Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. Chinese art ( Chinese: 中國藝術/中国艺术 has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling Dynasties of China and changing Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong Early so-called "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware This early period was followed by a series of art dynasties, most of which lasted several hundred years. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history
Early forms of art in China are found in the Neolithic Yangshao culture (Chinese: 仰韶文化; pinyin: Yǎngsháo Wénhuà), which dates back to the 6th millennium BC. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Yangshao culture ( was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use During the 6th millennium BC, Agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. Archeological findings such as those at the Banpo have revealed that the Yangshao made pottery; early ceramics were unpainted and most often cord-marked. Banpo (半坡 is an archaeological site first discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired to form a ceramic. Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid The first decorations were fish and human faces, but these eventually evolved into symmetrical-geometric abstract designs, some painted. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Symmetry generally conveys two primary meanings The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or aesthetically-pleasing proportionality and balance such that it reflects beauty or Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position
The most distinctive feature of Yangshao culture was the extensive use of painted pottery, especially human facial, animal, and geometric designs. Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery making. Longshan culture ( was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to In Pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares According to archaeologists, Yangshao society was based around matriarchal clans. Excavations have found that children were buried in painted pottery jars.
The Liangzhu culture was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River delta and was spaced over a period of about 1,300 years. The Liangzhu culture ( ( 3400 - 2250 BC) was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China. The Jade from this culture is characterized by finely worked, large ritual jades such as Cong cylinders, Bi discs, Yue axes and also pendants and decorations in the form of chiseled open-work plaques, plates and representations of small birds, turtles and fish. A cong ( is a form of Jade artifact from ancient China The earliest cong were produced by the Liangzhu culture ( 3400 - 2250 BC) The bi ( is a form of circular Jade artifact from ancient China The Liangzhu Jade has a white, milky bone-like aspect due to its Tremolite rock origin and influence of water-based fluids at the burial sites. Tremolite is a member of the Amphibole group of Silicate minerals with composition Ca 2 Mg 5 Si 8 Jade is a green stone that cannot be carved so it has to be grinded.
The Bronze Age in China began with the Xia Dynasty. Bronzes ( are some of the most important pieces of Chinese art, and warranted an entire separate catalogue in the Imperial art collections The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The Xia Dynasty ( of China is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and Examples from this period have been recovered from ruins of the Erlitou culture, in Shanxi, and include complex but unadorned utilitarian objects. The Erlitou culture (simplified Chinese 二里头文化 traditional Chinese 二里頭文化 Pinyin: èrlǐtóu wénhuà ( 2100 BC to 1800 BC or 1500 In the following Shang Dynasty more elaborate objects, including many ritual vessels, were crafted. The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the The Shang are remembered for their bronze casting, noted for its clarity of detail. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Shang bronzesmiths usually worked in foundries outside the cities to make ritual vessels, and sometimes weapons and chariot fittings as well. A foundry is a Factory which produces Metal Castings from either Ferrous or non-ferrous alloys The bronze vessels were receptacles for storing or serving various solids and liquids used in the performance of sacred ceremonies. Some forms such as the ku and jue can be very graceful, but the most powerful pieces are the ding, sometimes described as having the an "air of ferocious majesty. A ding or ting ( is an ancient Chinese vessel with legs and a lid "
It is typical of the developed Shang style that all available space is decorated, most often with stylized forms of real and imaginary animals. The most common motif is the taotie, which shows a mythological being presented frontally as though squashed onto a horizontal plane to form a symmetrical design. The Taotie ( Japanese: tōtetsu is a motif commonly found on ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou Dynasty. The early significance of taotie is not clear, but myths about it existed around the late Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. It was considered to be variously a covetous man banished to guard a corner of heaven against evil monsters; or a monster equipped with only a head which tries to devour men but hurts only itself.
The function and appearance of bronzes changed gradually from the Shang to the Zhou. They shifted from been used in religious rites to more practical purposes. By the Warring States Period, bronze vessels had become objects of aesthetic enjoyment. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Some were decorated with social scenes, such as from a banquet or hunt; whilst others displayed abstract patterns inlaid with gold, silver, or precious and semiprecious stones. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen
Shang bronzes became appreciated as works of art from the Song Dynasty, when they were collected and prized not only for their shape and design but also for the various green, blue green, and even reddish patinas created by chemical action as they lay buried in the ground. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The study of early Chinese bronze casting is a specialized field of art history. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i
The origins of Chinese music and poetry can be found in the Book of Songs, containing poems composed between 1000 BC and 600 BC. The Music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artefacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as The text, preserved among the canon of early Chinese literature, contains folk songs, religious hymns and stately songs. Chinese literature extends back thousands of years from the earliest recorded dynastic court Archives to the mature fictional Novel that arose during the Ming Dynasty Originally intended to be sung, the accompanying music unfortunately has since been lost. They had a wide range of purposes, including for courtship, ceremonial greeting, warfare, feasting and lamentation. The love poems are among the most appealing in the freshness and innocence of their language.
Early Chinese music was based on percussion instruments such as the bronze bell. Chinese bells were sounded by being struck from the outside, usually with a piece of wood. Sets of bells were suspended on wooden racks. Inside excavated bells are groves and marks of scraping and scratching made as they were tuned to the right pitch. Percussion instruments gradually gave way to string and reed instruments toward the Warring States period.
Significantly, the character for writing the word music (yue) was the same as that for joy (le). For Confucius and his disciples, music was important because it had the power to make people harmonious and well balanced, or, conversely, caused them to be quarrelsome and depraved. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher According to Xun Zi, music was as important as the li ("rites"; "etiquette") stressed in Confucianism. Xun Zi ( ca 300 – 230 BCE was a Chinese Confucian Philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period and contributed Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Mozi, philosophically opposed to Confucianism, disagreed. Mozi ( Lat as Micius, ca 470 BCE&ndashca 391 BCE was a Philosopher who lived in China during the Hundred Schools of Thought He dismissed music as having only aesthetic uses, and thus useless and wasteful.
In addition to the Book of Songs (Shi Jing), a second early and influential poetic anthology was the Songs of Chu (simplified Chinese: 楚辞; traditional Chinese: 楚辭; pinyin: Chǔ Cí), made up primarily of poems ascribed to the semilegendary Qu Yuan (c. Shi Jing ( translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the earliest Chu Ci ( also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Biography Qu Yuan born in the Xiling Gorge area of what is today western Hubei province was a minister in the government of the state of Chu descended from nobility 340–278 BC) and his follower Song Yu (fourth century BC). Events By place Persian Empire Rhodes falls to Persian forces Events By place Seleucid Empire After their defeats in Greece, the Gauls move into Asia Minor. Song Yu ( fl 3rd century BCE) was a well-known Chinese poet in the State of Chu. The songs in this collection are more lyrical and romantic and represent a different tradition from the earlier Classic of Poetry (Shi Jing). Shi Jing ( translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the earliest
A rich source of art in early China was the state of Chu, which developed in the Yangtze River valley. Chǔ ( 楚) was a kingdom in what is now central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period ( 722 - 481 BC) and Excavations of Chu tombs have found painted wooden sculptures, jade disks, glass beads, musical instruments, and an assortment of lacquerware. Lacquerware is objects which are decoratively covered with Lacquer which is sometimes inlaid or carved Many of the lacquer objects are finely painted, red on black or black on red. A site in Changsha, Hunan province, has revealed the world's oldest painting on silk discovered to date. Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons It shows a woman accompanied by a phoenix and a dragon, two mythological animals to feature prominently in Chinese art. The phoenix ( Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ phoínix is a mythical sacred firebird in ancient mythologies starting with the Greek and later the The dragon is a Legendary creature of which some interpretation or depiction appears in almost every culture worldwide
An anthology of Chu poetry has also survived in the form of the Chu Ci, which has been translated into English by David Hawkes. Many of the works in the text are associated with Shamanism. There are also descriptions of fantastic landscapes, examples of China's first nature poetry. The longest poem, "Encountering Sorrow," is reputed to have been written by the tragic Qu Yuan as a political allegory. Biography Qu Yuan born in the Xiling Gorge area of what is today western Hubei province was a minister in the government of the state of Chu descended from nobility
The Terracotta Army, inside the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, consists of more than 7,000 life-size tomb terra-cotta figures of warriors and horses buried with the self-proclaimed first Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang) in 210–209 BC. The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Events By place Roman Republic Following the death of his father Publius Cornelius Scipio, and his uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Events By place Roman Republic The Romans under Fabius Maximus Cunctator capture Tarentum (modern Taranto
The figures were painted before being placed into the vault. The original colors were visible when the pieces were first unearthed. However, exposure to air caused the pigments to fade, so today the unearthed figures appear terra-cotta in color.
The figures are in several poses including standing infantry and kneeling archers, as well as charioteers with horses. Each figure's head appears to be unique, showing a variety of facial features and expressions as well as hair styles.
Porcelain is made from a hard paste comprised of the clay kaolin and a feldspar called petuntse, which cements the vessel and seals any pores. Chinese ceramic ware is an Artform that has been developing since the dynastic periods. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Kaolinite is a Clay mineral with the chemical composition Al 2 Si 2 O 5( OH)4 Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming Minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth 's crust. Petuntse (from 白墩子 in Pinyin: bai2 dun1 zi0 also spelled petunse, is a historic term for a wide range of micaceous or feldspathic rocks China has become synonymous with high-quality porcelain. Most china comes from the city of Jingdezhen in China's Jiangxi province. Jingdezhen ( Wade-Giles: Ching-te-chen or the Town of Jingde, is a Prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River
Jingdezhen, under a variety of names, has been central to porcelain production in China since at least the early Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China.
The most noticeable difference between porcelain and the other pottery clays is that it "wets" very quickly (that is, added water has a noticeably greater effect on the plasticity for porcelain than other clays), and that it tends to continue to "move" longer than other clays, requiring experience in handling to attain optimum results. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware
During medieval times in Europe, porcelain was very expensive and in high demand for its beauty.
TLV mirrors also date from the Han dynasty. A TLV mirror is a type of Bronze mirror that was popular during the Han Dynasty in China.
During, the Han Dynasty, Chu lyrics evolved into the fu (賦), a poem usually in rhymed verse except for introductory and concluding passages that are in prose, often in the form of questions and answers.
From the Han Dynasty onwards, a process similar to the origins of the Shi Jing produced the yue fu poems. Shi Jing ( translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the earliest Yue fu ( Traditional Chinese: 樂府 Simplified Chinese: 乐府 Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ are Chinese poems composed in a Folk song
The most notable invention of the era was paper which spawned two new types of arts. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Chinese Paper Cutting became a new concept. Chinese Paper Cutting or Jianzhi (Chinese 剪纸 jiǎn zhǐ is the first type of Papercutting design since Paper was invented by Cai Lun The idea of expressing symbols and Chinese characters already a part of calligraphy was now extended to Han paper cut outs. Another art form was the Chinese paper folding. Chinese Paper Folding or Zhezhi ( is the Art of Paper folding that originated in China. While it has its roots in the Han dynasty, later renditions would transform the art into origami, after buddhist monks bring paper to Japan. (from oru meaning "folding" and kami meaning "paper" is the ancient Japanese Art of Paper folding.
The Han Dynasty was also known for jade burial suits. A Jade burial suit ( is a ceremonial suit made of pieces of Jade in which some nobles in Han Dynasty China were buried One of the earliest known depictions of a landscape in Chinese art comes from a pair of hollow-tile door panels from a Western Han Dynasty tomb near Zhengzhou, dated 60 BCE. Zhengzhou ( formerly called Zhengxian is a Prefecture-level city, and the capital of Henan province, People's Republic of China.  A scene of continuous depth recession is conveyed by the zigzag of lines representing roads and garden walls, giving the impression that one is looking down from the top of a hill.  This artistic landscape scene was made by the repeated impression of standard stamps on the clay while it was still soft and not yet fired.  However, the oldest known landscape art scene tradition in the classical sense of painting is a work by Zhan Ziqian of the Sui Dynasty (581–618). Zhan Ziqian (展子虔 was a great painter of ancient China, and from Yangxin county (阳信县 Shandong province The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall.
Main article: Buddhist art
Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century AD (although there are some traditions about a monk visiting China during Asoka's reign), and through to the 8th century it became very active and creative in the development of Buddhist art, particularly in the area of statuary. The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or Buddhist art originated on the Indian subcontinent following the historical life of Gautama Buddha, 6th to 5th century BCE and thereafter evolved by contact with Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi Receiving this distant religion, China soon incorporated strong Chinese traits in its artistic expression.
In the fifth to sixth century the Northern Dynasties, rather removed from the original sources of inspiration, tended to develop rather symbolic and abstract modes of representation, with schematic lines. The Northern Dynasties (北朝 běi cháo included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Their style is also said to be solemn and majestic. The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment in an accessible, realistic manner, progressively led to a research towards more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art.
Historical records indicate Cao Cao was a brilliant ruler and poet. Cáo Cāo ( 曹[[wikt 操|操]] 155 &ndash March 15, 220) was a regional Warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Cao Cao was also the father of the well-known poets Cao Pi and Cao Zhi. Cao Pi (曹丕 187 - June 29, 226) formally Emperor Wen of (Cao Wei (曹魏文帝 Courtesy name Zihuan (子桓 was Cao Zhi (曹植 192 &ndash 232 was a Chinese Poet during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period
Cao Pi is known for writing the first Chinese poem using seven syllables per line (七言詩), the poem 燕歌行. Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China.
Cao Zhi demonstrated his spontaneous wit at an early age and was a front-running candidate for the throne; however, such ability was devoted to Chinese literature and poetry, which was encouraged by his father's subordinate officials. Later he surrounded himself with a group of poets and officials with literary interests, including some who continually showed off their smartness at the expense of Cao Cao and Cao Pi's subordinates and even Cao Cao himself.
Tao Qian's poetry influenced the work of many subsequent poets. Translation Editions Meng Erdong ed Tao Yuanming Ji Yi Zhu ISBN 7-80626-064-1 Approximately 120 of his poems survive, which depict an idyllic pastoral life of farming and drinking. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability
In ancient China, painting and calligraphy were the most highly appreciated arts in court circles and were produced almost exclusively by amateurs, aristocrats and scholar-officials who alone had the leisure to perfect the technique and sensibility necessary for great brushwork. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Calligraphy was thought to be the highest and purest form of painting. The implements were the brush pen, made of animal hair, and black inks, made from pine soot and animal glue. An ink is a Liquid containing various Pigments and/or Dyes used for coloring a surface to produce an Image, text, or Writing as well as painting was done on silk. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons But after the invention of paper in the 1st century, silk was gradually replaced by the new and cheaper material. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. Original writings by famous calligraphers have been greatly valued throughout China's history and are mounted on scrolls and hung on walls in the same way that paintings are.
Wang Xizhi was a famous Chinese calligrapher who lived in the 4th century AD. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century His most famous work is the Lanting Xu, the preface of a collection of poems written by a number of poets when gathering at Lan Ting near the town of Shaoxing in Zhejiang province and engaging in a game called "qu shui liu shang". The Lantingji Xu ( or Lanting Xu (蘭亭序 is the most famous work of calligraphy by Wang Xizhi, composed in year 353
Wei Shuo was a well-known calligrapher of Eastern Jin Dynasty who established consequential rules about the Regular Script. Wei Shuo ( 272–349 Courtesy name Mouyi (茂猗 sobriquet He'nan (和南 commonly addressed just as Lady Wei (衛夫人 was a The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties The regular script or standard script, or in Chinese kaishu ( and Japanese kaisho, also commonly known as standard regular Her well-known works include Famous Concubine Inscription (名姬帖 Ming Ji Tie) and The Inscription of Wei-shi He'nan (衛氏和南帖 Wei-shi He'nan Tie).
Gu Kaizhi is a celebrated painter of ancient China born in Wuxi. Gu Kaizhi ( (ca 344-406 is a celebrated painter of ancient China. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Administration The Prefecture-level city of Wuxi administers 9 county-level divisions, including 7 districts and 2 county-level He wrote three books about painting theory: On Painting (画论), Introduction of Famous Paintings of Wei and Jin Dynasties (魏晋胜流画赞) and Painting Yuntai Mountain (画云台山记). He wrote, "In figure paintings the clothes and the appearances were not very important. The eyes were the spirit and the decisive factor. "
Three of Gu's paintings still survive today. They are "Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies", "Nymph of the Luo River" (洛神赋), and "Wise and Benevolent Women".
There are other examples of Jin Dynasty painting from tombs. This includes the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, painted on a brick wall of a tomb located near modern Nanjing and now found in the Shaanxi Provincial Museum. Each of the figures are labeled and shown either drinking, writing, or playing a musical intstrument. Other tomb paintings also depict scenes of daily life, such as men plowing fields with teams of oxen.
Following a transition under the Sui Dynasty, Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly lifelike expression. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by As a consequence of the Dynasty's openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India from the 4th to the 11th century, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period.
However, foreign influences came to be negatively perceived towards the end of the Tang dynasty. In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wu-Tsung outlawed all "foreign" religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism) in order to support the indigenous Taoism. Events March 28 — Paris is sacked by Viking raiders probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange Emperor Tang Wuzong (ca 810 – 846 born Li Yan, was the fifteenth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 840 to 846 Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions He confiscated Buddhist possessions and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the ulterior development of the religion and its arts in China.
Most wooden Tang sculptures have not survived, though representations of the Tang international style can still be seen in Nara, Japan. is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The longevity of stone sculpture has proved much greater. Some of the finest examples can be seen at Longmen, near Luoyang, Yungang near Datong, and Bingling Temple, in Gansu. Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. The Yungang Grottoes ( are ancient Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the Chinese province of Shanxi. Datong ( is a city in the northern Shanxi Province in China, and is located a few hundred kilometres west by rail from Beijing with an elevation of The Bingling Temple ( is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.
One of the most famous Buddhist Chinese pagodas is the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in 652 AD. The Chinese Pagoda is a Landmark in Birmingham, England. It is a stone carving of a Chinese pagoda, carved in Fujian, China Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda ( is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province China.
Yue fu are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. Yue fu ( Traditional Chinese: 樂府 Simplified Chinese: 乐府 Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ are Chinese poems composed in a Folk song Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The term literally means "music bureau", a reference to the government organization originally charged with collecting or writing the lyrics. Lyrics (in singular form Lyric) are a set of words that accompany music either by speaking or singing
The lines are of uneven length, though five characters is the most common. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( Each poem follows one of a series of patterns defined by the song title. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification The term covers original folk songs, court imitations and versions by known poets. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose"
From the 2nd century AD, the yue fu began to develop into shi—the form which was to dominate Chinese poetry until the modern era. The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China. The writers of these poems took the five-character line of the yue fu and used it to express more complex ideas. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( The shi poem was generally an expression of the poet's own persona rather than the adopted characters of the yue fu; many were romantic nature poems heavily influenced by Taoism. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions
The term gushi ("old poems") can refer either to the first, mostly anonymous shi poems, or more generally to the poems written in the same form by later poets. Gushi in this latter sense are defined essentially by what they are not; that is, they are not jintishi (regulated verse). The writer of gushi was under no formal constraints other than line length and rhyme (in every second line). This article is about the poetic technique For the form of ice see Rime ice.
Jintishi, or regulated verse, developed from the 5th century onwards. Constrained writing is a Literary technique in which the writer is bound by some condition that forbids certain things or imposes a pattern The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. By the Tang dynasty, a series of set tonal patterns had been developed, which were intended to ensure a balance between the four tones of classical Chinese in each couplet: the level tone, and the three deflected tones (rising, falling and entering). A tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words Spoken Chinese ( comprises many regional variants the largest of which are Mandarin, Wu, Cantonese, and Min. A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter The Tang dynasty was the high point of the jintishi.
Notable poets from this era include Bai Juyi, Du Mu, Han Yu, Jia Dao, Li Qiao, Liu Zongyuan, Luo Binwang, Meng Haoran, Wang Wei, and Zhang Jiuling. Life Bai Juyi was born in Xinzheng to a poor but scholarly family Du Mu ( 803—852 was a leading realistic Chinese poet of the late Tang Dynasty. Quote "It is universally admitted that the unicorn is a supernatural being of good omen such is declared in all the odes annals biographies of illustrious Jia Dao ( 779—843 Courtesy name Langxian (浪先 was a Chinese poet born near modern Beijing. Li Jiao (李嶠 Courtesy name Jushan (巨山 formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公 was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty Liu Zongyuan ( 773–819 Courtesy name Zihou (子厚 was a Chinese writer who lived in Chang'an during the Tang Dynasty. Luo Binwang ( ca 640– December 29, 684) Courtesy name Guanguang (觀光/观光 was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty Meng Haoran ( 689 or 691 - 740 was a Chinese poet during the Tang Dynasty. Wang Wei can refer to Wang Wei (Liang Dynasty (王偉 an official under Hou Jing Zhang Jiuling ( (673&ndash740 Courtesy name Zishou (子壽 nickname Bowu (博物 formally Count Wenxian of Shixing (始興文獻伯
Over a thousand poems are attributed to Li Po, but the authenticity of many of these is uncertain. He is best known for his yue fu poems, which are intense and often fantastic. Yue fu ( Traditional Chinese: 樂府 Simplified Chinese: 乐府 Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ are Chinese poems composed in a Folk song Fantastic is a literary term that describes a quality of other literary genres and in some cases is used as a genre in and of itself although in this case it is often conflated with the He is often associated with Taoism: there is a strong element of this in his works, both in the sentiments they express and in their spontaneous tone. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Nevertheless, his gufeng ("ancient airs") often adopt the perspective of the Confucian moralist, and many of his occasional verses are fairly conventional.
Much like Mozart, many legends exist on how Li Po effortlessly composed his poetry, even (or some say, especially) when drunk; his favorite form is the jueju (five- or seven-character quatrain), of which he composed some 160 pieces. Using striking, unconventional imagery, Li Po is able to create exquisite pieces to utilize fully the elements of the language. His use of language is not as erudite as Du Fu's but equally effective, impressing through an extravagance of imagination and a direct connection of a free-spirited persona with the reader. Li Po's interactions with nature, friendship, and his acute observations of life inform his best poems. Some of the rest, like Changgan xing (translated by Ezra Pound as A River Merchant's Wife: A Letter), records the hardships or emotions of common people. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Like the best Chinese poets, Li Po often evades translation.
Since the Song dynasty, critics have called Du Fu the "poet historian". The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it The most directly historical of his poems are those commenting on military tactics or the successes and failures of the government, or the poems of advice which he wrote to the emperor. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating
One of the Du Fu's earliest surviving works, The Song of the Wagons (c. 750), gives voice to the sufferings of a conscript soldier in the imperial army, even before the beginning of the rebellion; this poem brings out the tension between the need of acceptance and fulfillment of one's duties, and a clear-sighted consciousness of the suffering which this can involve. Events By Geography Asia Gopala is proclaimed as the first ruler of the Pala Empire. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Duty (from "due" that which is owing O Fr deu did past participle of devoir Lat
Du Fu's work is notable above all for its range. He mastered all the forms of Chinese poetry: Chou says that in every form he "either made outstanding advances or contributed outstanding examples" (p. Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China. 56). Furthermore, his poems use a wide range of registers, from the direct and colloquial to the allusive and self-consciously literary. In Linguistics, a register is a subset of a Language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or Paralinguistics. An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference or representation of or to a well-known person place event literary work myth, or work of art The tenor of his work changed as he developed his style and adapted to his surroundings ("chameleonlike" according to Watson): his earliest works are in a relatively derivative, courtly style, but he came into his own in the years of the rebellion. Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best-known Lizard families Owen comments on the "grim simplicity" of the Qinzhou poems, which mirrors the desert landscape (p. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. 425); the works from his Chengdu period are "light, often finely observed" (p. 427); while the poems from the late Kuizhou period have a "density and power of vision" (p. 433).
Li Shangyin was a Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. Li Shangyin ( ca 813–858 Courtesy name Yishan (義山 was a Chinese Poet of the late Tang Dynasty, born in Henei He was a typical Late Tang poet: his works are sensuous, dense and allusive. The latter quality makes adequate translation extremely difficult. Many of his poems have political, romantic or philosophical implications, but it is often unclear which of these should be read into each work.
Li Yu was a Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Southern Tang Kingdom. Li Houzhu ( 936–978 also known as Houzhu of Southern Tang (南唐後主 literally "the latter lord of Southern Tang" personal name Li Yu (李煜 His best-known poems were composed during the years after the Song formally ended his reign in 975 and brought him back as a captive to the Song capital, Bianjing (now Kaifeng). Events By Place Europe King Edward the Martyr is crowned in England. Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Li's works from this period dwell on his regret for the lost kingdom and the pleasures it had brought him. He was finally poisoned by the Song emperor in 978. Events By Place Europe Badìa Fiorentina, an abbey in Florence, Italy, is founded by Willa Margravine of Tuscany
Li Yu developed the ci by broadening its scope from love to history and philosophy, particularly in his later works. Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He also introduced the two-stanza form, and made great use of contrasts between longer lines of nine characters and shorter ones of three and five. In Poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger Poem. In modern poetry the term is often equivalent with Strophe; in popular vocal music a stanza is A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
Beginning in the Tang dynasty (618–907), the primary subject matter of painting was the landscape, known as shanshui (mountain water) painting. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. Events By Place Asia Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople (see Rus'-Byzantine Shan Shui ( lit "mountain-water" refers to a style of Chinese painting that involves the painting of Scenery or natural landscapes with In these landscapes, usually monochromatic and sparse, the purpose was not to reproduce exactly the appearance of nature but rather to grasp an emotion or atmosphere so as to catch the "rhythm" of nature.
Painting in the traditional style involved essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils were not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made are paper and silk. The finished work is then mounted on scrolls, which can be hung or rolled up. Traditional painting also is done in albums and on walls, lacquerwork, and other media. In a general sense lacquer is a clear or coloured Varnish, that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard durable finish in any
Dong Yuan was an active painter in the Southern Tang Kingdom. Dŏng Yuán (董源 (c 934-c 962 was a Chinese painter. He was born in Zhongling. He was known for both figure and landscape paintings, and exemplified the elegant style which would become the standard for brush painting in China over the next 900 years. As with many artists in China, his profession was as an official where he studied the existing styles of Li Sixun and Wang Wei. However, he added to the number of techniques, including more sophisticated perspective, use of pointillism and crosshatching to build up vivid effect.
Zhan Ziqian was a painter during the Sui Dynasty. Zhan Ziqian (展子虔 was a great painter of ancient China, and from Yangxin county (阳信县 Shandong province His only painting in existence is Strolling About In Spring arranged mountains perspectively. Because the first pure scenery paintings of Europe emerged after the 17th century, Strolling About In Spring may well be the first scenery painting of the world. .
Ci is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. Ci ( interchangeable with 辭 is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. Lyric poetry refers to a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings which may or may not be set to music Chinese Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in China. Beginning in the Liang Dynasty, the ci followed the tradition of the Shi Jing and the yue fu: they were lyrics which developed from anonymous popular songs (some of Central Asian origin) into a sophisticated literary genre. Liang Dynasty ( 梁[[wikt 朝|朝]] Pinyin: Liáng cháo (502-557 also known as Southern Liang Dynasty (南梁 was the third of Southern dynasties Shi Jing ( translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the earliest Yue fu ( Traditional Chinese: 樂府 Simplified Chinese: 乐府 Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ are Chinese poems composed in a Folk song Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The form was further developed in the Tang Dynasty, and was most popular in the Song Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ci most often expressed feelings of desire, often in an adopted persona, but the greatest exponents of the form (such as Li Houzhu and Su Shi) used it to address a wide range of topics. A persona, in the word's everyday usage is a social Role or a character played by an Actor. Li Houzhu ( 936–978 also known as Houzhu of Southern Tang (南唐後主 literally "the latter lord of Southern Tang" personal name Li Yu (李煜 Su Shi ( 1037–1101 was a writer, poet, Artist, calligrapher, Pharmacologist, and Statesman of the Song Dynasty
Well-known poets of the Song Dynasty include Zeng Gong, Li Qingzhao, Lu You, Mei Yaochen, Ouyang Xiu, Su Dongpo, Wang Anshi, and Xin Qiji. Zeng Gong ( 1019–1083 Courtesy name Zigu (子固 was a Chinese Scholar and Historian of the Song Dynasty in China Li Qingzhao ( Traditional Chinese: 李清照 Simplified Chinese: 李清照 Pinyin: Lǐ Qīngzhào Wade-Giles: Li Ch'ing-chao (1084&ndashc Career Early career Lu You came from a family in which there were some government officials Mei Yaochen (or Mei Yao-ch'en (梅尧臣 or 梅堯臣 (1002 - 1060 was a poet of the Song dynasty. Early life He was born in Mingyang, Sichuan where his father was a judge though his family comes from present day Jishui (then known as Luling Su Shi ( 1037–1101 was a writer, poet, Artist, calligrapher, Pharmacologist, and Statesman of the Song Dynasty Background Under the Song Dynasty the unprecedented development of large estates whose owners managed to evade paying their share of Taxes resulted in an increasingly See also List of Chinese authors Zh-classical辛棄疾
During the Song dynasty (960–1279), landscapes of more subtle expression appeared; immeasurable distances were conveyed through the use of blurred outlines, mountain contours disappearing into the mist, and impressionistic treatment of natural phenomena. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Events By Place Europe Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. Emphasis was placed on the spiritual qualities of the painting and on the ability of the artist to reveal the inner harmony of man and nature, as perceived according to Taoist and Buddhist concepts. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
Liang Kai was a Chinese painter who lived in the 13th century (Song Dynasty). Liáng Kǎi (梁楷 ( fl. late 12th -early 13th century) was a Chinese artist who studied with and then excelled his master Jia Shigu. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms He called himself "Madman Liang," and he spent his life drinking and painting. Eventually, he retired and became a Zen monk. Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. Liang is credited with inventing the Zen school of Chinese art.
Wen Tong was a painter who lived in the 11th century. Wen Tong (文同 (1019-1079 was a Northern Song painter famous for his Ink Bamboo pantings He was famous for ink paintings of bamboo. Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily He could hold two brushes in one hand and paint two different distanced bamboos simultaneously. He did not need to see the bamboo while he painted them because he had seen a lot of them.
Zhang Zeduan was a notable painter for his horizontal Along the River During Qingming Festival landscape and cityscape painting. Zhang Zeduan ( (1085-1145 AD alias Zheng Dao was a famous Chinese painter during the twelfth century during the transitional period from the Northern Song to the Southern Along the River During the Qingming Festival ( is the title of several Panoramic paintings the original version generally attributed to the Song Dynasty It has been quoted as "China's Mona Lisa" and has had many well-known remakes throughout Chinese history. Mona Lisa (also known as La Gioconda) is a 16th century portrait painted in oil on a Poplar panel by  Other famous paintings include The Night Revels of Han Xizai, originally painted by the Southern Tang artist Gu Hongzhong in the 10th century, while the well-known version of his painting is a 12th century remake of the Song Dynasty. Gu Hongzhong ( Chinese: 顾闳中 Pinyin: Gù Hóngzhōng 937-975 was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history Southern Tang (also referred to as Nantang) ( Chinese: 南唐 Pinyin Nán Táng was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China Gu Hongzhong ( Chinese: 顾闳中 Pinyin: Gù Hóngzhōng 937-975 was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history This is a large horizontal handscroll of a domestic scene showing men of the gentry class being entertained by musicians and dancers while enjoying food, beverage, and wash basins provided by maidservants. In imperial China, Gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendants In 2000, the modern artist Wang Qingsong created a parody of this painting with a long, horizontal photograph of people in modern clothing making similar facial expressions, poses, and hand gestures as the original painting.
Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. Chinese Opera ( Chinese: 戏曲/戲曲 Pinyin: xìqǔ is a popular form of Drama and Musical theatre in China with roots going back Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National In general, it dates back to the Tang dynasty with Emperor Xuanzong (712–755), who founded the "Pear Garden" (梨园), the first known opera troupe in China. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Emperor Xuanzong of Tang ( ( September 8, 685 Background Li Longji was born at the Tang Dynasty eastern capital Luoyang Events By Place Europe Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. Events By Place Europe Abd-ar-Rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty The Pear Garden or Liyuan ( Chinese: 梨园 the first known royal acting and musical academy in China. The troupe mostly performed for the emperors' personal pleasure. To this day operatic professionals are still referred to as "Disciples of the Pear Garden" (梨园子弟). In the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), forms like the Zaju (杂剧, variety plays), which acts based on rhyming schemes plus the innovation of having specialized roles like "Dan" (旦, female), "Sheng" (生, male) and "Chou" (丑, Clown), were introduced into the opera. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Dan ( 旦) is the general name for Female roles in Chinese opera.
Yuan dynasty opera continues today as Cantonese opera. Cantonese opera is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern China 's Cantonese culture. It is universally accepted that Cantonese opera was imported from the northern part of China and slowly migrated to the southern province of Guangdong in late 13th century, during the late Southern Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms In the 12th century, there was a theatrical form called Narm hei (南戲), or the Nanxi (Southern opera), which was performed in public theaters of Hangzhou, then capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, With the invasion of the Mongol army, Emperor Gong (Gong Di (恭帝 Gōngdì)), Zhao Xian (趙顯 Zhào Xiǎn) fled with hundreds of thousands of Song people into the province of Guangdong in 1276. Emperor Gongdi ( chinese: 宋恭帝 1271-1323 also known as Zhào Xiǎn (趙顯 was the 16th Emperor of Song Dynasty. Among these people were some Narm hei artists from the north. Thus narm hei was brought into Guangdong by these artists and developed into the earliest kind of Cantonese opera.
Many well-known operas performed today, such as The Purple Hairpin and Rejuvenation of the Red Plum Flower, originated in the Yuan Dynasty, with the lyrics and scripts in Cantonese. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Until the 20th century all the female roles were performed by males. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
Wang Meng was a Chinese painter during the Yuan dynasty. Wang Meng (王蒙 Wáng Méng (c 1308 &ndash 1385 Chinese painter during the Yuan dynasty. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai One of his well-known works is the Forest Grotto.
Zhao Mengfu was a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty. Zhao Mengfu ( 1254–1322 Courtesy name Ziang (子昂 Pseudonyms Songxue (松雪 "Pine Snow" Oubo (鸥波 "Gull China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai His rejection of the refined, gentle brushwork of his era in favor of the cruder style of the eighth century is considered to have brought about a revolution that created the modern Chinese landscape painting. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. There was also the vivid and detailed works of art by Qian Xuan (1235-1305), who had served the Song court, and out of patriotism refused to serve the Mongols, instead turning to painting. Qián Xuǎn (1235-1305 was a Song loyalist painter from Zhejiang. He was famous for reviving and reproducing a more Tang Dynasty style of painting.
Gao Qi is acknowledged by many as the greatest poet of the Ming Dynasty. Gao Qi (高启 1336 &ndash 1374style name Ji Di 季迪 pseudonym Qinqiuzhi 青丘子 is generally acknowledged as the greatest poet of the The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led His poems are departure of those of earlier dynasties and formed a new style of poetry in the Ming dynasty
Under the Ming dynasty, Chinese culture bloomed. Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than the Song paintings, was immensely popular during the time. As the techniques of color printing were perfected, illustrated manuals on the art of painting began to be published. Jieziyuan Huazhuan (Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden), a five-volume work first published in 1679, has been in use as a technical textbook for artists and students ever since. Jieziyuan Huazhuan ( "Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden" sometimes known as Jieziyuan Huapu (芥子園畫譜 is a manual of Chinese painting Matteo Ricci, Wen Zhengming, Xu Wei
The best-known form of Chinese opera is Beijing opera, which assumed its present form in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Matteo Ricci SJ ( October 6 1552 &ndash May 11 1610;; Courtesy name: 西泰 Xītài was an Italian Jesuit priest Wen Zhengming ( 1470&ndash1559 was a leading Ming Dynasty painter, Calligrapher, and scholar Xu Wei ( 1521—1593 was a Ming Chinese painter, poet and dramatist famed for his artistic expressiveness Chinese Opera ( Chinese: 戏曲/戲曲 Pinyin: xìqǔ is a popular form of Drama and Musical theatre in China with roots going back Beijing opera or Peking opera ( is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music vocal performance mime dance and acrobatics The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China In Beijing Opera, traditional Chinese string and percussion instruments provide a strong rhythmic accompaniment to the acting. The acting is based on allusion: gestures, footwork, and other body movements express such actions as riding a horse, rowing a boat, or opening a door.
Although it is called Beijing opera, its origins are not in Beijing but in the Chinese provinces of Anhui and Hubei. Anhui (in Chinese: 安徽 Ānhuī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. Beijing opera got its two main melodies, Xipi and Erhuang, from Anhui and Hubei operas. Four Great Characteristic Melodies (四大声腔 Pinyin: Sìdà Shēngqiāng in Chinese opera are Bangziqiang, Huangpiqiang, Kunqiang Much dialogue is also carried out in an archaic dialect originating partially from those regions. It also absorbed music and arias from other operas and musical arts such as the historic Qinqiang. Qinqiang (秦腔 Pinyin: Qínqiāng or Luantan ( 亂彈, Pinyin: Luàntán is the representative folk Chinese opera of the northwest It is regarded that Beijing Opera was born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes came to Beijing in 1790. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Beijing opera was originally staged for the court and came into the public later. In 1828, some famous Hubei troupes came to Beijing. The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap They often jointly performed in the stage with Anhui troupes. The combination gradually formed Beijing opera's main melodies.
Yuan Mei was a well-known poet who lived during the Qing Dynasty. Yuan Mei (袁枚 Pinyin: Yuán Méi 1716 – 1797 was a well-known poet scholar and artist of the Qing Dynasty. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China In the decades before his death, Yuan Mei produced a large body of poetry, essays and paintings. His works reflected his interest in Chan Buddhism and the supernatural, at the expense of Daoism and institutional Buddhism—both of which he rejected. Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Yuan is most famous for his poetry, which has been described as "unusually clear and elegant language". His views on poetry as expressed in the Suiyuan shihua (隨園詩話) stressed the importance of personal feeling and technical perfection.
The Shanghai School (海上画派 Haishang Huapai or 海派 Haipai) is a very important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty and the whole of the 20th century. Giuseppe Castiglione may refer to Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit (1688-1766 Italian Jesuit Brother missionary and court painter in China Bada Shanren ( ca 1626—1705, born as Zhu Da (朱耷 was a Chinese painter of Shuimohua and a Calligrapher. Jiang Tingxi ( 1669–1732 Courtesy name Yangsun (杨孙 was a Chinese painter, and an editor of the Encyclopedia Yuanji Shih T'ao, born Zhu Ruoji (1642 - 1707 was a Chinese artist Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Under efforts of masters from this school, traditional Chinese art reached another climax and continued to the present in forms of "Chinese painting" (中国画), or guohua (国画) for short. Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world The Shanghai School challenged and broke the literati tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art, and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse, and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The most well-known figures from this school are Ren Xiong (任熊), Ren Yi (任伯年, also known as Ren Bonian), Zhao Zhiqian (赵之谦), Wu Changshuo (吴昌硕), Sha Menghai (沙孟海, calligraphist), Pan Tianshou (潘天寿), Fu Baoshi (傅抱石). Ren Xiong (任熊 1823-57 Chinese painter from Xiaoshan, active during during the late Qing dynasty Rèn Yí (任頤 1840-1896 was a painter and son of a rice merchant who supplemented his income by doing portraits Zhao Zhiqian ( Chinese 赵之谦 1829-1884 is a renowned Chinese calligrapher and painter in Qing Dynasty. Wú Chāngshuò (1844-1927 is the name for which Wu Junqing is best known Sha Menghai ( June 11 1900 —1992 born Shi Wenruo (沙文若 was a great master of Calligraphy in China. Pan Tianshou ( Chinese: 潘天寿 Pinyin: Pān Tiānshòu 1897-1971 was a notable painter and art educator of modern China. Fu Baoshi (1904-1965 was a Chinese painter from Xinyu, Jiangxi Province Other well-known painters are: Wang Zhen, XuGu, Zhang Xiong, Hu Yuan, and Yang Borun. Wang Zhen ( was a celebrated modern Chinese artist of the Shanghai School. Yang Borun ( 1837–1911 born Yang Peifu (杨佩夫 was a well-known Chinese poet, calligrapher, and painter of the Shanghai
Many great works of art and literature originated during the period, and the Qianlong emperor in particular undertook huge projects to preserve important cultural texts. The novel form became widely read and perhaps China's most famous novel, Dream of the Red Chamber, was written in the mid-eighteenth century.
Cao Xueqin is the author of the famous Chinese work Dream of the Red Chamber. Cao Xueqin ( ca 1724? —1763? is the author of Dream of the Red Chamber, believed by many to be the greatest Novel written in the Chinese Dream of the Red Chamber (also Red Chamber Dream, Hung Lou Meng or A Dream of Red Mansions) ( originally The Story of the Stone Extant handwritten copies of this work—some 80 chapters—had been in circulation in Beijing shortly after Cao's death, before Gao Ê, who claimed to have access to the former's working papers, published a complete 120-chapter version in 1792. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
Pu Songling was a famous writer of Liaozhai Zhiyi 《聊齋志異》during the Qing dynasty. Pu Songling ( June 5 1640 — February 25 1715) was a Chinese author who wrote during the Qing Dynasty. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio or Liaozhai Zhiyi (also Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Tales of Liaozhai Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China He opened a tea house and invited his guests to tell stories, and then he would compile the tales into collections such as Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio or Liaozhai Zhiyi (also Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Tales of Liaozhai
With the end of the last dynasty in China, the New Culture Movement began and defied all facets of traditionalism. The New Culture Movement ( refers to the period between 1917 and 1923 in China, which was marked by student and intellectual ferment and protests against the warlord government A new breed of 20th century cultural philosophers like Xiao Youmei, Cai Yuanpei, Feng Zikai and Wang Guangqi wanted Chinese culture to modernize and reflect the New China. Feng Zikai ( ( 1898 - 1975) was a Chinese painter and cartoonist The Chinese Civil War would cause a drastic split between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Following was the Second Sino-Japanese War in particular the Battle of Shanghai would leave the major cultural art center borderline to a humanitarian crisis. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China and the Imperial Still, depending on one's view it can be argued that some of the greatest modern art achievements were accomplished during this period.
It is during this time that Shanghai became the birthplace and entertainment hub of the three new major art forms, Chinese cinema, Chinese animation and Chinese popular music. The Chinese-language cinema has three distinct historical threads Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. Chinese animation ( are Animations from China, including the regions Mainland China, and Hong Kong. C-pop () is an abbreviation for " Chinese Popular music ". These entertainment were heavily inspired by western technology. For the first time, local citizens adopted and molded western culture to fit into Chinese culture in a positive way without any imperial court intervention.
The most popular form of comics Lianhuanhua which circulated as palm sized books in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Northern China. Lianhuanhua ( Chinese: 连环画 ( Simplified) 連環畫 ( Traditional) Pinyin: Liánhuánhuà or 連環圖 is a palm-size Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city ( is the capital of Hubei province and is the most populous city in central People's Republic of China. Northern China or North China ( literally "China's north" is a Geographical region of China. It became one of the most affordable form of entertainment art. The famous Sanmao character would also be born at this time.
Western style oil painting was introduced to China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
The Communist Party of China would have full control of the government with Mao Zedong heading the People's Republic of China. Havoc in Heaven ( also known as Uproar in Heaven, is a Chinese animated Feature film directed by Wan Laiming and produced Chinese animation ( are Animations from China, including the regions Mainland China, and Hong Kong. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES If the art was presented in a manner that favored the government, the artists were heavily promoted. Vice versa, any clash with communist party beliefs would force the artists to become farmers via "re-education" processes under the regime. The peak era of governmental control came under the Cultural Revolution. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into The most notable event was the Destruction of the Four Olds, which had major consequences against pottery, paintings, literary art, architecture and countless others. The Four Olds or the Four Old Things ( were Old Customs Old Culture Old Habits and Old Ideas
Chinese popular music musicians like Zhou Xuan and Li Jinhui were immediately endangered under the new regime as it labeled the genre yellow music (pornography). Zhou Xuan ( -) was a popular Chinese singer and Film actress By the 1940s she had become one of the Seven great singing stars. Li Jinhui was a composer and songwriter born in Xiangtan, China in 1891 Yellow Music (Chinese 黃色音樂 Huang2 Se4 Yin1 Yue4 wong sik jam ngok or (Chinese 黃歌 Huang2 Ge1 wong go was a label used to describe early generations of Chinese popular Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer On the contrary, revolutionary music was promoted and brought to new heights like never before. Guoyue ( 国[[wikt 乐|乐]] literally "national music" is a modernized form of Chinese traditional music written or adapted for some form of grand presentation The film and animation industry would make their last run until the Cultural revolution, which would hinder any progress with serious restrictions and unreasonable censorship. The Chinese-language cinema has three distinct historical threads Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. Chinese animation ( are Animations from China, including the regions Mainland China, and Hong Kong. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor A large number of Shanghai citizens, including artists , immigrated to Hong Kong. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders It would fuel the birth of modern Chinese art in the British colony that has until now, been largely dominated by British entertainment. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The pop music industry would rebound in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The animation race would be lost to Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
Artists were encouraged to employ socialist realism. Socialist realism is a teleologically -oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of Socialism and Communism Some Soviet Union socialist realism was imported without modification, and painters were assigned subjects and expected to mass-produce paintings. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This regimen was considerably relaxed in 1953, and after the Hundred Flowers Campaign of 1956–57, traditional Chinese painting experienced a significant revival. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, ( is the period referring to a brief interlude in the People's Republic of China from Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Along with these developments in professional art circles, there was a proliferation of peasant art depicting everyday life in the rural areas on wall murals and in open-air painting exhibitions. Notable modern Chinese painters include Huang Binhong, Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong, Chang Ta Chien, Pan Tianshou, Wu Changshi, Fu Baoshi, Wang Kangle and Zhang Chongren. Huáng Bīnhóng (黃賓虹 ( 1865 - 1955) was an Art historian and Literati painter born in either Anhui or Zhejiang (sources Qi Baishi ( also Ch'i Pai-shih) ( January 1, 1864 - September 16, 1957) was a Chinese painter Xu Beihong ( was primarily known for his Shuimohua (Chinese ink paintings of horses and birds and one of the first Pan Tianshou ( Chinese: 潘天寿 Pinyin: Pān Tiānshòu 1897-1971 was a notable painter and art educator of modern China. Fu Baoshi (1904-1965 was a Chinese painter from Xinyu, Jiangxi Province Zhang Chongren ( born Xujiahui 1907 died Paris, 8 October 1998 was a Chinese artist and sculptor best remembered in Europe as the friend
Modern Chinese poems (新詩 vers libre) usually do not follow any prescribed pattern. Bei Dao is the most notable representative of the Misty Poets, a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. Bei Dao ("Northern Island" is another name for Zhifu Island. The Misty Poets ( are a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into The work of the Misty Poets and Bei Dao in particular were an inspiration to pro-democracy movements in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Most notable was his poem "Huida" ("The Answer"), which was written during the 1976 Tiananmen demonstrations in which he participated. The Tiananmen Incident ( Sìwǔ Tiān'ānmén shìjiàn, "April 5 Tian'anmen Incident" took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square The poem was taken up as a defiant anthem of the pro-appeared on posters during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre (referred to in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident, to avoid confusion with two
Xu Zhimo is a romantic poet who loved the poetry of the English Romantics like Keats and Shelley. Brief Biography Xu was born in Haining Zhejiang. In 1915 he married Zhang Youyi and next year he went to Peiyang Univeristy ( Beiyang University Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4 1792 – July 8 1822 ˈpɝːsɪ ˈbɪʃ ˈʃɛlɪ was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among He was one of the first Chinese writers to successfully naturalize Western romantic forms into modern Chinese poetry.
Contemporary Chinese art (中国当代艺术, Zhongguo Dangdai Yishu) often referred to as Chinese avant-garde art, continued to develop since the 1980's as an outgrowth of modern art developments post-Cultural Revolution. Contemporary Chinese art fully incorporates painting, film, video, photography, and performance. Until recently, art exhibitions deemed controversial have been routinely shut down by police, and performance artists in particular faced the threat of arrest in the early 1990's. More recently there has been greater tolerance by the Chinese government, though many internationally acclaimed artists are still restricted from media exposure at home or have exhibitions ordered closed. Leading contemporary visual artists include Ai Weiwei, Cai Guoqiang, Cai Xin, Fang Lijun, Huang Yan, Huang Yong Ping, Kong Bai Ji, Lu Shengzhong, Ma Liuming, Ma Qingyun, Song Dong, Li Wei, Christine Wang, Wang Guangyi, Wang Qingsong, Wenda Gu, Xu Bing, Yang Zhichao, Zhan Wang, Zhang Dali, Zhang Xiaogang, Zhang Huan, Zhu Yu, Yan Lei, and Zhang Yue. Ai Weiwei ( Chinese: 艾[[wikt 未|未]] 未 Pinyin:;; --> born in 1957 in Beijing, is a leading Chinese Fang Lijun (born 1963 Handan, Hebei province, China) is an artist based in Beijing. Huang Yong Ping (born 1954 is a contemporary French visual artist of Chinese origin Kong Bai Ji was a contemporary Chinese artist born in Shanghai, in the People's Republic of China, in 1932 and began painting at age five Li Wei may refer to Li Wei (artist Li Wei (scientist (李未 a president of Beihang University Li Wei (hockey player Christine Wang (born 1967) is a Taiwan -born American Architect, new media curator art critic and founder of the Wang Museum of Technology. Wang Guangyi (1956/7 –) is a Chinese Artist known for being the leader of the New Art Movement circles that erupted out of China after 1989 and for Xu Bing ( Chinese: 徐冰 b 1955 is a Chinese -born artist resident in the United States since 1990 Yang Zhichao, Born in 1963 in Gansu province Northern Manchuria, is a Chinese Revolutionary and extreme performance artist Zhan Wang (simplified Chinese 展望 pinyin Zhǎn Wàng is a noted contemporary Chinese sculptor. Zhang Dali (born 1963 Harbin, China) is an artist based in Beijing. Zhang Xiaogang (張曉剛 / 张晓刚 (born 1958) is a contemporary Chinese Symbolist and Surrealist painter. Zhang Huan (Chinese 張洹 born 1965) is a Chinese artist based in New York. Zhu Yu ( b 1971 is a Performance artist living in Beijing, China. Zhang Yue (born January 27 1993 in Qiqihar) is a Chinese Pair skater.
Beginning in the late 1980s there was unprecedented exposure for younger Chinese visual artists in the west to some degree through the agency of curators based outside the country such as Hou Hanru. Local curators within the country such as Gao Minglu and critics such as Li Xianting (栗宪庭) reinforced this promotion of particular brands of painting that had recently emerged, while also spreading the idea of art as a strong social force within Chinese culture. There was some controversy as critics identified these imprecise representations of contemporary Chinese art as having been constructed out of personal preferences, a kind of programmatized artist-curator relationship that only further alienated the majority of the avant-garde from Chinese officialdom and western art market patronage.
One of the area that has revived art concentration and also commercialized the industry is the 798 Art District in Dashanzi of Beijing. 798 Art Zone ( or Dashanzi Art District, is a part of Dashanzi in the Chaoyang District of Beijing that houses a thriving Artist Dashanzi (大山子 Hanyu Pinyin: Dàshānzi is a 1 Square kilometer area in the Chaoyang district of Beijing, northeast of the The artist Zhang Xiaogang sold a 1993 painting for USD $ 2. Zhang Xiaogang (張曉剛 / 张晓刚 (born 1958) is a contemporary Chinese Symbolist and Surrealist painter. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 3 million in 2006, which included blank faced Chinese families from the Cultural Revolution era. Some of the biggest names such as Stanley Ho, the owner of the Macau Casinos as well as Stephen Wynn, casino developer would capitalize on the art trends. Stanley Ho, OBE, GBS, GLM (born November 25, 1921) also known as Ho Hung-sun, Stanley Ho Hung-sun ( is an Gambling in Macau has been legal since the 1850s when the Portuguese government legalized the activity in the colony Stephen Alan Wynn (born January 27, 1942 in New Haven, Connecticut) is an American Casino Resort developer Items such as Ming Dynasty vase and exotic pieces from emperors were auctioned off.
Other arts produced in China or Hong Kong were sold in places such as Christie's including a Chinese porcelain piece with the mark of Emperor Qianlong sold for HKD $ $151. Christie's is a leading art business and a fine arts Auction house Emperor Qianlong (Chinese 乾隆 Qiánlóng, Wade-Giles' Ch'ien-Lung', Mongolian Tengeriig Tetgesen Khaan, born Hongli (弘历 September 3 million. A 1964 painting "All the Mountains Blanketed in Red" was sold for HKD $35 million. Auctions were also held at Sotheby's where Xu Beihong's 1939 masterpiece "Put Down Your Whip" sold for HKD $72 million. Sotheby's ( is the world's second oldest Auction house in continuous operation (the oldest being Stockholms Auktionsverk founded in 1674 Put Down Your Whip is a 1939 Oil painting by Chinese Realism painter Xu Beihong. The industry is not limited to fine arts, as many other types of contemporary pieces were also sold. In 2000 a number of Chinese artists were included in Documenta and the Venice Biennale of 2003. documenta is an exhibition of modern and Contemporary art which now takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. The Venice Biennale (Biennale di Venezia also called in English the "Venice Biennial " is a major Contemporary art exhibition that takes place once China now has its own major contemporary art showcase with the Venice Biennale. Fuck Off was a notorious art exhibition which ran alongside the Shanghai Biennial Festival in 2000 and was curated by independent curator Feng Boyi and the artist Ai Weiwei. " Fuck Off " was a notorious art exhibition which ran alongside the Third Shanghai Biennale (2000 which itself was the city's first attempt at a truly international Feng Boyi (fl c 2000 Chinese name 馮博一 is an eminent independent art curator and critic in China