Meanwhile, political tensions increased; Zwingli and the Zürich leadership imposed an economic blockade on the inner Catholic states of Switzerland, which lead to a battle in which Zwingli, in full armor, was slain along with his troops.
John Calvin was a French cleric and doctor of law turned Protestant reformer. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the He belonged to the second generation of the Reformation, publishing his theological tome, the Institutes of the Christian Religion, in 1536 (later revised), and establishing himself as a leader of the Reformed church in Geneva, which became an "unofficial capital" of Reformed Christianity in the second half of the sixteenth century. Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking He exerted a remarkable amount of authority in the city and over the city council, such that he has (rather ignominiously) been called a "Protestant pope. " Calvin established an eldership together with a "consistory", where pastors and the elders established matters of religious discipline for the Genevan population.  Calvin's theology is best known for his doctrine of (double) predestination, which held that God had, from all eternity, providentially foreordained who would be saved (the elect) and likewise who would be damned (the reprobate). The Calvinistic doctrine of predestination is a Doctrine of Calvinism which deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world In Theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty superintendence or agency of God over events in people's lives and throughout Unconditional election is the Calvinist teaching that before God created the world he chose to save some people according to his own purposes and apart from any conditions Predestination (Calvinism Reprobation, in Christian theology, is a corollary to the Calvinistic doctrine of Unconditional election which derives that some Predestination was not the dominant idea in Calvin's works, but it would seemingly become so for many of his Reformed successors. 
Unlike other reform movements, the English Reformation began by royal influence. The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope Henry VIII considered himself a thoroughly Catholic King, and in 1521 he defended the papacy against Luther in a book he commissioned entitled, The Defense of the Seven Sacraments, for which Pope Leo X awarded him the title Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith). Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book written by King Henry VIII of England in Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death "Defender of the Faith" redirects here For the 1984 platinum album of British heavy metal group Judas Priest, see Defenders of the Faith However, the king came into conflict with the papacy when he wished to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, for which he needed papal sanction. Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536 also known as Catharine, Katherine or Katharine ( Castilian Infanta Catalina Catherine, among many other noble relations, was the aunt of Emperor Charles V, the papacy's most significant secular supporter. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The ensuing dispute eventually lead to a break from Rome and the declaration of the King of England as head of the English Church. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican England would later experienced periods of frenetic and eclectic reforms contrasted by periods led by staunch conservatives. Monarchs such as Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Archbishops of Canterbury such as Thomas Cranmer and William Laud pushed the Church of England in many directions over the course of only a few generations. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Mary I (18 February 1516 &ndash 17 November 1558 was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Archbishop William Laud (7 October 1573 - 10 January 1645 was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633 to 1645 What emerged was a state church that considered itself both "Reformed" and "Catholic" but not "Roman" (and hesitated from the title "Protestant"), and other "unofficial" more radical movements such as the Puritans. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine,
The Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, was the response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the The essence of the Counter-Reformation was a renewed conviction in traditional practices and the upholding of Catholic doctrine as the source of ecclesiastic and moral reform, and the answer to halting the spread of Protestantism. Thus it experienced the founding of new religious orders, such as the Jesuits, the establishment of seminaries for the proper training of priests, renewed worldwide missionary activity, and the development of new yet orthodox forms of spirituality, such as that of the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students The Spanish Mystics are major figures in the Catholic Reformation of 16th and 17th century Spain The French School of Spirituality was the principle devotional influence within the Catholic Church from the mid 17th Century through the mid 20th Century not only in France The entire process was spearheaded by the Council of Trent, which clarified and reasserted doctrine, issued dogmatic definitions, and produced the Roman Catechism. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. During the Catholic Reformation, the Council of Trent commissioned the Roman Catechism (or Catechism of the Council of Trent published 1566) to expound
