A historian is an individual who studies and writes about history. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology  Historians are concerned with the continuous, systematic narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all events in time. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing  Some historians, though, are recognized by equivalent training and experience in the field.  Historian became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century at roughly the same time that physicians also set standards for who could enter the field. The professional association of historians in the United States is the American Historical Association, founded in 1884.
The process of historical analysis involves investigation and analysis of competing ideas, facts and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of Modern historical analysis usually draws upon other social sciences, including economics, sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, philosophy and linguistics. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields While ancient writers do not normally share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines such as archaeology. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos
Herodotus and Thucydides were the founders of the discipline of history, although there are other notable Greek histories including Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of
Concerning Herodotus (5th century BC), one of the earliest nameable historians whose work survives, his recount of strange and unusual tales are gripping but not necessarily representative of the historical record. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. Despite this, The Histories of Herodotus displays some of the techniques of more modern historians. The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. He interviewed witnesses, evaluated oral histories, studied multiple sources and then pronounced his particular version. Oral history can be defined as the recording preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker Herodotus's works covered what was then the entire known world of the Greeks, or at least the part regarded as worthy of study, i. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions e. , the peoples surrounding the Mediterranean. At about the same time, Thucydides pioneered a different form of history, one much closer to reportage. Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek Reportage sometimes refers to the total body of media coverage of a particular topic or event including news reporting and analysis " the extensive reportage of recent In his work, History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides wrote about a single long conflict with its origins and results. The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by But, as it was mainly within living memory and Thucydides himself was alive throughout the conflict and a participant in many of the events, there was less room for myths and tall tales.
Sima Qian was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty and is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian (史記), an overview of the history of China covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to Emperor Han Wudi (漢武帝). Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC His work laid the foundation for later Chinese historiography. Li Chunfeng was a Chinese historian who wrote the history of the Jin dynasty. Li Chunfeng ( 602–670 was a Chinese mathematician, Astronomer, and Historian who was born in today's Baoji Shaanxi during the Sui (漢武帝).
Ibn Abd-el-Hakem was an Egyptian who wrote the History of the Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain, which was the earliest Arab account of the Islamic conquests of those countries. Ibn Abd-el-Hakam (d 870 or 871 was an Egyptian chronicler who wrote the History of the Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain. Much like Herodotus' works, it mixes facts with legends, and was often quoted by later Islamic historians. Al-Jahiz was a famous Arab scholar and historian. Al-Jāḥiẓ (in Arabic الجاحظ (real name Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, c Hamdani, an Arab historian,was the best representatives of Islamic culture during the last effective years of the Abbasid caliphate. (c 893-945 أبو محمد الحسن بن أحمد بن يعقوب الهمداني was an Muslim Geographer, Poet, Grammarian, Historian Ali al-Masudi was an Arab historian, known as the “Herodotus of the Arabs. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Mas'udi (transl) (born c ” Ibn Khaldun was a famous Arab Muslim historian and was the forefather of historiography and the philosophy of history. Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19 He is best known for his Muqaddimah "Prolegomenon". In an Essay, article, or Book, an introduction (also known as a prolegomenon) is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the
Much of the groundwork in creating the modern figure of the historian was done by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755). Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng His wide-ranging Spirit of the Laws (1748) spanned legal, geographical, cultural, economic, political and philosophical studies and was greatly influential in forging the fundamentally interdisciplinary historian. The Spirit of Laws (French De l'esprit des lois) is a Treatise on Political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat Year 1748 ( MDCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Referred to as "the first modern historian", Edward Gibbon wrote his grand opus, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (three vols. Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (known popularly as The History) was written by English Historian , 1776–1788). However, some authors such as Christiansen regard ancient Greek author Polybius as the first historian of a modern kind, criticising sources and making unbiased judgements based on presumed neutral analysis; indeed, Livy used him as a source. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Polybius, one of the first historians to attempt to present history as a sequence of causes and effects, carefully conducted his research—partly based on what he saw and partly on the communications of eye-witnesses and the participants in the events.
At the turn of the twentieth century, Western history remained notoriously biased toward the so-called "Great Men" school of history concerning wars, diplomacy, science and politics. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions This point of view was inherently predisposed toward the study of a small number of powerful men within the socio-economic elite. A pronounced shift away from crude Whiggish analyses has started, in favor of a more critical and precise perspective. Whig history or Whiggish historiography presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment culminating in modern forms of liberal For example, a common myth is that Thomas Edison alone invented the electric light bulb; a traditional American history might highlight Edison's story at the expense of all others. A lamp is a replaceable component such as an Incandescent light bulb, which is designed to produce Light from Electricity. In contrast, a modern history of Edison mentions all his predecessors and competitors, in order to show that Edison's activities were one part of a group of inventors and rivals in the commercial deployment of the technology.
Since the 1960s, history as an academic discipline has undergone several evolutions. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 These changes fostered advances in a number of areas previously unrecognized in historiography. Formerly neglected topics have become the subject of academic study, such as the history of popular culture, mass culture, sexuality, geographical culture and the lives of ordinary people. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — Historians also started investigating the histories of ideas surrounding various categories of people, such as women's studies (including an entire branch of women's history), racial minorities (like African-American history) or disabled people (e. African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United g. , a historian's study of the construction of ideas about disabled people and the results thereof, perhaps in a specific historical setting, such as Nazi Germany). Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers
Many historians are employed at universities and other facilities for post-secondary education.  In addition, it is common, although not required, for many historians to have a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. D. ) degree in their chosen areas of study.  During the preparation of their thesis for this degree, many develop into their first book, since regular publishing activities are essential for advancement in academia. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature There is currently a great deal of controversy among academic historians regarding the possibility and desirability of the neutrality in historical scholarship. Objectivity is both an important and very difficult concept to pin down in philosophy The job market for graduate historians is relatively limited. Historians typically work in libraries, universities, archival centers, government agencies (particularly heritage) and as freelance consultants. Many with an undergraduate history degree also may become involved with administrative or clerical professions and an undergraduate history degree is often used as a "stepping stone" to further studies such as a law degree. Stepping stone(s can refer to Stones placed across a shallow river to form a Step-stone bridge so people can step from each to the next and so cross the river without A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law