The Friday Mosque in Herāt
|Population (2006)||349,000 (3rd)|
Central Statistics Office of Afghanistan
920 m (3,018 ft)
|Time zone||UTC+4:30 Kabul|
Herāt (Persian: هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The Provinces of Afghanistan (locally recognized as wilayats - ولايت are the primary Administrative divisions of Afghanistan. Herat ( is one the 34 Provinces of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces it makes up the north-western region A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The following are twelve largest cities of Afghanistan. The populations given are the 2006 estimated figures by the Central Statistics Office of Afghanistan. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. UTC+430 is used in Afghanistan and in the summer as Time in Iran. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Herat ( is one the 34 Provinces of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces it makes up the north-western region It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan. The Hari River (Persian Rudkhaneh-ye Hari Rud sometimes Harirud) is a River flowing 1100 kilometers from the mountains of central Afghanistan The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara Gum (“Black Sand” ( Turkmen: Garagum, Russian: Каракумы) Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Situated in a fertile area, Herāt was traditionally known for its wine. It is the third largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of 349,000 (2006 official estimate). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Persian-speaking Tājiks (or Fārsīwān) are the main inhabitants of the city and are roughly the same as the Persians of Eastern Iran. Tajik ( - Tādjīk; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: Тоҷик is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking people of Fārsīwān ( or its more archaic version Pārsīwān - پارسیوان) is a general designation of the Persian-speakers in Afghanistan. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
Herat is an ancient city with many historic buildings, although these have suffered damage in various military conflicts during the last few decades. The city is dominated by the remains of a citadel constructed by Alexander the Great. A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' During the Middle Ages Herat became one of the important cities of Khorasan, and it was known as the Pearl of Khorasan. Greater Khorasan (خراسان بزرگ (also written Khorasaan, Khurasan and Khurasaan) is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia
Herāt is situated favorably on the ancient and historic trade routes of the Middle East, South Asia, Pakistan,China, India and Europe. A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The roads from Herāt to Iran, Turkmenistan, Mazar-e Sharif and Kandahar are still strategically important. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Mazār-e Sharīf ( is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300600 people (2006 estimate For the 2001 film see Kandahar (film; for the Kandahar meteorite of 1959 see Meteorite falls; for the places in Azerbaijan see Cəndəhar and
Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown. In Achaemenid times (ca. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of 550-330 BC), the surrounding district was known as Haraiva (in Old Persian), and in classical sources the region was correspondingly known as Aria (Areia). Events and trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Events By place Macedonian Empire January 20 — Alexander the Great defeats the Persians, led by satrap Ariobarzanes Haraiva is the ancient Old Persian name ( Greek Areia/Aria Latin Aria for the area around Herat, in northwest Afghanistan. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) Aria ( Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) name of a region in the eastern part of the In the Zoroastrian Avesta, the district is mentioned as Haroiva. The name of the district and its main town is derived from that of the chief river of the region, the Hari River (Old Iranian Harayu "with velocity"), which traverses the district and passes just south (5 km) of modern Herat. The Hari River (Persian Rudkhaneh-ye Hari Rud sometimes Harirud) is a River flowing 1100 kilometers from the mountains of central Afghanistan The naming of a region and its principal town after the main river is a common feature in this part of the world. (Compare the adjoining districts/rivers/towns of Arachosia and Bactria. Arachosia (ˌærəˈkoʊʒə, Arakhōsia) or Arachotae (əˈrækəˌtiː, Arakhōtai) is the latinized form of Greek name of an Achaemenid "Bactrian" redirects here For the camel see Bactrian camel. )
The Persian Achaemenid district of Aria is mentioned in the provincial lists that are included in various royal inscriptions, for instance, in the Behistun inscription of Darius I (ca. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون; Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the god's Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed 520 BC). Events 529 BC — Cambyses II started to rule He is son of Cyrus II.  Representatives from the district are depicted in reliefs, e. g. , at the royal Achaemenid tombs of Naqsh-e Rustam and Persepolis. Naqsh-e Rustam (in Persian: نقش رستم Nāqš-e Rostām) is an archaeological site located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars province Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial
Herodotus called Herat as the bread-basket of Central Asia. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash At the time of Alexander the Great, Aria was obviously an important district. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' It was administered by a satrap, called Satibarzanes, who was one of the three main Persian officials in the East of the Empire, together with the satrap Bessus of Bactria and Barsaentes of Arachosia. Satibarzanes (in Greek Σατιβαρζανης died 330 BC a Persian, was Satrap of Aria under Darius III, king of Persia Bessus (died summer 329 BC was a Persian nobleman and Satrap of Bactria, and later contender king of Persia In late 330 BC Alexander the Great, captured the Arian capital that was called Artacoana. Events By place Macedonian Empire January 20 — Alexander the Great defeats the Persians, led by satrap Ariobarzanes The town was rebuilt and the citadel was constructed. It became part of the Seleucid Empire but was captured by others on various occasions and became part of the Parthian Empire in 167 BC. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i
In the Sasanian period (226-652), "Harev" is listed in an inscription on the Ka'ba-i Zartosht at Naqsh-e Rustam; and "Hariy" is mentioned in the Pahlavi catalogue of the provincial capitals of the empire. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Events By Place Asia Cao Rui becomes emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. Events By Place Europe Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards. The Ka'ba-ye Zartosht (alt Kaba-ye Zardusht, Kaba-ye Zardosht) meaning the "Cube of Zoroaster " is a 5th century BCE Achaemenid-era Naqsh-e Rustam (in Persian: نقش رستم Nāqš-e Rostām) is an archaeological site located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars province In around 430, the town is also listed as having a Christian community, with a Nestorian bishop. Events By Place Asia Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern
In the last two centuries of Sasanian rule, Aria (Herat) had great strategic importance in the endless wars between the Sasanians, the Chionites and the Hephthalites who had been settled in modern northern Afghanistan since the late fourth century. Chionites, Chionitae or Xionites ( Chinese: Xiōng (匈 or Xīróng (西戎 meaning "Western Barbarians" Middle Persian: Xiyon The Hephthalites or White Huns were a Central Asian Nomadic confederation whose precise origins and composition remain obscure As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century
The city of Herat became well known with the advent of the Arabs in the middle of the seventh century. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. When the Arab armies appeared in Khorasan in the 650s, Herat was counted among the twelve capital towns of the Sasanian Empire. Events and Trends 650, The first Chinese Paper money is issued Herat was taken in 652 CE by General Abdul Rehman ibn Samrah. Events By Place Europe Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards.
Around 786-809 Herāt was part of the Abbasid caliphate. For the processors see 80786 - 7th generation x86 like Athlon and Intel Pentium 4. Events By Place Asia Emperor Saga succeeds Emperor Heizei as Emperor of Japan. Later, it was ruled by the Tahirid dynasty. The Tahirid dynasty, (سلسله طاهریان Persian: ( 821 - 873) ruled the northeastern Persian Empire region
After 867-869, the Saffarid dynasty took control. Events By Place Byzantine Empire September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats The Saffarid dynasty ( Persian: سلسله صفاریان ruled a empire in Sistan, which is a historical region now in southeastern Iran and southwestern
Before 1040 it was ruled by the Ghaznavids. The Ghaznavid Empire was a Khorāṣānian Sunni Muslim state founded by a dynasty of Turkic Mamluk. In 1040 it was captured by the Seljuk Empire. The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled In 1175 it was captured by the Ghorids and then came under the Khawarazm Empire. The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation Shansabānī) ( were a Persian Sunni - Ismaili Muslim dynasty in Khorasan Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the In this period Herāt became an important center for the production of metal goods, especially in bronze, often decorated with elaborate inlays in precious metals. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus
In 1221 it was captured by the Mongols and later destroyed by Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder In 1245 it was given to the Kart Maliks.
Around 1381 it was destroyed again by Timur. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Under his son Shah Rukh it was rebuilt and became an important center under the Timurid Empire. See Shahrukh Khan for the actor of that name Shāhrukh Mīrzā ( - Šāhrukh Mīrzā, also known as Shāhruh The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī ( were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty In the late 1400s the Musalla complex (with many minarets) was built under the rule of Queen Gawharshad. For the mountain formation see Minarets (California. Minarets ( Arabic manara (lighthouse منارة but more usually مئذنة Goharshād ( Gowharšād; meaning "joyful jewel" or "shining jewel" in Persian alternative spelling Gawharshād) was a Persian Her tomb complex is considered one of the great monuments of Timurid architectural carving.
The Black Sheep Turkomans (Qara Qoyunlu) at one point established their capital in Herat during the fifteenth century. The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu 
In 1506 it was captured by the Uzbeks and a few years later was taken back by Shah Ismail Safavi, to become part of a new Safavid Persian Empire. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
From 1718 until 1863, there were various battles fought between the natives of the city and the Afghans until the city became part of present-day Afghanistan. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1718 ( MDCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Ahmad Shah Durrani took possession of Herat in 1750, which became part of the Durrani Empire after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict. Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c1723-1773 ( also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī ( احمد شاه ابدالي) and born as Ahmad Khān Abdālī, The Durrani Empire (also referred to as the Afghan Empire) was a large state based in modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and later included northeastern In 1824, the city became effectively independent when the country was split in three to resolve a succession struggle. The city was taken back by the Persians in 1852 and again in 1856; both times the British helped to reverse the attempt, the second time through the Anglo-Persian War. The Anglo-Persian War lasted between 1 November 1856 and 4 April 1857 and was fought between the United Kingdom and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the The city was taken by Dost Mohammed Khan in 1863, making it part of a broader "Afghan state". Dost Mohammad Khan ( Pashto / Persian: دوست محمد خان) ( December 23, 1793 - June 9, 1863) son of Sardār
Most of the Musallah complex in Herat was destroyed in 1885 by the British army for a clear line of sight for their artillery against Russian invaders who never came.
During the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Herat was used by the Soviets. The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a Soviet -backed government in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Even before the Soviet invasion at the end of 1979, there was a substantial presence of Soviet advisors in the city with their families. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) From 10 to 20 March 1979 the army in Herat under the control of Ismail Khan mutinied and some 35 Soviet citizens were killed. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Ismail Khan (born 1946 an ethnic Tajik from Herat, Afghanistan, was a powerful Mujahedeen commander in the Soviet War in Afghanistan The Afghan air force bombed the city, causing massive destruction and some 10,000 deaths and it was recaptured with tanks and paratroopers.
Ismail Khan became the leading Mujahedin commander in Herat and after the departure of the Soviets he became governor of Herāt. A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or In September 1995 the city was captured by the Taliban and Ismail Khan fled. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately However, after the US invasion of Afghanistan, on November 12, 2001, it was liberated from the Taliban by the Northern Alliance and Ismail Khan returned to power (see Battle of Herat). Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan ( UIF, Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan) also known as the Northern In 2004, Mirwais Sadeq Khan, who was Aviation Minister of Afghanistan and the son of Ismail Khan, was ambushed and killed in Herat. More than 200 people were arrested on suspicion of involvement. 
Herat is presently a part of Afghanistan's new central government, which is led by US backed President Hamid Karzai. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Hamid Karzai ( حامد کرزي, حامد کرزي) (born 24 December 1957) is the current President of Afghanistan, since December There are also NATO peacekeeping forces present in and around the city providing security led by Italy. The North Atlantic Treaty Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
In 2007, Iran and Afghanistan finalized an agreement for the establishment of a rail service between the two countries. Herat Airfield (or Herat Airport) is 65 miles (105 km southeast of Herat, just east of the Herat - Farah road close to Guzara For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Construction of the 191 km railway, from Khaf in Iran to Herat, is in progress on the Iranian side of the border . Khaf County (شهرستان خواف is a County in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. There is also the prospect of an extension across Afghanistan to Sher Khan Bandar. Shir Khan Bandar is a town in Afghanistan on the border with Tadzhikistan.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Herat ( is one the 34 Provinces of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces it makes up the north-western region This article is about the history of the area that has became known as Afghanistan, a territory whose current boundaries were mostly determined in the 19th Century Aria ( Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) name of a region in the eastern part of the Greater Khorasan (خراسان بزرگ (also written Khorasaan, Khurasan and Khurasaan) is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia