Hijab or ħijāb (حجاب, pronounced: [ħi. ˈdʒæːb]) is the Arabic term for "cover" (noun), based on the root حجب meaning "to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter"
In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to women's head and body covering, but in Islamic scholarship, hijab is given the wider meaning of modesty, privacy, and morality. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam. Standards of modesty (also called demureness or reticence) are aspects of the Culture of a Country or people at a given point in time Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings  The word used in the Qur'an for a headscarf or veil is khimār (خمار). The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran
Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World by Macmillan Reference states about hijab:
The term hijab or veil is not used in the Qur'an to refer to an article of clothing for women or men, rather it refers to a spatial curtain that divides or provides privacy. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather The Qur'an instructs the male believers (Muslims) to talk to wives of Muhammad behind a hijab. This hijab was the responsibility of the men and not the wives of Muhammad. However, in later Muslim societies this is specific to the wives of Muhammad was generalized, leading to the segregation of the Muslim men and women. The modesty in Qur'an concerns both men's and women's gaze, gait, garments, and genitalia. The clothing for women involves khumūr over the necklines and jilbab (cloaks) in public so that they may be identified and not harmed. Guidelines for covering of the entire body except for the hands, the feet, and the face, are found in texts of fiqh and hadith that are developed later.
Muslims differ as to whether hijab dress should be enforced by religious police as it is or has been in Iran and Afghanistan. The Mutaween (مطوعين muṭawiʿiyn; variant English spellings mutawwain muttawa mutawallees mutawa’ah mutawi’ mutawwa' means "volunteer" in Arabic
The Qur'an instructs Muslims to dress in a modest fashion. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The following verses are generally interpreted as applying to all Muslim men and women.
Surah an-Nur ayah 31 states:
|“||And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings (khimars) over their bosoms (jaybs), and not display their ornaments except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. Sura (sometimes spelt "Surah" ar سورة, plural "Suwar" ar سور is an Arabic term literally meaning "something enclosed or surrounded||”|
In the following verse, Muslim women are asked to draw their jilbab over them (when they go out), as a measure to distinguish themselves from others, so that they are not harassed. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The term jilbab or jilbaab (Arabic جلباب is the plural of the word jilaabah which refers to any long and loose-fit coat or garment worn by some Muslim
|“||Those who harass believing men and believing women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) A calumny and a grievous sin. O Prophet! Enjoin your wives, your daughters, and the wives of true believers that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad) That is most convenient, that they may be distinguished and not be harassed.||”|
Following verses give special directives to the wives of Muhammad though some commentators believe that all women should imitate their example. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Muhammad's wives were the eleven or thirteen women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
|“||O Wives of the Prophet, ye are not like any of the (other) women. If ye do fear (Allah), Be not too complaisant of speech, lest one in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire: but speak ye a speak that is just. Abide still in your homes and make not a dazzling display like that of the former times of ignorance: and establish regular prayer, and give regular charity; and obey Allah and His Messenger. And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination From you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.||”|
Another verse in the Quran (33:53) talks about the veil as being a separation of two men and spheres of life such as the public and the private, rather than between men and women. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran This could very well be the definitive verse on hijab as it has been quoted as such by a number of Islamic theologians.
|“||O Ye who believe! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time, unless permission be granted you. But if ye are invited, enter, and, when your meal is ended, then disperse. Linger not for conversation. Lo! that would cause annoyance to the Prophet, and he would be shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of the truth. And when ye ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not for you to cause annoyance to the messenger of Allah, nor that ye should ever marry his wives after him. Lo! that in Allah's sight would be an enormity. (Qur'an 33:53)||”|
The hadith (Arabic plural ahādīth) are traditions concerning the practices of the early Muslim community. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language They were transmitted orally for more than a century before the first collections were written down. The hadith, accepted as canonical by Sunni Muslims, took their final form some three centuries after Muhammad's death. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics
The Arabic word jilbab is translated as "cloak" in the following passage. Contemporary salafis insist that the jilbab worn today is the same garment mentioned in the Qur'an and the hadith; other translators have chosen to use less specific terms:
Traditionally, Muslims have recognized many different forms of clothing as satisfying the demands of hijab. Sunan Abu Da'ud (سُنن أبو داوود is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Abu Da'ud.  Debate focussed on how much of the male or female body should be covered. Different scholars adopted different interpretations of the original texts.