Though Ireland, Spain, France, and elsewhere featured significantly in the Counter-Reformation, its heart was Italy and the various popes of the time, who established the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (the list of prohibited books) and the Roman Inquisition, a system of juridical tribunals that prosecuted heresy and related offences. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("List of Prohibited Books" was a list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Inquisition was a system of Tribunals developed by the Holy See during the second half of the 16th century responsible for prosecuting individuals accused The Papacy of St. Pius V (1566–1572) was known not only for its focus on halting heresy and worldly abuses within the Church, but also for its focus on improving popular piety in a determined effort to stem the appeal of Protestantism. Pope Pius began his pontificate by giving large alms to the poor, charity, and hospitals, and the pontiff was known for consoling the poor and sick, and supporting missionaries. The activities of these pontiffs coincided with a rediscovery of the ancient Christian catacombs in Rome. As Diarmaid MacCulloch stated, "Just as these ancient martyrs were revealed once more, Catholics were beginning to be martyred afresh, both in mission fields overseas and in the struggle to win back Protestant northern Europe: the catacombs proved to be an inspiration for many to action and to heroism. Diarmaid Ninian John MacCulloch (born 31 October 1951, in Kent, England) is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of "
The Council of Trent (1545–1563), initiated by Pope Paul III (1534–1549) addressed issues of certain ecclesiastical corruptions such as simony, absenteeism, nepotism, and other abuses, as well as the reassertion of traditional practices and the dogmatic articulation of the traditional doctrines of the Church, such as the episcopal structure, clerical celibacy, the seven Sacraments, transubstantiation (the belief that during mass the consecrated bread and wine truly become the body and blood of Christ), the veneration of relics, icons, and saints (especially the Blessed Virgin Mary), the necessity of both faith and good works for salvation, the existence of purgatory and the issuance (but not the sale) of indulgences, etc. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (its Italian name known in English also as St Mary Major, is an ancient Catholic Basilica of Rome The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary In other words, all Protestant doctrinal objections and changes were uncompromisingly rejected. The Council also fostered an interest in education for parish priests to increase pastoral care. Milan's Archbishop Saint Charles Borromeo (1538–1584) set an example by visiting the remotest parishes and instilling high standards. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Saint Charles Borromeo (Carlo Borromeo Latinized as Carolus Borromeus) ( October 2 1538 – November 3 1584) is an
The Age of Discovery began with the voyage of Christopher Columbus c. 1492. It is characterized by European colonization of missionary activity.
During the Age of Discovery, the Roman Catholic Church established a number of Missions in the Americas and other colonies in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the indigenous peoples. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored See also Evangelism, Christianization A Christian mission has been widely defined since the Lausanne Congress of 1974 as that which For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. At the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans were moving into Asia and the Far East. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others (notably Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China) were relatively peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. Matteo Ricci SJ ( October 6 1552 &ndash May 11 1610;; Courtesy name: 西泰 Xītài was an Italian Jesuit priest The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
The most famous colonization by Protestants in the New World was that of English Puritans in North America. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Unlike the Spanish or French, the English colonists made surprisingly little effort to evangelize the native peoples.  The Puritans, or pilgrims, left England so that they could live in an area with Puritanism established as the exclusive civic religion. Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth Though they had left England because of the suppression of their religious practice, most Puritans had thereafter originally settled in the Low Countries but found the licentiousness there, where the state hesitated from enforcing religious practice, as unacceptable, and thus they set out for the New World and the hopes of a Puritan utopia. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt
The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a defining moment in the history of the relationship between religion and science. Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury (1797 - 1890 French painter, was born at Cologne. The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. The relationship between religion and science has long held interest for scholars particularly in the Philosophy of science, the Philosophy of religion, and
In 1610, Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger), describing the surprising observations that he had made with the new telescope. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. These and other discoveries exposed major difficulties with the understanding of the heavens that had been held since antiquity, and raised new interest in radical teachings such as the heliocentric theory of Copernicus. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System.
In reaction, many scholars maintained that the motion of the Earth and immobility of the Sun were heretical, as they contradicted some accounts given in the Bible as understood at that time. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Galileo's part in the controversies over theology, astronomy and philosophy culminated in his trial and sentencing in 1633, on a grave suspicion of heresy. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language
French Republican Calendar and anti-clerical measures. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar was a Calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political
Revivalism refers to the Calvinist and Wesleyan revival, called the Great Awakening, in North America which saw the development of evangelical Congregationalist, Presbyterian, Baptist, and new Methodist churches. The Battle of Vienna ( German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Wiedniem or Odsiecz Wiedeńska, Turkish: İkinci This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Revival in a Christian context generally refers to a specific period of spiritual renewal in the life of the Church Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of rapid and dramatic Religious revival in Anglo-American religious history generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations When the movement eventually waned, it gave rise to new Restorationist movements. For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and
The First Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants in the American colonies c. The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of rapid and dramatic Religious revival in Anglo-American religious history generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s The First Great Awakening (referred to by some historians as the Great Awakening) was a period of heightened religious activity primarily in Great Britain and its The Second Great Awakening  (1790–1840s was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival The Third Great Awakening was a period of religious activism in American history from the late The First Great Awakening (referred to by some historians as the Great Awakening) was a period of heightened religious activity primarily in Great Britain and its 1730–1740, emphasizing the traditional Reformed virtues of Godly preaching, rudimentary liturgy, and a deep sense of personal guilt and redemption by Christ Jesus. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom saw it as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created Pietism in Germany, the Evangelical Revival, and Methodism in England. Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late 17th century to the mid-18th century and later Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  It centered on reviving the spirituality of established congregations, and mostly affected Congregational, Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, Baptist, and Methodist churches, while also spreading within the slave population. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The Second Great Awakening (1800–1830s), unlike the first, focused on the unchurched and sought to instill in them a deep sense of personal salvation as experienced in revival meetings. It also sparked the beginnings of Restorationist groups such as the Mormons and the Holiness movement. For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon The Holiness movement in Christianity is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of humanity can be cleansed through Faith The Third Great Awakening began from 1857 and was most notable for taking the movement throughout the world, especially in English speaking countries. The Third Great Awakening was a period of religious activism in American history from the late The final group to emerge from the "great awakenings" in North America was Pentecostalism, which had its roots in the Methodist, Wesleyan, and Holiness movements, and began in 1906 on Azusa Street, in Los Angeles. Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism The Holiness movement in Christianity is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of humanity can be cleansed through Faith The Azusa Street Revival was a historic Pentecostal Revival meeting that took place in Los Angeles, California and was led by William J Pentecostalism would later lead to the Charismatic movement. The term charismatic movement describes the adoption from the early twentieth century onwards of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians — specifically
Restorationism refers to various unaffiliated movements that considered contemporary Christianity, in all its forms, to be a deviation from the true, original Christianity, which these groups then attempted to "Reconstruct", often using the Book of Acts as a "guidebook" of sorts. For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and Dispensationalism is a Christian theological view of history and Biblical interpretation that became popular during the 1800s and early 1900s and is This article is about the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement and churches that have a historical and/or theological connection to it (e The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. Restorationism developed out of the Second Great Awakening and is historically connected to the Protestant Reformation, but differs in that Restorationists do not usually describe themselves as "reforming" a Christian Church continuously existing from the time of Jesus, but as restoring the Church that they believe was lost at some point. For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and The name Restoration is also used to describe the Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and the Jehovah's Witness Movement. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination
The history of the Church in contemporary times covers the period from the revolutions of 1848 to today. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European
The Russian Orthodox Church held a privileged position in the Russian Empire, expressed in the motto, Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Populism, of the late Russian Empire. The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль Moskovskiy Kreml) usually referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified Balchug (Ба́лчуг also known as Bolotny Ostrov (Боло́тный о́стров is an island in the very centre of Moscow, squeezed between the Moskva The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Together known as Official Nationality Orthodoxy Autocracy and Nationality (Правосла́вие самодержа́вие и наро́дность "Pravoslavie Samoderzhavie At the same time, it was placed under the control of the Tsar by the Church reform of Peter I in 18th century. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. Previously the Russian Tsars had exerted some influence on church operations however until Peter's reforms the church had been relatively free in its internal governance Its governing body was Most Holy Synod, which was run by an official (titled Ober-Procurator) appointed by the Tsar himself. The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святейший Правительствующий Синод was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and Procurator (прокурор prokuror) is an office initially created by Peter The Great, the first Emperor of the Russian Empire, in an effort
The church was involved in the various campaigns of russification, and accused of the involvement in anti-Jewish pogroms. Russification (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya)is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses  In the case of anti-Semitism and the anti-Jewish pogroms, no evidence is given of the direct participation of the church, and many Russian Orthodox clerics, including senior hierarchs, openly defended persecuted Jews, at least from the second half of the nineteenth century.  Also, the Church has no official position on Judaism as such. 
