History is the study of the past, particularly the written record of the human race, but more generally including scientific and archaeological discoveries about the past. Recently, there has been an increased interest in oral history, passed down from generation to generation. New technology, such as photography, sound recording, and motion pictures, now complement the written word in the historical record.
The word history derives from the Greek ἱστορία (historia), "a learning by inquiry" and that from ἱστορέω (historeō), "to examine, to observe, to inquire", in turn from ἵστωρ (histōr), "a wise man, one who knows right, a judge". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  Academically, history is the field of research producing a continuous narrative and a systematic analysis of past events of importance to the human race. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Analysis (from Greek ἀνάλυσις, "a breaking up" is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus  Those who study history as a profession are called historians. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it
The word history comes from Greek ἱστορία (historia), from the Proto-Indo-European *wid-tor-, from the root *weid-, "to know, to see". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents This root is also present in the English word wit, in the Latin words vision and video, in the Sanskrit word veda, and in the Slavic word videti and vedati, as well as others. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages (The asterisk before a word indicates that it is a hypothetical construction, not an attested form. ).
The Ancient Greek word ἱστορία, historía, means "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation". The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περί Τά Ζωα Ιστορία, Peri Ta Zoa Istória or, in Latinized form, Historia Animalium. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.  The term is derived from ἵστωρ, hístōr meaning wise man, witness, or judge. We can see early attestations of ἵστωρ in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness," or similar). The thirty-three anonymous Homeric Hymns celebrating individual gods are a collection of ancient Greek Hymns "Homeric" in the sense that they employ the Heraclitus of Ephesus ( Ancient Greek: &mdash grc-Latn ''Hērákleitos ho Ephésios'' English Heraclitus the Ephesian) (ca Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the The spirant is problematic, and not present in cognate Greek eídomai ("to appear"). The form historeîn, "to inquire", is an Ionic derivation, which spread first in Classical Greece and ultimately over all of Hellenistic civilization. Ionic Greek was a sub-dialect of the Attic-Ionic dialectal group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects) In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period.
It was still in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy). In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting
The word entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States In Middle English, the meaning was "story" in general. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arises in the late 15th century. In German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". The adjective historical is attested from 1561, and historic from 1669. 
Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography
Since historians are simultaneously observers of and participants in the historical process, the historical works they produce are written from the perspective of their own time and sometimes with due concern for possible lessons for their own future. Most of the many Languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European Language family. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". Benedetto Croce ( February 25, 1866 – November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic idealist Philosopher, and History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. More precisely, history is the narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all events in time, in relation to humanity. For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of  This emphasis on the 'human' has made human subjects central to the narratives of the classical discourse of modern history. Consequently, history has assumed a sense which is broader than being solely the true narratives of human past. History is not just the past as an object of systematic knowledge or the discipline that produces knowledge out of that object; history also carries a sense that is implicit in the expression 'making history'.
All events that are remembered and preserved in some form (that cannot be invalidated as unhistorical or that otherwise remain amenable to historical discourse) constitute the historical record.  The self-assigned task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can contribute to the production of truthful accounts of past. Thus the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').
The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.  In modern academia, history is increasingly classified as a social science. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies In the 20th century the study of history was revolutionized by French historian Fernand Braudel, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Fernand Braudel ( August 24 1902 &ndash November 27 1985) was the foremost French historian of the postwar era Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena
Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have also attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.  But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.
Archaeology is a discipline which is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries.
There are a variety of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1800–1945. " It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. Big History examines History on a large scale across long Time frames through a multi-disciplinary approach History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. 
By "prehistory" historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. Protohistory refers to a period between Prehistory and History, during which a Culture or Civilization has not yet developed Writing Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings  In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote:
Such a definition would include within the scope of history peoples such as Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori who, before contact with Europeans, already possessed a strong interest in the past and maintained oral records transmitted to succeeding generations. This is an article about a class of people as identified and defined within Australian law This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation.
Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of History (Historiosophy). As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Meta (from Greek: μετά = "after" "beyond" "with" "adjacent" is a prefix used in English in order to indicate a concept A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German Evidence in its broadest sense includes anything that is used to determine or demonstrate the Truth of an assertion See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it
The following questions are used by historians in modern work.
The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a Calendar system In Computing, Internationalization and localization (also spelled internationalisation and localisation, see spelling differences) are means of adapting An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created Integrity is Consistency of actions values methods measures and principles Credibility refers to the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text as applied in Biblical studies it naturally Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines In Historiography, a primary source (also called original source) is a Document, Recording
Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – ca. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Halicarnassus (Άλικαρνᾱσσός &mdash Halikarnassós or Ἁλικαρνασσός &mdash Alikarnassós Halikarnas modern 425 BC) has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, it is his contemporary Thucydides (ca. Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek 460 BC – ca. 400 BC) who is credited with having begun the scientific approach to history in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Thucydides, unlike Herodotus and other religious historians, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention.  In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring. 
There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (145–90 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC For the quality of his timeless written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese Historiography. Chinese Historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.
Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the Medieval period. Western Christianity is a term used to cover the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Churches of the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Church The term Western thought is usually associated with the cultural tradition that traces its origins to Greek thought and the Abrahamic religions Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere A sacred history is a retelling of history, in either a literary or oral format with less emphasis on historical fact and more upon instilling Faith Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. 
In the preface to his book the Muqaddimah, historian and early sociologist Ibn Khaldun warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun ( Arabic: ar مقدّمة ابن خلدون Amazigh: Tazwarit n Ibn Xldun Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19 In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.
Other historians of note who have advanced the historical methods of study include Leopold von Ranke, Lewis Bernstein Namier, Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, G.M. Trevelyan and A.J.P. Taylor. Leopold von Ranke ( December 21, 1795 – May 23, 1886) was a German Historian of the 19th century and frequently considered Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier ( June 27 1888 &ndash August 19 1960) was an English historian Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton ( 17 August 1921 &ndash 3 December 1994) was a British Historian of the Tudor period. George Macaulay Trevelyan CBE OM ( February 16, 1876 Welcombe House, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire Alan John Percival Taylor ( March 25, 1906 – September 7, 1990) was a renowned English Historian of the 20th century In the 20th century, historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more objective analyses. French historians introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf. The term cultural history (from the German term) refers both to an Academic discipline and to its subject matter histoire des mentalités). The term history of mentalities is a calque on the French histoire des mentalités (which might also be translated as 'history of attitudes' 'history of world-views' a historical American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism In his book In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans, a professor of modern history at Cambridge University, defended the worth of history. Professor Richard Evans (born 1947 is a British Historian of Germany. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the
There are two aspects of science and history. One is a relationship between history and "natural" science. In 1910, American historian Henry Adams printed and distributed to university libraries and history professors the small volume A Letter to American Teachers of History proposing a "theory of history" based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of entropy. Henry Brooks Adams ( February 16 1838 &ndash March 27 1918) was an American Novelist, Journalist, Historian A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution The second law of Thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing Entropy, stating that the entropy of an Isolated system which In Thermodynamics (a branch of Physics) entropy, symbolized by S, is a measure of the unavailability of a system ’s Energy  This, essentially, is the use of the arrow of time in history. Adam's Theory of History never gained widespread acceptance amoung history academia.
The other aspect, far more intensely debated among professional historians, is the controversy regarding history as science as opposed to history as art. Mainly historians of the Anglo Saxon tradition advocate the view that history should be about fact finding (and assessment about reliability of source materials), rather than narrative aspect of history. 
Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur particular blocks of time. Much writing has been devoted to Entropy and life. Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity Entropy and the Evolution of Life Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide Time into discrete named blocks Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classifacatory generalisations" to be used by historians. Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide Time into discrete named blocks  The names given to a period can vary with geographical location as can the dates of the start and end of a particular period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred is One hundred consecutive Years Centuries are numbered ordinally (e A decade is a period of 10 Years (since 1594 a factor of 10 difference between two numbers, or sometimes a set or a group of ten (since 1451 A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a Calendar. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgements made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied. 
Particular geographical locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, continents, countries and cities. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status
Military history concentrates on the study of conflicts that have happened in human society. Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of Needs values and interests A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions This includes the examining wars, battles, military strategies and weaponry. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Battles is a critically acclaimed American Experimental rock band. Military strategy is a National defence policy implemented by Military organisations to pursue desired strategic goals Derived from the Greek A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. Prehistory See also Prehistory Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of Needs values and interests This may range from a melee between two tribes to conflicts between proper militaries to a world war affecting the majority of the human population. A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time Military historians record the events of military history.
Social history is the study of how societies adapt and change over periods of time. Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a Social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a Social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies In this view, it may include areas of economic history, legal history and the analysis of other aspects of civil society that show the evolution of social norms, behaviors and more. Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past Legal history or the History of Law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed
In many countries, such as the Japan, Russia, and the United States, the subject taught in the primary and secondary schools under the name "history" is censored for political reasons. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes To give just a few of many examples: in Japan, mention of the Nanking Massacre has been removed from textbooks; in Russia under Stalin, history was rewritten to conform with communist party doctrine; and in the United States the history of the American Civil War is censored to avoid giving offense to White Southerners. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South  
This practice goes back to the earliest recorded times. In Book Three of The Republic, Plato recommends that citizens be taught lies in order to instill patriotism. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece 
Those who do not understand how real history is researched and annotated may believe what they learn in primary and secondary school, and develop a distorted worldview. There is evidence, however, that few students remember any of the "history" they are taught. .
Methods and tools
Particular studies and fields
These are approaches to history; not listed are histories of other fields, such as history of science, history of mathematics and history of philosophy. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of new discoveries in Mathematics and to a lesser extent an investigation The history of Philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time