Sunnis recommend that women wear loose clothing that is not form fitting to the body either modest forms of western clothing (long shirts and skirts), or the more traditional jilbab, a high-necked loose robe that covers the arms and legs. Kalkan (Kalamaki is a town on the Turkish Mediterranean coast which averages of 300 days of sunshine a year Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The term jilbab or jilbaab (Arabic جلباب is the plural of the word jilaabah which refers to any long and loose-fit coat or garment worn by some Muslim A khumūr or shayla, a scarf or cowl that covers all but the face is also worn in many different styles. Islam and clothing Hijab or ħijāb ( ar حجاب, pronounced) is the Arabic term for "cover" (noun based on the root حجب meaning "to Some salafi (sunni) scholars encourage covering the face. Many of them say it is mandatory to cover the face. Other scholars oppose face covering, particularly in the west for personal safety where the woman may be a victim of Islamophobia. Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the These garments are very different in cut than most of the traditional forms of hijab, and they are worn worldwide by Muslims.
Detailed scholarly attention has been focused on prescribing female dress. A burqa (also Transliterated burkha, burka or burqua) is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions for the Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Most scholars agree that the basic requirements are that when in the presence of someone of the opposite sex (other than a close family member - see mahram), a woman should cover her body, and walk and dress in a way which does not draw sexual attention to her. In Islamic Sharia legal terminology a mahram ( Arabic محرم also Transliterated mahrim or maharem) is an Some scholars go so far as to specify exactly which areas of the body must be covered. In some cases, this is everything save the eyes but most require everything save the face and hands to be covered. In nearly all Muslim cultures, young girls are not required to wear a hijab. There is not a single agreed age when a woman should begin wearing a hijab; however, in many Muslim countries, puberty is the dividing line.
In private, and in the presence of mahrams, the rules on dress are relaxed. In Islamic Sharia legal terminology a mahram ( Arabic محرم also Transliterated mahrim or maharem) is an However in the presence of husband, most scholars stress the importance of mutual freedom and pleasure of the husband and wife. 
Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, an Islamic scholar well-known for historical contextualization of Muhammad's revelation(p. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi ( Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b Ulema ( ar علماء,, singular ar عالِم,, "scholar" refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several 93), argues a more liberal, minority viewpoint. He believes that Qur'an mentions khumūr only as a 7th century Arabian dress, but there is no command to wear it in specific. Islam and clothing Hijab or ħijāb ( ar حجاب, pronounced) is the Arabic term for "cover" (noun based on the root حجب meaning "to The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) In his interpretation of verse [Qur'an 33:59], he argues that "they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble" and the context of the verse shows that the directive to wear jalābib was for a specific situation. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The term jilbab or jilbaab (Arabic جلباب is the plural of the word jilaabah which refers to any long and loose-fit coat or garment worn by some Muslim He also believes that the special restrictions for wives of Muhammad are not applicable to all women at all times. According to another scholar, Leila Ahmed, nowhere in the whole of the Quran is the term hijab applied to any woman other than the wives of Muhammad. Muslim women probably began wearing the veil as a way to emulate the Prophet's wives, who were revered as `the Mothers of the Ummah,` but the veil was neither compulsory nor, for that matter, widely adopted until generations after Muhammad's death. And according to yet another scholar, Reza Aslan, there was a very good reason for the ayat (Qur'an 33:32-33) mentioning only the Prophet's wives and not other muslim women:
Muhammad's house was also the community's mosque: the center of religious and social life in the Ummah. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran People were constantly coming in and out of this compound at all hours of the day. When delegations from other tribes come to speak with Muhammad, they would set up their tents for days at a time inside the open courtyard, just a few feet away from the apartments in which Muhammad's wives slept. And new emigrants who arrived in Yatrib would often stay within the mosque's walls until they could find suitable homes. 
Ghamidi considers "head-covering" for women a cherished part of Muslim social custom and tradition but not compulsory.  Some contemporary Muslims take a relativist approach to hijab. They believe that the commandment to modesty must be interpreted with regard to the surrounding society. What is considered modest, or daring, in one society may not be considered so in another. It is important, they say, for believers to wear clothing that communicates modesty and reserve in the situations in which they find themselves. 
It is stated apparently, that hijab is not compulsory although it is recommended highly. Perhaps it is just Sunnah.