The Church, like the Tsarist state was seen as an enemy of the people by the Bolsheviks and other Russian revolutionaries. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction
The Russian Orthodox Church collaborated with the White Army in the Russian Civil War (see White movement) after the October Revolution. Collaborationism, can describe the Treason of cooperating with enemy Forces occupying one's Country. The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church. According to Lenin, a communist regime cannot remain neutral on the question of religion but must show itself to be merciless towards it. There was no place for the church in Lenin's classless society.
Before and after the October Revolution of November 7, 1917 (October 25 Old Calendar) there was a movement within the Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule (see Communist International). Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow This included the Eastern European bloc countries as well as the Balkan States. Since some of these Slavic states tied their ethnic heritage to their ethnic churches, both the peoples and their church where targeted by the Soviet.  The Soviets' official religious stance was one of "religious freedom or tolerance", though the state established atheism as the only scientific truth. Criticism of atheism was strictly forbidden and sometimes lead to imprisonment. 
The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed. Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with execution included torture being sent to prison camps, labour camps or mental hospitals. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, шара́шка) was an informal name for secret Research and development In the Soviet Union, Psychiatry was used for punitive purposes  The result of this militant atheism was to transform the Church into a persecuted and martyred Church. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed.  This included people like the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna who was at this point a monastic. HIH The Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia (Elizabeth Feodorovna Romanova Елизавета Фëдоровна Романова ( 1 November 1864 Along with her murder was Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich Romanov; the Princes Ioann Konstantinovich, Konstantin Konstantinovich, Igor Konstantinovich and Vladimir Pavlovich Paley; Grand Duke Sergei's secretary, Fyodor Remez; and Varvara Yakovleva, a sister from the Grand Duchess Elizabeth's convent. Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia (Сергей Миха́йлович October 7 1869 - July 18 1918) was the fifth son of Grand Prince John (Ioann Constantinovich of Russia ( Иоанн Константиович) ( July 5, 1886 &ndash July 18, 1918) sometimes Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia ( Константин Константинович) ( January 1, 1891 &ndash July 18, 1918 Prince Igor Constantinovich of Russia ( Игор Константинович) ( June 10, 1894 &ndash July 18, 1918) was the sixth child Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley ( Владимир Павлович Палей) ( January 9, 1897 &ndash July 18, 1918) was a Sister Varvara Yakovleva, also known as Sister Barbara Yakovleva (Варвара Яковлева or simply Nun Barbara, (died July 18, 1918 They were herded into the forest, pushed into an abandoned mineshaft and grenades were then hurled into the mineshaft. Her remains were buried in Jerusalem, in the Church of Maria Magdalene. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Church of Mary Magdalene (Храм Марии Магдалины Chram Marii Magdaline) is a Russian Orthodox church located on the Mount of Olives
The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Хра́м Христа́ Спаси́теля is the tallest Eastern Orthodox Church in the world Nearly its entire clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited. In the period between 1927 and 1940, the number of Orthodox Churches in the Russian Republic fell from 29,584 to less than 500. Between 1917 and 1940, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. Of these, 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad. Father Pavel Florensky was one of the New-martyrs of this particular period. Pavel (Paul Alexandrovich Florensky (also PA Florenskiĭ, Florenskii, Florenskij, Павел Александрович Флоренский - The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr ( Greek: νεο, neo, the prefix for "new" and μάρτυς, martys, "witness"
After Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church to intensify patriotic support for the war effort. By 1957 about 22,000 Russian Orthodox churches had become active. But in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active.  Members of the church hierarchy were jailed or forced out, their places taken by docile clergy, many of whom had ties with the KGB.
In the Soviet Union, in addition to the methodical closing and destruction of churches, the charitable and social work formerly done by ecclesiastical authorities was taken over by the state. As with all private property, Church owned property was confiscated into public use. The few places of worship left to the Church were legally viewed as state property which the government permitted the church to use. After the advent of state funded universal education, the Church was not permitted to carry on educational, instructional activity for children. For adults, only training for church-related occupations was allowed. Outside of sermons during the celebration of the divine liturgy it could not instruct or evangelize to the faithful or its youth. Catechism classes, religious schools, study groups, Sunday schools and religious publications were all illegal and or banned. This persecution continued, even after the death of Stalin until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 This caused many religious tracts to be circulated as illegal literature or samizdat. Samizdat (самиздат was the clandestine copying and distribution of government-suppressed literature or other media in Soviet-bloc  Since the fall of the Soviet Union there have been many New-martyrs added as Saints from the yoke of atheism. The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr ( Greek: νεο, neo, the prefix for "new" and μάρτυς, martys, "witness"
Fascism describes certain related political regimes in 20th century Europe, especially the Nazi Germany of Hitler. The position of Christians in Nazi Fascism is highly complex.
