Henry Purcell (IPA: /ˈpɜrsəl/; September 10, 1659 (?) – November 21, 1695, was an English Baroque composer. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance He has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750.
Purcell was probably born in St Ann's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster. Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. Henry Purcell Senior was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of England. A Chapel Royal is a department of the Ecclesiastical Household of the monarch in right of each of the Commonwealth realms formally known as the royal Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. His brother Thomas Purcell (d. 1682) was also a musician and Henry Junior may possibly have been his son (see below) rather than Henry Senior's. Henry the elder had three sons, Edward, Henry, and Daniel. Daniel Purcell (d. Daniel Purcell ( 1664 - November 26, 1717) was an English composer the younger brother of Henry Purcell. 1717), the youngest of the brothers, was also a prolific composer who wrote the music for much of the final act of The Indian Queen after Henry Purcell's death. Year 1717 ( MDCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Indian Queen is a play by Sir Robert Howard, written in collaboration with John Dryden, his sister's husband
After his father's (?) death in 1664, Purcell was placed under the guardianship of his uncle (?), who showed him great affection and kindness. Thomas was himself a gentleman of His Majesty's chapel, and arranged for Henry to be admitted as a chorister. Henry studied first under Captain Henry Cooke (d. Henry Cooke (Captain Henry Cooke c 1616-1672 was an English composer actor and singer 1672), master of the children, and afterwards under Pelham Humfrey (d. Pelham Humfrey ( Humphrey Humphrys) (London 1647 - Windsor 14 July 1674 was the first to prominence of the new generation of English composers at the beginning of the Restoration 1674), Cooke's successor. Henry was a chorister in the Chapel Royal until his voice broke in 1673, at which time he became assistant to John Hingeston, the musical instrument keeper for the King.
Purcell is said to have been composing at nine years old, but the earliest work that can be certainly identified as his is an ode for the King's birthday, written in 1670. (The dates for his compositions are often uncertain, despite considerable research. ) After Humfrey's death, Purcell continued his studies under Dr. John Blow. John Blow (baptised 23 February 1649 &ndash 1 October 1708 was an English Composer and Organist. He attended Westminster School, and in 1676 he was appointed organist at Westminster Abbey, and in the same year he composed the music to John Dryden's Aureng-Zebe and Thomas Shadwell's Epsom Wells and The Libertine. The Royal College of St Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain 's leading boys' Independent schools with The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England Thomas Shadwell (c 1642 &ndash 19 November 1692) was an English Playwright and miscellaneous Writer who was appointed These were followed in 1677 by the music to Aphra Behn's tragedy, Abdelazar, and in 1678 by an overture and masque for Shadwell's new version of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens. Abdelazar or The Moor's Revenge is a 1676 play by Aphra Behn, an adaptation of the c The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment which flourished in sixteenth and early seventeenth century Europe though it was developed earlier in Italy William Shakespeare ( baptised The Life of Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare about the legendary Athenian misanthrope Timon (and probably influenced The chorus "In these delightful pleasant groves" from The Libertine is still performed.
In 1679, he wrote some songs for John Playford's Choice Ayres, Songs and Dialogues, and also an anthem, the name of which is not known, for the Chapel Royal. John Playford was born in Norwich in 1623 and died in London in 1686 The term anthem means either a specific form of Anglican church music (in Music theory and religious contexts or more generally a song (or composition of From a letter written by Thomas Purcell, and still extant, we learn that this anthem was composed for the exceptionally fine voice of the Rev. John Gostling, then at Canterbury, but afterwards a gentleman of His Majesty's chapel. The Reverend John Gostling (1644 - 1733 was a 17th century bass singer famed for his range and power Canterbury ( ˈkæntəbɹ̩i is a City in eastern Kent in the South East region of England. Purcell wrote several anthems at different times for this extraordinary voice, a basso profondo, which is known to have had a range of at least two full octaves, from D below the bass staff to the D above it. In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems The dates of very few of these sacred compositions are known; perhaps the most notable example is the anthem "They that go down to the sea in ships". In thankfulness for a providential escape of the King from shipwreck, Gostling, who had been of the royal party, put together some verses from the Psalms in the form of an anthem and requested Purcell to set them to music. The work is a very difficult one, opening with a passage which traverses the full extent of Gostling's range, beginning on the upper D and descending two octaves to the lower.
In 1680, Blow, who had been appointed organist of Westminster Abbey in 1669, resigned his office in favour of his pupil, who was still only twenty-two. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Purcell now devoted himself almost entirely to the composition of sacred music, and for six years severed his connection with the theatre. However, during the early part of the year, probably before taking up his new office, he had produced two important works for the stage, the music for Nathaniel Lee's Theodosius, and Thomas D'Urfey's Virtuous Wife. Nathaniel Lee (c 1653 &ndash May 6, 1692) was an English Dramatist. Thomas D'Urfey ( Tom Durfey) ( 1653 - 26 February 1723) was an English writer and wit The composition of his chamber opera Dido and Aeneas, which forms a very important landmark in the history of English dramatic music, has been attributed to this period, and its earliest production may well have predated the documented one of 1689. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Dido and Æneas is an Opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. It was written to a libretto furnished by Nahum Tate, and performed in 1689 in cooperation with Josiah Priest, a dancing master and the choreographer for the Dorset Garden Theatre. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and Nahum Tate (1652&ndash July 30, 1715) was an Irish Poet, Hymnist, and Lyricist, who became England's Poet laureate in 1692 Josias Priest ( c 1645– January 3, 1735 in Chelsea London) was an English dancer dancing-master and choreographer. The Dorset Garden Theatre in London, built in 1671 was in its early years also known as the Duke of York's Theatre, or the Duke's Theatre Priests's wife kept a boarding school for young gentlewomen, first in Leicester Fields and afterwards at Chelsea, where the opera was performed. For the British guitarist see Lester Square. Leicester Square (ˈlɛstɚ is a Pedestrianised square in the West End Chelsea is an area of south-west London, England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along It is occasionally considered the first genuine English opera, though that title is usually given to Blow's Venus and Adonis: as in Blow's work, the action does not progress in spoken dialogue but in Italian-style recitative. Venus and Adonis is an Opera in three acts and a Prologue by the English Baroque Composer John Blow Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios Both works run to less than one hour. At the time Dido and Aeneas never found its way to the theatre, though it appears to have been very popular in private circles. It is believed to have been extensively copied, but only one song was printed by Purcell's widow in Orpheus Britannicus, and the complete work remained in manuscript until 1840, when it was printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society under the editorship of Sir George Macfarren. Orpheus Britannicus is a collection of Songs by Henry Purcell, published posthumously in London in two volumes the first in 1698 and the second Sir George Alexander Macfarren ( March 2, 1813 &ndash October 31, 1887) was an English Composer.
Stay, Prince and hear
Soon after Purcell's marriage, in 1682, on the death of Edward Lowe, he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, an office which he was able to hold simultaneously with his position at Westminster Abbey. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church His eldest son was born in this same year. His first printed composition, Twelve Sonatas, was published in 1683. Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas  For some years after this, he was busy in the production of sacred music, odes addressed to the king and royal family, and other similar works.  In 1685, he wrote two of his finest anthems, "I was glad" and "My heart is inditing", for the coronation of King James II. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James
In 1687, he resumed his connection with the theatre by furnishing the music for Dryden's tragedy, Tyrannick Love. John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England Tyrannick Love or The Royal Martyr is a Tragedy by John Dryden in rhymed couplets first acted in June 1669, and published in 1670 In this year, Purcell also composed a march and quick-step, which became so popular that Lord Wharton adapted the latter to the fatal verses of Lillibullero; and in or before January 1688, he composed his anthem "Blessed are they that fear the Lord" by express command of the King. Baron Wharton is a title in the Peerage of England, originally granted by Letters patent to the heirs male of the 1st Baron, which was forfeited in 1729 Lillibullero is a march that sets the words of a satirical Ballad generally said to be by Lord Thomas Wharton to music attributed to Henry A few months later, he wrote the music for D'Urfey's play, The Fool's Preferment. In 1690, he composed the music for Betterton's adaptation of Fletcher and Massinger's Prophetess (afterwards called Dioclesian) and Dryden's Amphitryon. Thomas Patrick Betterton (ca 1635 &ndash 28 April 1710) English Actor, son of an under-cook to King Charles I, was born in John Fletcher (1579 &ndash 1625 was a Jacobean Playwright. Following William Shakespeare as house playwright for the King's Men, he was Philip Massinger (1583 &ndash March 17, 1640) was an English Dramatist. Dioclesian (The Prophetess or The History of Dioclesian) is a tragicomic Semi-opera in five acts by Henry Purcell to a Libretto Amphitryon, or Amphitrion, in Greek mythology, was a son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis. In 1691, he wrote the music for what is sometimes considered his dramatic masterpiece, King Arthur, with the libretto by Dryden and first published by the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1843. King Arthur or The British Worthy (Z 628 is an Opera in five acts composed by Henry Purcell to a Libretto by John Dryden In 1692, he composed The Fairy-Queen (an adaptation of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream), the score of which was rediscovered in 1901 and published by the Purcell Society. The Fairy-Queen (Z629 is a Masque or Semi-opera by Henry Purcell; a Restoration spectacular It was first performed on 2 May 1692 A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare, suggested by " The Knight's Tale " from The Purcell Society (founded in 1876 is an organization dedicated to making the complete musical works of Henry Purcell available The Indian Queen followed in 1695 in which year he also wrote songs for Dryden and Davenant's version of Shakespeare's The Tempest, probably including "Full fathom five" and "Come unto these yellow sands". The Tempest or The Enchanted Island is a Comedy adapted by John Dryden and William D'Avenant from Shakespeare's great comedy The Tempest is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. It is generally dated to 1610-11 and accepted as the last play written solely by him although In these semi-operas (another term for which at the time was "dramatic opera"), the main characters of the plays do not sing but speak their lines: the action moves in dialogue rather than recitative. Semi-opera is an early form of Opera, though the term 'dramatic opera' is more favoured amongst scholars The related songs are sung "for" them by singers, who have minor dramatic roles.
Purcell's Te Deum and Jubilate was written for Saint Cecilia's Day, 1693, the first English Te Deum ever composed with orchestral accompaniment. Saint Cecilia (Sancta Caecilia is the Patron saint of Musicians and Church music. This work was annually performed at St Paul's Cathedral until 1712, after which it was performed alternately with Handel's Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate until 1743, when both works were replaced by Handel's Dettingen Te Deum. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. Year 1712 ( MDCCXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap
He composed an anthem and two elegies for Queen Mary II's funeral. Mary II (30 April 1662 &ndash 28 December 1694 reigned as Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until her death Besides the operas and semi-operas already mentioned, Purcell wrote the music and songs for Thomas D'Urfey's The Comical History of Don Quixote, Boudicca, The Indian Queen and others, a vast quantity of sacred music, and numerous odes, cantatas, and other miscellaneous pieces. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Semi-opera is an early form of Opera, though the term 'dramatic opera' is more favoured amongst scholars es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Boudica (also spelled Boudicca, formerly known as Boadicea, and known in Welsh culture and legends as "Buddug" (d The Indian Queen is a play by Sir Robert Howard, written in collaboration with John Dryden, his sister's husband Ode (from the Ancient Greek) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often The quantity of his instrumental chamber music is minimal after his early career, and his keyboard music consists of an even more minimal number of harpsichord suites and organ pieces.
He died at his house in Dean's Yard, Westminster, in 1695, at the height of his career; he was in his mid-thirties. The cause of Purcell's death is unclear: one theory is that he caught a chill after returning late from the theatre one night to find that his wife had locked him out; another is that he succumbed to chocolate poisoning; perhaps the most likely is that he died of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common The beginning of Purcell's will reads:
Purcell is buried adjacent to the organ in Westminster Abbey. His epitaph reads, "Here lyes Henry Purcell Esq. , who left this life and is gone to that blessed place where only his harmony can be exceeded. "
Purcell's wife Frances and three of his six children survived him. Frances died in 1706, having published a number of his works, including the now famous collection called Orpheus Britannicus, in two volumes, printed in 1698 and 1702, respectively. Year 1706 ( MDCCVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Purcell's son Edward (1689-1740) became organist of St Clement Eastcheap, London, in 1711. Edward Purcell (1689-1740 was born in Westminster, London, the only surviving son of the organist and composer Henry Purcell. St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England Parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. His son Edward Henry Purcell (d. Edward Henry Purcell (d1765 organist printer and music publisher was the son of Edward Purcell, and grandson of Henry Purcell. 1765), thus Henry Purcell's grandson, succeeded him in ths post. Both men were buried in St Clement's.
A Purcell Club was founded in London in 1836 for promoting the performance of his music, but was dissolved in 1863. In 1876 a Purcell Society was founded, which published new editions of his works. The Purcell Society (founded in 1876 is an organization dedicated to making the complete musical works of Henry Purcell available A modern day Purcell Club has been created, and provides guided tours and concerts in support of Westminster Abbey. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church
After his death, Purcell was honored by many of his contemporaries, including his old friend John Blow, who wrote "An Ode, on the Death of Mr. John Blow (baptised 23 February 1649 &ndash 1 October 1708 was an English Composer and Organist. Henry Purcell (Mark how the lark and linnet sing)" with text by his old collaborator, John Dryden. More recently, the English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote a famous sonnet entitled simply "Henry Purcell", with a head-note reading: "The poet wishes well to the divine genius of Purcell and praises him that, whereas other musicians have given utterance to the moods of man's mind, he has, beyond that, uttered in notes the very make and species of man as created both in him and in all men generally. Gerard Manley Hopkins ( 28 July 1844 – 8 June, 1889) was an English Poet, Roman Catholic convert and "
So strong was his reputation that a popular wedding processional was incorrectly attributed to Purcell for many years. The so-called Purcell's Trumpet Voluntary was in fact written around 1700 by a British composer named Jeremiah Clarke as the Prince of Denmark's March. Jeremiah Clarke (c 1674 - 1 December 1707 was an English baroque Composer. The Prince of Denmark's March, commonly though erroneously known as the Trumpet Voluntary, is a work by Jeremiah Clarke, composed around 1699
Purcell is among the Baroque composers who has had a direct influence on modern rock and roll; according to Pete Townshend of The Who, Purcell was among his influences, particularly evident in the opening bars of The Who's "Pinball Wizard. Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born 19 May 1945 in Chiswick, London) is an English rock Guitarist, Singer, The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend " Pinball Wizard " is a song written by Pete Townshend and performed by the English rock band The Who, and featured on their 1969 " The title song from the soundtrack of the film A Clockwork Orange is from Purcell's "Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary". A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony Meanwhile, noted cult New Wave artist Klaus Nomi regularly performed "The Cold Song" from King Arthur during his career, including a version on his debut self-titled album, Klaus Nomi, from 1981; his last public performance before his untimely death was an interpretation of the piece done with a full orchestra in December 1982 in Munich. Klaus Sperber ( January 24, 1944 - August 6, 1983) better known as Klaus Nomi, was a German Countertenor noted King Arthur or The British Worthy (Z 628 is an Opera in five acts composed by Henry Purcell to a Libretto by John Dryden Klaus Nomi is the debut album by German Countertenor Klaus Nomi.
Purcell also had a strong influence on the composers of the English musical renaissance of the early twentieth century, most notably Benjamin Britten, who created and performed a realisation of Dido and Aeneas and whose The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is based on a theme from Purcell's Abdelazar. Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, This article is about the composition by Benjamin Britten for information about the television series see Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra. Stylistically, the aria "I know a bank" from Britten's opera A Midsummer Night's Dream is clearly inspired by Purcell's aria "Sweeter than Roses", which Purcell originally wrote as part of incidental music to Richard Norton's Pausanias, the Betrayer of His Country. A Midsummer Night's Dream is an Opera with music by Benjamin Britten and set to a libretto adapted by the composer and Peter Pears from
In the 21st century, the soundtrack to the 2005 film version of Pride & Prejudice features a dance titled "A Postcard to Henry Purcell," which is a version by composer Dario Marianelli of the same Abdelazar theme used in The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra. Pride & Prejudice is a 2005 film based on the popular Jane Austen novel of the same name. Pride and Prejudice, first published on 28 January 1813, is the most famous of Jane Austen 's novels and one of the first " romantic Dario Marianelli (born May 25, 1963 in Pisa, Italy) is a Golden Globe -winning Academy Award -winning Composer of
On Victoria Street, Westminster, there is a bronze monument to Purcell, sculpted by Glynn Williams and erected in 1994.
Purcell's works have been catalogued by Franklin Zimmerman, who gave them a number preceded by Z.
|I was Glad|
|Ode 1 - Sinfonia|
|Ode 2 - Welcome to All|
|Ode 3 - Hail to this Happy Assembly|
|Ode 4 - Here the Deities Approve|
|Ode 5 - While Joys Celestial|
|Ode 6 - Then Lift Up Your Voices|
|Ode 7 - Beauty, Thou Scene of Love|
|Ode 8 - In a Consort of Voices|
|Purcell - Hear my prayer Oh Lord -|
|(1. 9 Mb)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1659|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Westminster, England|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 21, 1695|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Westminster, England|