Hengest or Hengist (d. 488?) was a semi-legendary ruler of Kent in southeast England. Events By Place Europe Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland His name is common Germanic for "stallion". He is paired in the early sources with his brother Horsa ("horse"). Horsa, according to tradition was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native
There are several early sources that refer to a "Hengest". The earliest clear source is Bede, whose Ecclesiastical History of the English People (written about 730) states that Hengest was brought to Britain by Vortigern as a mercenary, to fight the Picts. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c Vortigern (ˈvɔrtɨɡɝːn also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century  Bede's dating puts this at between 449 and 455, but this cannot be treated as definite. As many auxiliary garrisons near Hadrian's wall were Frisian (Cuneus Frisiorum Vinoviensium (3rd century), Cuneus Frisiorum Vercoviciensium (early 3rd century), Cohors I Frisiavonum (Frixagorum) (3rd-4th century), Hengist has been identified as of Frisian stock . The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. Vercovicium (or Housesteads Roman Fort) was an auxiliary Castra on Hadrian's Wall, in the Roman province of Britannia. However, Bede also says that Hengest was a Jute, and that the Jutes settled in Kent and the Isle of Wight; Saxons and Angles settled the south and east of England, respectively. The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives a similar version, apparently using Bede as a source; this part of the Chronicle probably dates from the late ninth century. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.  The Historia Britonum (written around 830) gives a full genealogy of Hengist and identifies him as a descendent of Finn, king of the Frisians . The Historia Brittonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 833 and exists in several Finn, son of Folcwald, was a legendary Frisian lord He is mentioned in Widsith, in Beowulf, and in the Finnsburg Fragment There is also a character named Hengest who appears in two Old English poems: "The Fight at Finnsburg" and Beowulf. The Finnesburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem of the type called a leoð, or " lay. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between From the two poems together, it is apparent that Hengest is a member of King Hnaef the Dane's company, who on Hnaef's death leads his men against King Finn of Frisia. Hnæf (d 450 ? son of Hoc, was a Danish prince mentioned in the Old English poems Beowulf and the Finnsburg Fragment. Finn, son of Folcwald, was a legendary Frisian lord He is mentioned in Widsith, in Beowulf, and in the Finnsburg Fragment Frisia ( West Frisian: Fryslân; North Frisian: Fraschlönj, Freesklöön, Freeskluin, Fresklun, and 
There is also no particular reason to assume that because Hengest is part of Hnaef's force he must be a Dane. Also among Hnaef's followers is Sigeferth a prince of the Secgan, and Hengest comes across as an important character in his own right. He is described as an exile, and that he is a Jutish mercenary in Hnaef's service is a very plausible hypothesis. Alan Bliss suggests he might even be seen best as an Angle. (J.R.R Tolkien, "Finn and Hengest" Ed. Finn and Hengest is a study by J R R Tolkien, edited by Alan Bliss and published posthumously in book form in 1982. Alan Bliss)
The Beowulf and Finnesburg references are by no means necessarily to the same person as the mercenary described by Bede, but it has been conjectured that they are.  P. Hunter Blair has suggested that in Hengist we may have a history of a Danish chieftain's progression from Denmark, to Frisia, to southern England, in about the first half of the fifth century. Peter Hunter Blair (1912-1982 was an English academic historian 
It has also been suggested that Hengest is a purely mythical figure, though it is clear from archaeological evidence that Germanic settlements in Kent had definitely begun by the time Hengest is supposed to have come to Britain. The distinction Bede draws betweens Jutes, Angles and Saxons is also supported by fact that artifacts from Kent are distinctively different from those found elsewhere in the country, implying a different cultural origin for Kentish settlers. 
Following his victories over the Picts, Hengest invited more immigrants from Germania to settle in Britannia and then rebelled against Vortigern because the Britons refused to make an agreed payment, establishing himself as king in Kent. Germania was the Latin Exonym for Britannia was the term originally used by the Romans to refer first to the British Isles, and later to the island of Great Britain. Both Hengest and Horsa are described as being Jutes, and sons of a Jutish chief named Wihtgils. Horsa, according to tradition was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time Wihtgils ( fl 5th century) was a semi-legendary Jutish chieftain who according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was the father
The historical existence of Hengest and Horsa has been called into question many times, with many historians labelling these two as legendary 'divine twins' or culture heroes along the order of Romulus and Remus. The Divine twins are a Mytheme of Proto-Indo-European mythology. A culture hero is a Mythological Hero specific to some group ( cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, etc Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology It is perhaps likelier that:-
Later accounts in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Historia Britonum, Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, and Wace's Roman de Brut add further details from tradition and legend about Hengest's career. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The Historia Brittonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 833 and exists in several Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c The Historia Regum Britanniae ( English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history WACE (730 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format Roman de Brut or Brut is a verse literary history of Britain by the poet Wace. The most famous of these include the tale of his beautiful daughter Rowena who seduces Vortigern. Rowena was the daughter of the Anglo-Saxon leader Hengest and a wife of the Briton High King Vortigern, according to British legend The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle dates his death to 488, but does not provide a cause. Geoffrey of Monmouth states Hengest was captured in battle by Eldol, Duke of Gloucester and subsequently beheaded by Eldol's brother, Eldadus, the Bishop of Gloucester.
Horsa, according to tradition, was the brother of Hengest. Horsa, according to tradition was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native His name Horsa (genitive Horsan) looks like a hypocoristic form for a compound word name whose first component is Hors-. A hypocoristic, hypocorism, or hypochorisma (from Greek el ὑποκορίζεσθαι el-Latn hypokorizesthai, "to use child-talk"
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 455 says that "Her Hengest ⁊ Horsa fuhton wiþ Wyrtgeorne þam cyninge, in þære stowe þe is gecueden Agælesþrep, ⁊ his broþur Horsan man ofslog; ⁊ æfter þam Hengest feng to rice ⁊ Æsc his sunu. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. " ("Here Hengest and Horsa fought against King Vortigern in the place that is called Aylesford, and his brother Horsa was killed, and after that Hengest and his son Æsc took the kingdom. Vortigern (ˈvɔrtɨɡɝːn also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among Aylesford is a large village on the River Medway in Kent, 4 miles NW of Maidstone in England. Oisc (alternately Oeric, Aesc or Esc) was an early King of Kent who ruled from about 488 to about 516 ") (See Battle of Aylesford (in Kent)). The Battle of Aylesford or Epsford or Aegelesthrep was fought in 455 AD between Saxon invaders and the native Romano-Britons near Aylesford in the English KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format
It is said that a monument was raised in his memory (White Horse Stone near Maidstone is the traditional site), but twin warriors are a common theme in folklore, and because our earliest witness to Horsa's existence, Bede, mentions a stone existed that recorded his name, recent scholars have speculated that perhaps:
Hengest is a character in the Fight at Finnsburg narrative mentioned in the Finnsburg Fragment and the Beowulf poem. The Finnesburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem of the type called a leoð, or " lay. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between In these texts, Hengest is a Danish warrior who takes control of the Danish forces after the prince Hnæf is killed, and succeeds in killing the Frisian lord Finn in revenge for his lord's death. Hnæf (d 450 ? son of Hoc, was a Danish prince mentioned in the Old English poems Beowulf and the Finnsburg Fragment. The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. Finn, son of Folcwald, was a legendary Frisian lord He is mentioned in Widsith, in Beowulf, and in the Finnsburg Fragment The events in these accounts had a historical basis, and have been supposed by historians to occur in approximately AD 450. For the area code see Area code 450. Events By Place Eastern Roman Empire August 25 — Marcian is proclaimed This makes these events contemporary with the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England, though what connection (if any) exists between the two Hengests is unknown. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south
Nevertheless, some have speculated that the two Hengests are one and the same. A point against this theory is the fact that one Hengest is described as a Jute and the other a Dane, though this does not serve as a conclusive disproof, as distinctions between adjacent groups (both Jutes and Danes lived in Denmark) were sometimes vague.
Hengest is the subject of the 1620 play Hengist, King of Kent, or The Mayor of Quinborough by Thomas Middleton. Hengist King of Kent or The Mayor of Quinborough is a Jacobean stage play by Thomas Middleton, first published in 1661. Thomas Middleton (1580 &ndash 1627 was an English Jacobean playwright and Poet.
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