Regarding the matter, historian Derek Holmes wrote, “There is no doubt that the Catholic districts, resisted the lure of National Socialism [Nazism] far better than the Protestant ones. ” Pope Pius XI declared that Fascist governments had hidden "pagan intentions" and expressed the irreconcilability of the Catholic position and Fascism, which placed the nation above God and fundamental human rights and dignity. His declaration that “Spiritually, [Christians] are all Semites” prompted the Nazis to give him the title “Chief Rabbi of the Christian World. ”
Catholic priests were executed in concentration camps alongside Jews; for example, 2,600 Catholic Priests were imprisoned in Dachau, and 2,000 of them were executed. A further 2,700 Polish priests were executed (a quarter of all Polish priests), and 5,350 Polish nuns were either displaced, imprisoned, or executed.  Many Catholic laypeople and clergy played notable roles in sheltering Jews during the Holocaust, including Pope Pius XII (1876–1958). PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Pope The head rabbi of Rome became a Catholic in 1945 and, in honour of the actions the Pope undertook to save Jewish lives, he took the name Eugenio (the pope's first name).  A former Israeli consul in Italy claimed: “The Catholic Church saved more Jewish lives during the war than all the other churches, religious institutions, and rescue organisations put together. ”
The relationship between Nazism and Protestantism, especially the German Lutheran Church, was complex. Though the majority of Protestant church leaders in Germany supported the Nazis' growing anti-Jewish activities, some, such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer (a Lutheran pastor) were strongly opposed to the Nazis. Dietrich Bonhoeffer ˈdiːtrɪç ˈboːnhøfɐ ( February 4, 1906 &ndash April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran Bonhoeffer was later found guilty in the conspiracy to assassinate Hitler and executed.
One of the most striking developments in modern historical Orthodoxy is the dispersion of Orthodox Christians to the West. Emigration from Greece and the Near East in the last hundred years has created a sizable Orthodox diaspora in Western Europe, North and South America, and Australia. In addition, the Bolshevik Revolution forced thousands of Russian exiles westward. As a result, Orthodoxy's traditional frontiers have been profoundly modified. Millions of Orthodox are no longer geographically "eastern" since they live permanently in their newly adopted countries in the West. Nonetheless, they remain Eastern Orthodox in their faith and practice. Virtually all the Orthodox nationalities — Greek, Arab, Russian, Serbian, Albanian, Ukrainian, Romanian, and Bulgarian — are represented in the United States. The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically-informed religious movements and moods within late 18th, 19th and 20th century Christianity. For liberal political views within Christianity see Christian left. For liberal political views within Christianity see Christian left. The word "liberal" in liberal Christianity does not refer to a leftist political agenda or set of beliefs, but rather to the freedom of dialectic process associated with continental philosophy and other philosophical and religious paradigms developed during the Age of Enlightenment. In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions Continental philosophy, in contemporary usage refers to a set of traditions of 19th and 20th century philosophy from mainland Europe The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
Fundamentalist Christianity, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in reaction to modernism and certain liberal Protestant groups that denied doctrines considered fundamental to Christianity yet still called themselves "Christian. Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. For liberal political views within Christianity see Christian left. " Thus, fundamentalism sought to reestablish tenets that could not be denied without relinquishing a Christian identity, the "fundamentals": inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the Virgin Birth of Jesus, the doctrine of substitutionary atonement, the bodily resurrection of Jesus, and the imminent return of Jesus Christ. Biblical inerrancy is the conservative evangelical doctrinal position that in its original form the Bible is totally without error and free from all contradiction Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Sola scriptura ( Latin ablative, "by scripture alone" is the assertion that the Bible as God's written word is self-authenticating The virgin birth of Jesus is a religious Tenet of Christianity and Islam which holds that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while Substitutionary atonement is a Doctrine in Christian theology which states that Jesus of Nazareth died &ndash intentionally and willingly &ndash This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general
On 11 October 1962 Pope John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Council, the 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope John (numberingBlessed The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. The council was "pastoral" in nature, emphasizing and clarifying already defined dogma, revising liturgical practices, and providing guidance for articulating traditional Church teachings in contemporary times. The council is perhaps best known for its instructions that the Mass may be celebrated in the vernacular as well as in Latin.
