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The religion of the Vedic period (also known as Vedism or Vedic Brahmanism or, in a context of Indian antiquity, simply Brahmanism) is the historical predecessor of Hinduism and the other Indian religions. The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, Its liturgy is reflected in the Mantra portion of the four Vedas, that are compiled in Sanskrit. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions A mantra ( Devanāgarī मन्त्र (or mantram is a religious or mystical syllable or poem typically from the Sanskrit language "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites that often involved sacrifices. Priests of the Vedic religion were officiants of the ''yajna'' service A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred" This mode of worship is largely unchanged today within Hinduism; however, only a small fraction of conservative Shrautins continue the tradition of oral recitation of hymns solely from handovers from repeated hearings. Śrauta ( Devanagari sa श्रौत traditions are conservative Ritualistic traditions of Historical Vedic religion in Hinduism, based on
Texts dating to the Vedic period, composed in Vedic Sanskrit, are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas, but the Brahmanas,Aranyakas and some of the older Upanishads (BAU, ChU, JUB) are also considered Vedic. Vedic Sanskrit is an ancient Indian language, the language of the Vedas, the oldest Shruti texts of Hinduism. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. The Brāhmaṇa s ( Devanagari: sa ब्राह्मणं are part of the Hindu śruti literature The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक āraṇyaka) are part of the Hindu śruti, the four Vedas these religious texts were composed in The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanishad ( Sanskrit: बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् is one of the older "primary" ( Mukhya The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the "primary" ( Mukhya) Upanishads Together with the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana and the Brihadaranyaka The Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (JUB is a Vedic text associated with the Jaiminiya Shakha of the Samaveda. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 shrauta priests and the purohitas. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Priests of the Vedic religion were officiants of the ''yajna'' service According to traditional views, the hymns of the Rigveda and other Vedic hymns were divinely revealed to the rishis, who were considered "hearers" (shruti means "what is heard"), rather than "authors". The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" A rishi (ṛṣi denotes a Vedic poet by whom Vedic hymns were composed or according to post-Vedic tradition a "sage" to whom they were "originally revealed" (Ṛṣis If you are looking for the singer see Shruti Haasan. For other meanings see Śruti (disambiguation. However, the Rigvedic hymns clearly speak about composing new hymns by individual authors who were in competition with their colleagues and looked for "payment" by local chieftains.
The mode of worship was worship of the elements like fire and rivers, worship of heroic gods like Indra (quite similar to the Greek religion), chanting of hymns and performance of sacrifices. Indra ( Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र Indra, Malay: Indera, Thai: พระอินทร์ Phra-Intra The oral tradition of the Vedas ( Śrauta) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic Mantras Such traditions The priests performed the solemn rituals for the noblemen (Kshsatriya) and some wealthy Vaishyas. Priests of the Vedic religion were officiants of the ''yajna'' service The Hindu varna (class System, a Vaishya ( Sanskrit वैश्य vaiśya) is a member of the third of the four classes of traditional People prayed for abundance of children, rain, cattle (wealth), long life and an afterlife in the heavenly world of the ancestors. This mode of worship has been preserved even today in Hinduism, which involves recitations from the Vedas by a purohita (priest), for prosperity, wealth and general well-being. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. However, the primacy of Vedic deities has been seconded to the deities of Puranic literature. For other meanings see Purana (disambiguation. The Puranas ( Sanskrit: sa पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times"
Elements of Vedic religion reach back into Proto-Indo-Iranian times. Proto-Indo-Iranian, is the reconstructed Proto-language of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European. The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BC, Vedic religion gradually metamorphosizing into the historical Indian religions, such as the various schools of Hinduism and Buddhism, the former further evolving into Puranic Hinduism, the latter diversifying into Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, such as Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese and Japanese schools. Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices For other meanings see Purana (disambiguation. The Puranas ( Sanskrit: sa पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times" Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Chinese Buddhism ( Pinyin fójiào refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China proper since ancient times The history of Buddhism in Japan can be roughly divided into three periods namely the Nara period (up to 784 the Heian period (794–1185 and the post-Heian period
Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others:
The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) has parallels in the 2nd millennium BC Sintashta and Andronovo culture as well as in Rome (October horse) and medieval Ireland. The Ashvamedha ( Sanskrit: sa अश्वमेध aśvamedhá; " Horse sacrifice " was one of the most important royal Rituals The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Indo-Iranian originspng|thumb|300px|Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC) In India it was allegedly continued until the 4th and even the 18th century CE (Jaya Singh at Jaipur). The practice of vegetarianism may already have arisen in late Vedic times. Although in the Rigveda, the cow's description as aghnya (that which should not be killed) may refer to poetry, it is certain to be reflective of the social practice as were other practices like rituals and deity worship. Incipient change to contemporary vegetarianism is seen as early as the late Brahmanas and Upanishads and may have continued under the influence of Jainism and possibly of Buddhism, which began as a reform-movement of the Vedic religion. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rgvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference in RV 10. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE in and around the Punjab region which is located on the The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns Together with Mandala 1, it forms the latest part of the Rigveda containing much mythological material 15. 14, invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)".
The Vedic pantheon, similar to its Greek or Germanic counterparts, comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena, and like the Germanic Vanir and Aesir it knows two classes of gods, Devas and Asuras. There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance The article lists gods and Goddesses ( Ansewez, Wanizaz) that may be reconstructed for Proto-Germanic or Common Germanic Migration period Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal Deva (देव in Devanagari script pronounced as /'d̪evə/ is the Sanskrit word for "god Deity " In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Asura ( Sanskrit: असुर are a group of power-seeking deities sometimes referred to as Demons or sinful The Asuras (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc. *mitra ( Proto-Indo-Iranian, nominative *mitras) was an important Indo-Iranian divinity In Vedic religion, Varuna or Waruna ( Devanagari:वरुण IAST: varuṇa) is a god of the Sky, of Rain and Aryaman (अर्यमन् pronounced as "əryəmən" nominative singular is aryamā) is one of the early Vedic deities ( devas) Sanskrit bhaga is a term for "lord patron" but also for "wealth prosperity" ) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" Indra ( Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र Indra, Malay: Indera, Thai: พระอินทร์ Phra-Intra Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. The word agni is Sanskrit for "fire" (noun cognate with Latin ignis Soma ( Sanskrit: सोम) or Haoma ( Avestan) from Proto-Indo-Iranian * sauma-, was a ritual drink of importance Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "all-gods", the Vishvadevas. In Vedic religion, Varuna or Waruna ( Devanagari:वरुण IAST: varuṇa) is a god of the Sky, of Rain and The Visvedevas ( Sanskrit: विश्वेदेवाः ( viśve-devāḥ "all-gods" are the various Vedic gods taken together
In the view of some, the Rigveda, in its youngest books (books 1 and 10) contains hymns for monistic thought that however need to be interpreted in the context of the individual hymn. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence Often quoted are pada 1. 164. 46c,
and hymns 10.129 and 10. Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906 scholar of Indology, B The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit ná ásat "not the non-existent" is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda. 130, dealing with a creator deity, especially verse 10. 129. 7:
Ékam sát in 1. 164. 46c means "being one". Such concepts received greater emphasis in classical Hinduism, from the time of Adi Shankara at the latest, and they receive emphasis in contemporary Hinduism from pantheistic sects like Arya Samaj. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Adi Shankara ( Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന് Devanāgarī: आदि शङ्कर Ādi Śaṅkara, aːd̪i ɕaŋkərə (see below Arya Samaj ( Sanskrit ārya samāja sa आर्य समाज " Noble Society" is a Hindu reform movement founded in India
Vedic religion gradually diversified into the Hindu paths such as early Vedanta that considers itself the 'essence' of the Vedas. Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Vedanta ( Devanagari: sa वेदान्त Vedānta) is a spiritual tradition explained in the Upanishads that is concerned with the Self-realisation The Vedic pantheon was interpreted by a unitary view of the universe with Brahman seen as immanent and transcendent, since the Middle Upanishads also in personal forms of the deity as Ishvara, Bhagavan, or Paramatma. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. Ishvara ( Sanskrit: Īśvara sa ईश्वर Malay: Iswara, Thai: Phra Isuan) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt -stem bhaga-vant- (nominative/vocative sa भगवान् In Hindu theology Paramatman or Paramātmā is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul) There are also conservative schools which continue portions of the historical Vedic religion largely unchanged until today (see Śrauta, Nambudiri). Śrauta ( Devanagari sa श्रौत traditions are conservative Ritualistic traditions of Historical Vedic religion in Hinduism, based on The Nambudiri Brahmins ( Malayalam: ml നമ്പൂതിരി ml-Latn nambũdiri, also transliterated Namputiri, Namboothiri) are the
Religions that have continued from the Vedic religion :