The burqa is the garment that covers women most completely: not even a woman's eyes are visible. A burqa (also Transliterated burkha, burka or burqua) is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions for the Originating in what is now Pakistan, it is more commonly associated with Afghanistan. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Typically, a burqa is composed of many yards of light material pleated around a cap that fits over the top of the head. There is an embroidered openwork grille where the burqa passes over the eyes. This type of veil is cultural as well as religious.
Traditionally Muslims in general, and Salafis in particular believe the Qur'an demands women wear the garments known today as jilbab and khumūr. The term jilbab or jilbaab (Arabic جلباب is the plural of the word jilaabah which refers to any long and loose-fit coat or garment worn by some Muslim Islam and clothing Hijab or ħijāb ( ar حجاب, pronounced) is the Arabic term for "cover" (noun based on the root حجب meaning "to However, Qur'an translators and commentators translate the Arabic into English words with a general meaning - such as veils, head-coverings and shawls. Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation  Ghamidi argues that verses [Qur'an 24:30] teach etiquette for male and female interactions, where khumūr is mentioned in reference to the clothing of Arab women in the 7th century, but there is no command to actually wear them in any specific way. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Hence he considers head-covering a preferable practice but not a directive of the sharia (law). Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. 
Although certain general standards are widely accepted, there has been little interest in narrowly prescribing what constitutes modest dress for Muslim men. Most mainstream scholars say that men should cover themselves from the navel to the knees; a minority say that the hadith that are held to require this are weak and possibly inauthentic. The navel (also called an umbilicus or colloquially belly button) is a Scar on the Abdomen, caused when the Umbilical cord is removed The knee is the lower extremity Joint connecting the Femur, Patella, and the Tibia. They argue that there are hadith indicating that the Islamic prophet Muħammad wore loose clothing that uncovered his thigh when riding camels, and hold that if Muħammad believed that this was permissible, then it is surely permissible for other Muslim males.
As a practical matter, however, the opinion that Muslim men must cover themselves between the navel and the knees is predominant, and most Muslims believe that a man who fails to observe this requirement during salah must perform the prayer again, properly covered, in order for it to be valid. Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and Three of the four Madh'hab, or schools of law, require that the knees be covered; the Maliki school recommends but does not require knee covering. Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or
According to some hadith, Muslim men are asked not to wear gold jewellery or silk clothing. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Some scholars says that these prohibitions should be generalized to prohibit the lavish display of wealth on one's person. 
In more secular Muslim nations, such as Turkey, Iraq, and Egypt, many women are choosing to wear the Hijab, Burqa, Niqab, etc. A burqa (also Transliterated burkha, burka or burqua) is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions for the A niqāb ( Arabic: نِقاب) is a Veil which covers the face worn by some Muslim women as a part of sartorial hijāb. as an act of defiance against the secularization of society, but also because of the widespread growth of the Islamic revival in those areas. Similarly, increasing numbers of men are abandoning the Western dress of jeans and t-shirts, that dominated places like Egypt 20 to 30 years ago, in favour of more traditional Islamic clothing such as the Galabiyya. The Galabeya ( Arabic:ar '''الجلابية''' is a Tunic worn by Egyptian men and women (usually in a rural area
In Iran many women, especially younger ones, have taken to wearing transparent Hijabs instead of Chadors to protest but keep within the law of the state.
The colors of this clothing varies. It is mostly black, but in many African countries women wear cloths of many different colours depending on their tribe, area, or family. In Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India, a lot of Muslim women wear bright orange and red garments which look similar to the Hindu Sari. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent
In Turkey the majority of women do not wear any kind of veil, except when they attend Friday Salat, while in many of the western Nations, there has been a general rise of hjab-wearing women. Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and They are especially common in Muslim Student Associations at college campuses
Some Muslims have criticized strict dress codes that they believe go beyond the demands of hijab, using Qur'an 66:1 (which is usually interpreted to apply to asceticism) to apply to dress codes as well; the verse suggests that it is wrong to refrain from what is permitted by God. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid.
|Country||Law and custom|
|Afghanistan||Under the Taliban, the burqa was obligatory. This list of types of sartorial Hijab indexes styles of clothing found in predominantly Muslim societies commonly associated with the word hijab. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately A burqa (also Transliterated burkha, burka or burqua) is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions for the Under the current government, it is technically optional but in southern Afghanistan it is de facto obligatory.|
|Bangladesh||There are no laws which require women to cover their heads, and it is not encouraged by the government. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially An increase in modern society has shown today women do not prefer to wear scarves especially in cities such as Dhaka, mainly it is worn by people in rural areas such as Sylhet and other towns. Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. This article is about the city For the upazila or district or the administrative division see Sylhet Sadar Upazila or Sylhet District or Sylhet Division|
|France||Religious symbols are banned from schools. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This includes religious headcoverings and other such religious items.|
|Indonesia||Headcovering is not obligatory under the law but some women choose to wear a headscarf referred to as a jilbab or kerudung. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. In some states headcovering is mandatory under Islamic law.|
|Iran||The current Iranian government requires women to wear loose-fitting coats or cloaks in public such as the chador, as well as a head scarf that covers the hair. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. A chador or chadar ( Persian چادر) from Sanskrit chattram) is an outer Garment or open Cloak worn by|
|Malaysia||The headscarf is known as a tudung. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Muslim women may freely choose whether or not to wear the headscarf, except for religious rites and ceremonies when the tudung must be worn.|
|Morocco||The headscarf is not forbidden by law, but not encouraged by governmental institutions and generally frowned upon by urban middle and higher classes. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa It is becoming gradually more frequent in the north, but as it is not traditional, to wear one is considered rather a religious or political decision. In 2005, a schoolbook for basic religious education was heavily criticized for picturing female children with headscarfs.|
|Pakistan||While Pakistan has no laws enforcing ħijāb, there are many parts of the country where there is strong social pressure for women to observe ħijāb, or purdah, which is a cultural practice observed even by some Islamized Hindus. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and This article is about the practice of preventing men from seeing women Many Pakistani women who observe purdah wear a garment called the pak-chadar, a headscarf with attached veil. However, there are also many Pakistani women who simply wear a dupatta or chunari to cover their heads. Dupatta ( Hindi: दुपट्टा Urdu: دوپٹا Bengali: অরনা Punjabi "Chunni" is a long Scarf that is essential These are long scarves, often made of a light material, that match the woman's garments. However, in the major cities of Pakistan most women do not wear Hijab.|
|Saudi Arabia||The Saudi Arabian version of modest dress is composed of an abaya or loose robe, ħijāb or headcovering and niqāb or face veil. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The abaya ( Arabic عباءة plural abayat عباءات is an Overgarment worn by some women in parts of the Islamic world. A niqāb ( Arabic: نِقاب) is a Veil which covers the face worn by some Muslim women as a part of sartorial hijāb. The Saudi niqāb usually leaves a long open slot for the eyes; the slot is held together by a string or narrow strip of cloth. Abaya and ħijāb are required for all women ; the niqāb is optional, but is worn by many Saudi women.|
|Tunisia||Tunisian authorities say they are encouraging women, instead, to "wear modest dress in line with Tunisian traditions" i. Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. e. no headscarf. |
|Turkey||In Turkey wearing religious symbols, including headscarfs for women was prohibited in public schools and state buildings, because of the secular establishment of Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches|
John Esposito, professor of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, writes that the customs of veiling and seclusion of women in early Islam were assimilated from the conquered Persian and Byzantine societies and then later on they were viewed as appropriate expressions of Quranic norms and values. John Louis Esposito (born 19 May 1940 Brooklyn, New York City) is a professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Qur'an does not stipulate veiling or seclusion; on the contrary, it tends to emphasize the participation of religious responsibility of both men and women in society.  He claims that "in the midst of rapid social and economic change when traditional security and support systems are increasingly eroded and replaced by the state, (. . . ) hijab maintains that the state has failed to provide equal rights for men and women because the debate has been conducted within the Islamic framework, which provides women with equivalent rather than equal rights within the family. "
Bloom and Blair also write that the Qur'an doesn't require women to wear veils; rather, it was a social habit picked up with the expansion of Islam. In fact, since it was impractical for working women to wear veils, "A veiled woman silently announced that her husband was rich enough to keep her idle. "
The veil has become a subject of great controversy in non-Muslim countries with significant Muslim minorities, such as France and Britain, where it has been seized upon as a symbol of oppression of Muslim women and the “backwardness” of Islam. Some Muslims counter by saying it is the opposite of "backwardness" as it is a symbol of modesty. It differentiates them from Western women who they claim show off their bodies, wear tight clothing, etc. and attract the other sex. Senior British government minister Jack Straw was recently drawn into the debate after he suggested that communication with some of the Muslim members of his constituency would be made significantly easier if they ceased covering their faces. John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. 
Writers such as Leila Ahmed and Karen Armstrong have highlighted how the veil became a symbol of resistance to colonialism, particularly in Egypt in the latter part of the 19th Century, and again today in the post-colonial period. Leila Ahmed (b 1940 لیلى احمد is an Egyptian American professor of Women's Studies and Religion at the Harvard Divinity School. Karen Armstrong (born 14 November 1944 in Wildmoor Worcestershire) is a British author of numerous works on Comparative religion, who first rose to prominence with See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. In The Battle for God, Armstrong writes:
“The veiled woman has, over the years, become a symbol of Islamic self-assertion and a rejection of Western cultural hegemony. ”
While in Women and Gender, Ahmed states:
“…it was the discourses of the West, and specifically the discourse of colonial domination, that in the first place determined the meaning of the veil in geopolitical discourses and thereby set the terms for its emergence as a symbol of resistance. ”
The issue of the veil has thus been “hijacked” to a degree by cultural essentialists on both sides of the divide. Arguments against veiling have been co-opted, along with wider “feminist” discourse, to create a colonial “feminism” that uses questions of Muslim women’s dress amongst others to justify “patriarchal colonialism in the service of particular political ends. ” Thus, efforts to improve the situation of women in Muslim (and other non-Western) societies are judged purely on what they wear. Meanwhile, for Islamists, rejection of “Western” modes of dress is not enough: resistance and independence can only be demonstrated by the “wholesale affirmation of indigenous culture”—a prime example being the wearing of the veil. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only
Tracing the Victorian law of coverture, Legal Scholar L. Ali Khan provides a critique of the British male elite that wishes to impose its own "comfort views" to unveil Muslim women from Asia, Africa, and Middle East. 
Some women choose to wear styles that are more ostentatiously restrictive than local mores might require - perhaps as a sign of Islamic enthusiasm, piety, or both. In spiritual terminology piety is a Virtue. While different people may understand its meaning differently it is generally used to refer either to religious devotion
In her discussion of findings from interviews of university-educated Moroccan Muslim women who choose to wear the Hijab, Hessini argues that wearing the Hijab is used as a method of separation of women from men when women work and therefore step into what is perceived to be the men’s public space, so in this case, when women have the right and are able to work, a method has been found to maintain the traditional societal arrangements. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa 
Critics of conservative interpretations of the hijab point out that while many claim wearing it does not necessarily signify oppression, those for whom it does are not always free to state their true views on the matter. Academic Rema Hammai quotes a Palestinian woman reflective of an "activist" reistance to "hijabization" in Gaza saying that "in my community it's natural to wear" hijab. "The problem is when little boys, including my son, feel they have the right to tell me to wear it. "
Some women have dared more pointed protest. As early as 1905, Bengali writer Rokeya Sakhawat Hussain criticised it in her utopian fantasy Sultana's Dream. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, Bangla: (বেগম রোকেয়া (1880 – December 9, 1932) was a prolific writer and a Social worker " Sultana's Dream " is a classic work of South Asian literature and an early example of Feminist science fiction. Iranian-American novelist Azar Nafisi, author of Reading Lolita in Tehran, Marjane Satrapi, author of the graphic novel Persepolis, and Parvin Darabi who has authored Rage Against the Veil are some of the famous opponents of compulsory veiling. Azar Nafisi, PhD (آذر نفیسی (born December 1955 is an Iranian academic and writer who currently resides Reading Lolita in Tehran A Memoir in Books is a book by Iranian author and professor Azar Nafisi. Marjane Satrapi ( Persian: مرجان ساتراپی) (born November 22, 1969 in Rasht, Iran) is an Iranian ref Persepolis (ISBN 0-224-08039-3 is a French-language autobiographical Graphic novel by Marjane Satrapi depicting her childhood in Dr Parvin Darabi (born 1941 Tehran is an Iranian born American activist writer and an internationally recognized defender of women’s rights Rage Against the Veil The Courageous Life and Death of an Islamic Dissident is a book by Parvin Darabi, an Iranian critic of Islam. Compulsory hijab in Iran was protested when it was first imposed. 
Some Muslims believe hijab covering for women should be compulsory as part of Sharia law. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Wearing of the hijab was enforced by the Taliban regime, and is enforced in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Prosecutor-General, Abolfazl Musavi-Tabrizi, has been quoted as saying: "Any one who rejects the principle of hijab in Iran is an apostate and the punishment for an apostate under Islamic law is death. " The Taliban's Islamic Emirate required women to cover not only their head but their face as well, because "the face of a woman is a source of corruption" for men not related to them.  While some women wholeheartedly embrace the rules, others protest by observing the rules in slipshod or inconsistent fashion, or flouting them whenever possible.
Non-governmental enforcement of hijab is found in many parts of the Muslim world. Islamists have been accused of attacking or threating to attack the faces of women in an effort to intimidate them from wearing of makeup or allegedly immodest dress. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only According to Cheryl Benard of RAND, "every year hundreds of women in Pakistan and Afghanistan alone are killed, have acid thrown in their faces, or are otherwise maimed by male fanatics" for failure to wear hijab.  An example being a 2001 "acid attack on four young Muslim women in Srinagar . Srinagar ( Dogri: श्रीनगर Urdu: سرینگر Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر श्रीनगर is the capital of the disputed state . . by an unknown militant outfit, and the swift compliance by women of all ages on the issue of wearing the chadar (head-dress) in public. A chador or chadar ( Persian چادر) from Sanskrit chattram) is an outer Garment or open Cloak worn by " 
In 2006, a group in Gaza calling itself "Just Swords of Islam" is reported to have claimed it threw acid at the face of a young woman who was dressed "immodestly," and warned other women in Gaza that they must wear hijab. Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories.  Mujama' al-Islami, HAMAS predecessor in Gaza, reportedly used "a mixture of consent and coersion" to "`restore` hijab" on urban educated women in Gaza in the late 1970s and 1980s. 
Iranian journalist Amir Taheri tells of an 18-year-old college student at the American University in Beirut who on the eve of `Ashura in 1985 "was surrounded and attacked by a group of youths -- all members of Hezb-Allah, the Party of Allah. The American University of Beirut (AUB الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت is a private independent University in Beirut, Lebanon. The Day of Ashura ( ar عاشوراء, Ashura Ashoura and other spellings is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation They objected to the `lax way` in which they thought she was dressed, and accused her of `insulting the blood of the martyrs` by not having her hair fully covered. Then one of the youths threw `a burning liquid` on her face. " According to Taheri, "scores -- some say hundreds -- of women . . . in Baalbek, in Beirut, in southern Lebanon and in many other Muslim cities from Tunis to Kuala Lumpur," were attacked in a similar manner from 1980 to 1986. 
In Europe a survey conducted in France in May 2003 reportedly "found that 77% of girls wearing the hijab said they did so because of physical threats from Islamist groups. "
Islamic groups have sometimes used financial enducement to encourage Muslim women to wear hijab. Some French Muslim families, have reportedly been paid 500 euros per quarter in return for hijab use by their daughters. In the United States Muslim dissident Wafa Sultan "recently told the Jerusalem Post that after she moved to the United States in 1991, Saudis offered her $1,500 a month to cover her head and attend a mosque. Wafa Sultan (وفاء سلطان born 1958, Damascus, Syria) is an American Psychiatrist and a controversial critic of 
Turkey and Tunisia are the only Muslim countries where the law prohibits the wearing of hijab in government buildings, schools, and universities. See Ali Khan, Suppressive Rulings. In Tunisia, women were banned from wearing hijab in state offices in 1981 and in the 1980s and 1990s more restrictions were put in place.  The Islamist government in Turkey recently attempted to lift a ban on Muslim headscarves at universities, but were overturned by the country's Constitutional Court. 
On March 15, 2004, France passed a law banning "symbols or clothes through which students conspicuously display their religious affiliation" in public primary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools - aimed at banning hijab. The In the Belgian city of Maaseik Niqāb as been banned. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Maaseik is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. A niqāb ( Arabic: نِقاب) is a Veil which covers the face worn by some Muslim women as a part of sartorial hijāb.  (2006) These are seen by some (mostly those who support a conservative interpretation of female hijab) to be part of a general trend of Islamophobia in the Western world. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings
Both genders are told to lower their gaze and not to stare at each other in public. This is made evident in Qur'an Chapter 24:30-31
"Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts; that is purer for them; surely Allah is Aware of what they do. And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and not display their ornaments except what appears there of, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their or name except to their husbands. . . "
Muhammad has said, "…the adultery of the eyes is looking at [that] which is not allowed…"
Muhammad also said "The glance is a poisoned arrow of shaytaan. Awrah (عورة is a term used within Islam which denotes the parts of the Body that are not meant to be exposed in public Whoever lowers his gaze for Allah, He will bestow upon him a refreshing sweetness, which he will find in his heart on the day he meets Him. "