Ecumenism broadly refers to movements between Christian groups to establish a degree of unity through dialogue. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation "Ecumenism" is derived from Greek οἰκουμένη (oikoumene), which means "the inhabited world", but more figuratively something like "universal oneness. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Ecumene (also spelled œcumene or oikoumene) a term originally used in the Greco-Roman world to refer to the inhabited earth (or at least the known " The movement can be distinguished into Catholic and Protestant movements, with the latter characterized by a redefined ecclesiology of "denominationalism" (which the Catholic Church, among others, rejects).
Over the last century, a number of moves have been made to reconcile the schism between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches. The Roman Catholic Church has been heavily involved in the ecumenical movement since the Second Vatican Council (1961-1965 The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the Although progress has been made, concerns over papal primacy and the independence of the smaller Orthodox churches has blocked a final resolution of the schism.
On 30 November 1894, Pope Leo XIII published the Apostolic Letter Orientalium Dignitas (On the Churches of the East) safeguarding the importance and continuance of the Eastern traditions for the whole Church. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope On 7 December 1965, a Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of His Holiness Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I was issued lifting the mutual excommunications of 1054. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Aristocles Spyrou / Αριστοκλής Σπύρου) ( March 25, 1886 - July 7, 1972) was the 268th Ecumenical Patriarch of
Some of the most difficult questions in relations with the ancient Eastern Churches concern some doctrine (i. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about e. Filioque, Scholasticism, functional purposes of asceticism, the essence of God, Hesychasm, Fourth Crusade, establishment of the Latin Empire, Uniatism to note but a few) as well as practical matters such as the concrete exercise of the claim to papal primacy and how to ensure that ecclesiastical union would not mean mere absorption of the smaller Churches by the Latin component of the much larger Catholic Church (the most numerous single religious denomination in the world), and the stifling or abandonment of their own rich theological, liturgical and cultural heritage. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Historical context The Energies of God are a central principle of Theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See
With respect to Catholic relations with Protestant communities, certain commissions were established to foster dialogue and documents have been produced aimed at identifying points of doctrinal unity, such as the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification produced with the Lutheran World Federation in 1999. The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification is a document created by and agreed to by clerical representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran
Ecumenical movements within Protestantism have focused on determining a list of doctrines and practices essential to being Christian and thus extending to all groups which fulfill these basic criteria a (more or less) co-equal status, with perhaps one's own group still retaining a "first among equal" standing. This process involved a redefinition of the idea of "the Church" from traditional theology. This ecclesiology, known as denominationalism, contends that each group (which fulfills the essential criteria of "being Christian") is a sub-group of a greater "Christian Church", itself a purely abstract concept with no direct representation, i. e. , no group, or "denomination", claims to be "the Church. " Obviously, this ecclesiology is at variance with other groups that indeed consider themselves to be "the Church. " But moreover, because the "essential criteria" generally consist of belief in the Trinity, it has resulted in strife between these Protestant ecumenical movements and non-Trinitarian groups such as Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and Jehovah's Witnesses, which are not often regarded as Christian by these ecumenical groups. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination
At the beginning of the 21st century China is estimated to be the third largest Christian nation on earth, with the future prospect of Christianity eventually becoming a Sino-centric religion. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
I suspect that even the most enthusiastic accounts err on the downside, and that Christianity will have become a Sino-centric religion two generations from now. China may be for the 21st century what Europe was during the 8th-11th centuries, and America has been during the past 200 years: the natural ground for mass evangelization. If this occurs, the world will change beyond our capacity to recognize it. Islam might defeat the western Europeans, simply by replacing their diminishing numbers with immigrants, but it will crumble beneath the challenge from the East. – Spengler
The following links give an overview of the history of Christianity:
The following links provide quantitative data related to Christianity and other major religions, including rates of adherence at different points in time: