|Field Marshal The Earl Kitchener|
|24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916|
|Place of birth||Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland|
|Place of death||HMS Hampshire, sunk west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland (aged 65)|
|Years of service||1871-1916|
|Commands held||Mahdist War (1884-1899)|
Second Boer War (1900–1902)
Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–1909)
- Battle of Ferkeh
- Battle of Atbara
- Battle of Omdurman
Second Boer War;
- Battle of Paardeberg
World War I
|Awards||Order of the Garter|
Order of St Patrick
Order of the Bath
Order of Merit
Order of the Star of India
Order of St Michael and St George
Order of the Indian Empire
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
|Relations||Henry Kitchener, 2nd Earl Kitchener|
Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener
|Other work||British Consul-General in Egypt (1911-1914)|
Secretary of State for War, United Kingdom (1914–1916)
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Ballylongford ( Béal Átha Longfoirt, meaning "anchorage ford mouth" in Irish) is a Village near Listowel in north County Kerry County Kerry ( Contae Chiarraí in Irish) is a southwestern county of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The Mahdist War was a Colonial war of the late 19th century It was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese and the Egyptian and later British The Battle of Ferkeh (or Firket) occurred during the Mahdist War when an army of the Mahdist Sudanese was surprised and wiped out by the The Battle of Atbara took place during the Second Sudan War Anglo-Egyptian forces defeated 15000 Sudanese rebels called Mahdists or Dervishes At the Battle of Omdurman ( 2 September 1898) an army commanded by the British General Sir Horatio Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: The Battle of Paardeberg ("Mountain of the horses" was a major battle during the Second Anglo-Boer War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a British Order of chivalry associated with Ireland. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The article is about the order of chivalry known as "Star of India" The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George Prince Regent (later George The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of Chivalry founded by Victoria in 1878 An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. Colonel Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener 2nd Earl Kitchener ( 5 October 1846 - 27 March 1937) was a British soldier Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener KCB ( 26 May 1858 - 6 March 1912) known as Walter Kitchener For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a British Order of chivalry associated with Ireland. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The article is about the order of chivalry known as "Star of India" The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George Prince Regent (later George The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of Chivalry founded by Victoria in 1878 An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year This is a list of Field Marshals of the United Kingdom, with their respective years of appointment A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in
Kitchener was born in Listowel, County Kerry in Ireland, son of Lt. Listowel ( Lios Tuathail, "Tuathal's fort" in Irish) is a market town in County Kerry, Ireland, and is situated on the River County Kerry ( Contae Chiarraí in Irish) is a southwestern county of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Col. Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805 – 1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier-Cole (d. 1864; daughter of Rev John Chevallier and his third wife, Elizabeth, née Cole). The family were English, not Anglo-Irish: his father had only recently bought land in Ireland. " Anglo-Irish " was a term used historically to describe a privileged Social class in Ireland, whose members were the descendants and successors of the The year his mother died of tuberculosis, they had moved to Switzerland in an effort to improve her condition; the young Kitchener was educated there and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Royal Military Academy ( RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army Military academy for the training of Commissioned Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War; his father took him back to England after he caught pneumonia after ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 He was commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871. The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers ( RE) and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common His service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief. Prince George Duke of Cambridge (George William Frederick Charles 26 March 1819 &ndash 17 March 1904) was a member of the British Royal He served in Palestine, Egypt, and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language 
In 1874, at age 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria (Silberman 1982). The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society it is often simply known as the PEF The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש Kitchener, then an officer in the Royal Engineers, joined fellow Royal Engineer Claude R. The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers ( RE) and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps Conder and between 1874 and 1877, they surveyed what is today Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals in the Galilee, at Safed (Silberman 1982). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, Safed (צְפַת pronounced Tsfat; صفد pronounced Safad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
Conder and Kitchener’s expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River (Hodson 1997). This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna. The results of the survey were published in an eight volume series, with Kitchener’s contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881-1885).
This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons:
Kitchener later served as a Vice-Consul in Anatolia, and in 1883, as a British captain but with the Turkish rank of bimbashi (major), in the occupation of Egypt (which was to be a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, from 1883 until the early 1950s), and the following year as an Aide de Camp during the failed Gordon relief expedition in the Sudan. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Binbashi or Bimbashi (from Turkish: Binbaşı "chief of a thousand" is a major in the Turkish army Major-General, CB ( 28 January 1833 &ndash 26 January 1885) known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. At this time his fiancée, and possibly the only female love of his life, Hermione Baker, died of typhoid fever in Cairo; he subsequently had no issue. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium But he raised his young cousin Bertha Chevallier-Boutell, daughter of Kitchener's first-cousin, Sir Francis Hepburn de Chevallier-Boutell.
Kitchener won national fame on his second tour in the Sudan (1886–1899), being made Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria and appointed a Knight Commander of the Bath (KCB). Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George However, this campaign also made his brutality infamous, an aspect of his tactics that became well known after the Boer War. After victory in the Battle of Omburman, near Khartoum, Kitchener had the remains of the Madhi exhumed and scattered, presumably to teach a lesson to his opponents. 
In the late 1880s he was Governor of the Red Sea Territories (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) - with the rank of Colonel - then after becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army in 1892 - with the rank of major-general in the British Army - he headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail construction programme he had instituted in the area. Suakin is a port in north eastern Sudan, on the Red Sea. It was formerly the region's chief port on the Red Sea but is now a secondary port to Port Sudan Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Sirdar was a rank assigned to the British Commander-in-Chief of the 19th Century Egyptian Army Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries At the Battle of Omdurman ( 2 September 1898) an army commanded by the British General Sir Horatio Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
He quite possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Kodok (كودوك (formerly Fashoda) is a town in the southeastern Sudanese state of Upper Nile. The Fashoda Incident (1898 was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa.
He was created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898 as a victory title commemorating his successes, and began a programme restoring good governance to the Sudan. Khartoum ( الخرطوم al-Kharṭūm) is the Capital of Sudan and of Khartoum State. Aspall is a village and Civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk, England. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation The programme had a strong foundation based on education, Gordon Memorial College being its centrepiece, and not simply for the children of the local elites - children from anywhere could apply to study. Gordon Memorial College is an educational institution in Sudan.
He ordered the mosques of Khartoum rebuilt and instituted reforms which recognised Friday - the Muslim holy day - as the official day of rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger He went so far as to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from attempting to convert Muslims to Christianity.
Kitchener rescued a substantial charitable fund which had been diverted into the pockets of the Khedive of Egypt, and put it to use improving the lives of the ordinary Sudanese. For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
He also reformed the debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20,000 m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899 Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Island in his honour. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Aswan (formerly spelled Assuan (in standard أسوان Aswān) Egyptian: Swenet ( trade) Coptic: Swān; Greek Kitchener's Island (now locally known in Arabic as Geziret an-Nabatat, جزيرة النباتات which translates as "island of plants" is a small
During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord Roberts on the RMS Dunottar Castle and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899. See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC Troop ship In November 1899 the Dunottar Castle was requisitioned as a troop ship during the Second Boer War. Officially holding the title of chief of staff, he was in practice a second-in-command, and commanded a much-criticised frontal assault at the Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900. The Battle of Paardeberg ("Mountain of the horses" was a major battle during the Second Anglo-Boer War.
Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, Kitchener succeeded Roberts as overall commander in November 1900, and after the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February 1901 (due to British cabinet veto) which Kitchener had negotiated with the Boer leaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas. Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans
In a brutal campaign, these strategies removed civilian support from the Boers with a scorched earth policy of destroying Boer farms, slaughtering livestock, building blockhouses, and moving women, children and the elderly into concentration camps. A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method (possibly more often referred to as a tactic but this is not entirely correct as there is a difference between Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Conditions in these camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of controlling the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the minuscule ability of the British to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a staggering 34. 4% death rate for those Boers who entered. The biggest critic of the camps was Cornish humanitarian and welfare worker Emily Hobhouse. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Emily Hobhouse ( April 9, 1860 &mdash June 8, 1926) was a British welfare campaigner who is primarily remembered for bringing Despite being largely rectified by late 1901, they led to wide opprobrium in Britain and Europe, and especially amongst South Africans. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed in 1902 following a tense six months. The Treaty of Vereeniging (commonly referred to as Peace of Vereeniging) was the Peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the South During this period Kitchener struggled against Sir Alfred Milner, the Governor of the Cape Colony and the British government. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Milner was a hardline conservative and wanted to forcibly anglicise the Afrikaners, and Milner and the British government wanted to assert victory by forcing the Boers to sign a humiliating peace treaty, while Kitchener wanted a more generous compromise peace treaty that would recognise certain rights for the Afrikaners and promise future self-government. Eventually the British government decided the war had gone on long enough and sided with Kitchener against Milner. (Louis Botha, the Boer leader with whom Kitchener negotiated his aborted peace treaty in 1901, became the first Prime Minister of the self-governing Union of South Africa in 1910. Louis Botha (27 September 1862 &ndash 27 August 1919 was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa —the forerunner of the modern ) The Treaty also agreed to pay for reconstruction following the end of hostilities. Six days later Kitchener, who had risen in rank from major-general to full general during the war, was created Viscount Kitchener, of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries This is for the river for the extraterrestrial robot deity see The Apple (Star Trek The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange
The Boer commandos had no uniforms: they fought in their ordinary civilian attire. The Court-martial of six officers of the Bushveldt Carbineers (BVC an irregular British force in the Boer War began at Pietersburg, where For the film of the same name see Breaker Morant (film Harry 'Breaker' Harbord Morant ( 9 December[[ 864]] – 27 February On long service, as the state of their clothing became progressively worse, many resorted to taking the clothes of captured troops. This was widely perceived by British commanders as an attempt to masquerade as British soldiers in order to gain a tactical advantage in battle; in response, Kitchener ordered that Boers found wearing British uniforms were to be tried on the spot and the sentence, death, confirmed by the commanding officer.
This order - which Kitchener later denied issuing - led to the famous Breaker Morant case, in which several soldiers from Australia were arrested and court-martialled for summarily executing Boer prisoners and also for the murder of a German missionary believed to be a Boer sympathiser. The Court-martial of six officers of the Bushveldt Carbineers (BVC an irregular British force in the Boer War began at Pietersburg, where A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The celebrated horseman and bush poet Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant and Lt. For the film of the same name see Breaker Morant (film Harry 'Breaker' Harbord Morant ( 9 December[[ 864]] – 27 February Peter Handcock were found guilty, sentenced to death and shot by firing squad at Pietersburg on 27 February 1902. Peter Joseph Handcock (1869 – 1902 was a Veterinary Lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Boer War in South Africa Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Pietersburg is a City, Municipality and the capital of the Limpopo province in South Africa. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Their death warrants were personally signed by Kitchener. A third, Lt. George Witton, was reprieved. George Ramsdale Witton (1874 – 1942 was a Lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Boer War in South Africa
Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909) - his term of office was extended by two years - where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian Army. See Indian Army for the post-independence (and post- partition) army of the Republic of India. He clashed with the Viceroy Lord Curzon of Kedleston, who had originally lobbied for Kitchener's appointment but who now became a passionate and lifelong enemy after being forced to resign as Viceroy. George Nathaniel Curzon 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC ( 11 January 1859 &ndash 20 March Whilst in India Kitchener broke his leg badly in a horseriding accident, leaving him with a slight limp for the rest of his life.
Kitchener was promoted to the highest Army rank, Field Marshal, in 1910 and went on a tour of the world. He aspired to be Viceroy of India, but the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, was not keen and hoped to send him instead to Malta as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Mediterranean, even to the point of announcing the appointment in the newspapers. John Morley 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, OM, PC (24 December 1838 – 23 September 1923 was a British Liberal Statesman Kitchener pushed hard for the Viceroyalty, returning to London to lobby Cabinet ministers and the dying King Edward VII, from whom, whilst collecting his Field-Marshal's baton, Kitchener obtained permission to refuse the Malta job. However, perhaps in part because he was thought to be a Tory (the Liberals were in office at the time) and perhaps due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign, but most importantly because Morley, who was a Gladstonian and thus suspicious of imperialism, felt it inappropriate, after the recent grant of limited self-government under the 1909 Indian Councils Act, for a serving soldier to be Viceroy (in the event no serving soldier was appointed Viceroy until Archibald Wavell in 1943), Morley could not be moved. Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell 1st Earl Wavell GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (5 May 1883 – 24 May The Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, was sympathetic but was unwilling to overule Morley, who threatened resignation, so Kitchener was finally turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911. Herbert Henry Asquith 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC ( 12 September 1852 &ndash 15 February 1928) served
Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General in Egypt (the job formerly held by Sir Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer) and of the so-called Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1911–1914, during the formal reign of Abbas Hilmi II as Khedive (nominally Ottoman Viceroy) of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, of the Sudan, of Kordofan and of Darfur). Abbas II (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha) (عباس حلمي باشا ( July 14, 1874, Alexandria &ndash 19 December For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first Whatever the legal niceties, Egypt was in reality a British puppet state and the Sudan a directly-administered British colony, making Kitchener Viceroy of the region in all but name.
Kitchener was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, on 29 June 1914. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Unusually, provision was made for the title to be passed on to his brother and nephew, since Kitchener was not married and had no children.
At the outset of World War I, the Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War; Asquith had been filling the job himself as a stopgap following the resignation of Colonel Seeley over the Curragh Incident earlier in 1914, and Kitchener was by chance briefly in Britain on leave when war was declared. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Herbert Henry Asquith 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC ( 12 September 1852 &ndash 15 February 1928) served The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British Cabinet -level position first applied to Henry Dundas John Edward Bernard Seely 1st Baron Mottistone, CB, CMG, DSO, PC, TD ( 31 May The Curragh Incident of March 20, 1914, also known as the Curragh Mutiny, occurred in the Curragh, County Kildare, Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. Kitchener stated that the conflict would plumb the depths of manpower "to the last million. "
A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a distinctive poster of himself, taken from a magazine front cover. At the start of 1914 the British Army had a reported strength of 710000 men including reserves of which around 80000 were regular troops ready for War. A 1914 recruitment poster depicting Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener above the words " WANTS YOU " was the most famous image It may have encouraged large numbers of volunteers and has proven to be one of the most enduring images of the war, having been copied and parodied many times since.
In an effort to find a way to relieve pressure on the Western front, Lord Kitchener proposed an invasion of İskenderun with Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), New Army, and Indian troops. İskenderun, also Iskenderon (formerly in Greek Ἀλεξανδρέττα Alexandretta; in Arabic الإسكندرون al-ʼIskandarūn The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army, was an (initially all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom following the outbreak of hostilities in See Indian Army for the post-independence (and post- partition) army of the Republic of India. Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network - its capture would have cut the empire in two. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipoli campaign in 1915–1916. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles That failure, combined with the Shell Crisis of 1915, was to deal Kitchener's political reputation a heavy blow; Kitchener was popular with the public, so Asquith retained him in office in the new coalition government, but responsibility for munitions was moved to a new ministry headed by David Lloyd George. The Shell Crisis of 1915 largely contributed to weakening public appreciation of government of the United Kingdom during World War I because it was widely perceived David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Later in 1915 Kitchener was sent on a tour of inspection of Gallipoli and the Near East, in the hope that he could be persuaded to remain in the region as commander-in-chief.
At the end of 1915, the new Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Sir William Robertson, took office only on condition that he was granted the right to speak for the Army to the Cabinet in matters of strategy, leaving Kitchener solely with responsibility for manpower and recruitment. Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS was the title of the professional commander of the British Army from 1908 until 1964 Field Marshal Sir William Robert Robertson 1st Baronet, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO ( 29 January 1860 – Whereas Kitchener had hoped to hold his armies in reserve to administer the coup de grace to Germany after the other warring nations had exhausted themselves, Robertson was suspicious of efforts in the Balkans and Near East, and was instead committed to major British offensives against Germany on the Western Front - the first of these was to be the Somme in 1916.
In May 1916, preparations were made for Kitchener and Lloyd George to visit Russia on a diplomatic mission. Lloyd George was otherwise engaged with his new Ministry and so it was decided to send Kitchener alone.
A week before his death, Kitchener confided to Lord Derby that he intended to press relentlessly for a peace of reconciliation, regardless of his position, when the war was over, as he feared that the politicians would make a bad peace. Edward George Villiers Stanley 17th Earl of Derby KG, GCB, GCVO, TD, PC (23 St
On 4 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles with various US arms manufacturers. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made in order to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200+ Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. Major General Ivor John Caradoc Herbert 1st Baron Treowen, CB, CMG, KStJ ( July 15 1851 &ndash October 18 1933 The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords
In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe, that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as Kitchener stitch.   
At Scapa Flow, Lord Kitchener embarked aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. Scapa Flow ( Old Norse: Skalpaflói) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands The armored cruiser, or armoured cruiser (see spelling differences) is a type of Cruiser, a naval warship. On 5 June 1916, while en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk, Hampshire struck a mine laid by the newly-launched German U-boat U-75 (commanded by Curt Beitzen) during a Force 9 gale and sank west of the Orkney Islands. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Arkhangelsk (Арха́нгельск formerly called Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast The Beaufort scale (ˈboʊfət is an Empirical measure for describing Wind speed based mainly on observed sea conditions A gale is a very strong Wind. There are conflicting definitions of how strong Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north Kitchener, his staff, and 643 of the crew of 655 were drowned or died of exposure. His body was never found. The survivors who caught sight of him in those last moments testified to his outward calm and resolution. The same day, the last Division of Kitchener's New Army crossed the channel to take up its positions in Flanders and France where, eventually, and despite numerous setbacks, they helped to defeat Germany in 1918. The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army, was an (initially all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom following the outbreak of hostilities in Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands.
Not everyone mourned Kitchener's loss. C. P. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian is said to have remarked that "as for the old man, he could not have done better than to have gone down, as he was a great impediment lately. Charles Prestwich Scott ( 26 October 1846 &ndash 1 January 1932) was a British journalist publisher and politician The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. "
The suddenness of Kitchener's death, combined with his great fame and the fact that his body was never recovered, almost immediately gave rise to conspiracy theories that have continued almost to this day.
Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a Boer and German spy, claimed to have sabotaged and sunk the HMS Hampshire, killing Kitchener and most of the crew. Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne (sometimes spelt Du Quesne pronounced in English as “Doo-Cain’’ (born Cape Boer (ˈbuːr in Dutch ˈbʊɚ/ /boʊɚ or /ˈbɔr/ in English is the Dutch word for Farmer which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans According to German records, Duquesne assumed the identity of Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky and joined Kitchener in Scotland. En route to Russia, Duquesne signalled a German U-boat to alert them that Kitchener’s ship was approaching. He then escaped on a raft just before the HMS Hampshire was destroyed. Duquesne was awarded the Iron Cross for this act. For other meanings please see Iron Cross (disambiguation The Iron Cross ( was a Military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia In the 1930s and 1940s, he ran the famous Duquesne Spy Ring and was captured by the FBI along with 32 other Nazi spies in the largest espionage conviction in U. The Duquesne Spy Ring is the largest Espionage case in United States history that ended in convictions Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German S. history.
The fact that newly-appointed Minister of Munitions (and future prime minister) David Lloyd George was supposed to accompany Kitchener on the fatal journey, but cancelled at the last moment, has been given great significance by some. David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only This fact, along with the alleged lethargy of the rescue efforts, has led some to claim that Kitchener was assassinated, or, somewhat more plausibly, that his death would have been convenient for a British establishment that had come to see him as figure from the past who was incompetent to wage modern war. Given that Kitchener's death hit Britain like a thunderclap and was widely perceived as a disaster for the war effort, this interpretation seems far-fetched, to say the least.
After the war, there were a number of conspiracy theories put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill and a Jewish conspiracy. Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas ( 22 October 1870 &ndash 20 March 1945) was a Poet, a Translator and a Prose fix various bugs per WikipediaHow to fix bunched-up edit links --> Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 (Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel and the latter spent six months in prison. ) Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans.
Probably the most spectacular Kitchener-related conspiracy was the effort in 1926 by a hoaxer named Frank Power to actually recover and bury Kitchener's body, which he claimed had been found by a Norwegian fisherman. He brought a coffin back from Norway and prepared it for burial in St. Paul's. At this point, however, the authorities intervened and the coffin was opened in the presence of police and a distinguished pathologist. The box was found to contain only tar for weight. There was widespread public outrage at Power, but he was ultimately never prosecuted. 
The role of Fritz Joubert Duquesne in Kitchener's death has been hypothesised/documented in several books and movies:
Some biographers have concluded that Kitchener was a latent or active homosexual, though this is not universally accepted. Writers that make the case for his homosexuality include Montgomery Hyde, Ronald Hyam, Dennis Judd and Richardson. Harford Montgomery Hyde ( August 14, 1907 &ndash August 10, 1989) born in Belfast, was a Barrister, politician (Ulster Biographers who make the case against include Cassar, Pollock, and Warner. Magnus and Royle hint at homosexuality, though Magnus is said to have later recanted.
The proponents of the case point to Kitchener's friend Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, his "constant and inseparable companion," whom he appointed his aide-de-camp. They remained close until they met a common death on their voyage to Russia.  From his time in Egypt in 1892, he gathered around him a cadre of eager young and unmarried officers nicknamed "Kitchener's band of boys. " He also avoided interviews with women, took a great deal of interest in the Boy Scout movement, and decorated his rose garden with four pairs of sculptured bronze boys. According to Hyam, "there is no evidence that he ever loved a woman". 
According to another writer, his interests were not exclusively homosexual. "When the great field marshal stayed in aristocratic houses, the well informed young would ask servants to sleep across their bedroom threshold to impede his entrance". His compulsive objective was sodomy, regardless of their gender. 
J. B. Priestley noted in his book on The Edwardians that one of Lord Kitchener's personal interests in life included planning and decorating his residences. John Boynton Priestley, OM ( 13 September, 1894 &ndash 14 August, 1984) was an English Writer and broadcaster He was also known to collect delicate china with a passion (such allusions to an 'artistic temperament' were a common code for implying homosexuality at that time).
However, he was apparently in love with, and may have been engaged to, Hermione Baker, the beautiful young daughter of Valentine Baker, commander of the Egyptian gendarmerie, but she died from typhoid in January 1885, aged eighteen. In 1902 he unsuccessfully courted Lord Londonderry's daughter, Helen Mary Theresa. He was friendly, in her old age, with the courtesan Catherine Walters. Catherine "Skittles" Walters ( 13 June 1839 – 4 August 1920) was a fashion trendsetter and along with Alice Keppel, was
Kitchener is a Senior Boys house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School where, like Welbeck college, all houses are named after prominent military figures. The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army, was an (initially all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom following the outbreak of hostilities in The City of Kitchener (ˈkɪtʃɨnɚ is a City in southwestern Ontario, Canada. George Ramsdale Witton (1874 – 1942 was a Lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Boer War in South Africa The Duke of York’s Royal Military School was founded in 1803 by Prince Frederick Augustus Duke of York and Albany son of King George III and Queen Charlotte Welbeck Defence Sixth Form College (Welbeck DSFC is a Sixth form College in Woodhouse Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom
Sir John Eldon Gorst
|British Consul-General in Egypt|
1911 – 1914
Sir Milne Cheetham
as Acting High Commissioner
Herbert Henry Asquith
|Secretary of State for War|
1914 – 1916
David Lloyd George
Sir Arthur Power Palmer
1902 – 1909
Sir O'Moore Creagh
Earl of Minto
|Rector of the University of Edinburgh|
1914 – 1916
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Earl Kitchener|
1914 – 1916
1902 – 1916
1898 – 1916
|NAME||Kitchener, Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Lord Kitchener, Kitchener, Horatio|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British general and politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||24 June 1850|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland|
|DATE OF DEATH||5 June 1916|
|PLACE OF DEATH||North Sea|