The Helvetii were a Celtic tribe and the main occupants of the Swiss plateau in the 1st century BC. Year 58 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Swiss Plateau ( plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. They are prominently featured in Julius Caesar’s commentaries on the Gallic War. Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. The Neolatin title of Switzerland, Confoederatio Helvetica (shortened Helvetia) is a derivation of their name. The term New Latin or Neo-Latin is used to describe a form the Latin language used between the end of the Medieval Latin period (c Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
According to Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into four subgroups, which he called pagi. While Caesar only names the Verbigeni (Bell. Gall. 1. 27) and the Tigurini (ibid. 1. 12), Poseidonios mentions the Tigurini and the Toygenoi (Τωυγενοί). Posidonius ( Greek: Ποσειδώνιος / Poseidonios "of Apameia " (ὁ Απαμεύς or "of Rhodes " (ὁ Ρόδιος (ca It is a matter of debate if the latter is identical with Livy’s Teutones. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors (There might have been an error in transmission which transformed the Τουτονοί into Τουγενοί, thus leading to the traditional Strabonic form Τωυγενοί. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. ) That the ancient writers usually classify the Teutons as “Germanic” and the Helvetii as “Gallic” should not further confuse us, as such ethnic attributions are very much debatable. 
The name of the Helvetians is first mentioned in a graffito on a vessel from Mantua (ca. Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the 300 BC).  The inscription in Etruscan letters reads eluveitie, which has been interpreted as the Etruscan form of the Celtic (h)elvetios (i. Old Italic refers to several now extinct Alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European (predominantly Italic The Etruscan Language was spoken and written by the Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western e. “the Helvetian”). One can assume that “the Helvetian” was a man of Helvetian descent living in Mantua.
A rather legendary tradition quoted in Pliny the Elder’s Natural History (written around 77 AD) claims that the Celtic settlement of Cisalpine Gaul was triggered by a Helvetian named Helico, who had worked in Rome as a craftsman and then returned to his home north of the alps with a dried fig, a grape, and some oil and wine, thereby causing his countrymen to invade northern Italy. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Naturalis Historia ( Latin for "Natural History" is an Encyclopedia written Circa AD 77 by Pliny the Elder. Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 
The first reliable mentioning of the Helvetii tribe in ancient literature is by the Greek historian Poseidonios (ca. Posidonius ( Greek: Ποσειδώνιος / Poseidonios "of Apameia " (ὁ Απαμεύς or "of Rhodes " (ὁ Ρόδιος (ca 135-50 BC), who describes the Helvetians of the late 2nd century BC as “rich in gold but peaceful”, without giving clear indication to the location of their territory. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC.  His reference to gold washing in rivers has been taken as evidence for an early presence of the Helvetii in the Swiss plateau, with the Emme as being one of the gold-yielding rivers mentioned by Poseidonios. The Emme is a river in Switzerland. It rises in the Alps between the peaks of Hohgant and Augstmatthorn in the Canton of Bern This interpretation is now generally discarded, as Poseidonios’ narrative makes it more likely that the country some of the Helvetians left in order to join in the raids of the Teutones, Cimbri and Ambrones was in fact southern Germany and not Switzerland. The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors The Cimbri were a Celtic or Germanic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late The tribe of the Ambrones appears briefly in the Roman sources relating to the 2nd century BC. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
That the Helvetians originally lived in southern Germany is confirmed by the Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemaios (ca. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca 90-168 AD), who tells us of an Ελουητίον έρημος (i. e. “Helvetic deserted lands”) north of the Rhine. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge  Tacitus knows that the Helvetians once settled in the area between Rhine, Main and the Hercynian forest. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Main (maɪn is a River in Germany, 524 km (329 miles long (including White Main 574 km (357 mi and it is one of the more significant tributaries The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe  The abandonment of this northern territory is now usually placed in the late 2nd c. BC, around the time of the first Germanic incursions into the Roman world, when the Tigurini and Toygenoi/Toutonoi are mentioned as participants in the great raids.
The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and Ambrones probably reached southern Germany around the year 111 BC, where they were joined by the Tigurini, and, probably the Teutoni-Toutonoi-Toygenoi. (The precise identity of this tribal group has to be left open here. The Cimbri were a Celtic or Germanic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late The tribe of the Ambrones appears briefly in the Roman sources relating to the 2nd century BC. The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors ) The tribes began a joint invasion of Gaul, including the Roman Provincia Narbonensis, which led to the Tigurini’s victory over a Roman army under L. Cassius Longinus near Agendicum in 107 BC, in which the consul was killed. Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Lucius Cassius Longinus was a Republican Consul in 107 BC alongside Gaius Marius. Agen (aʒɛ̃ is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in the Aquitaine region in southwestern France. According to Caesar, the captured Roman soldiers were ordered to pass through under a yoke set up by the triumphant Gauls, a dishonour that called for both public as well as private vengeance.  Unfortunately, Caesar is our only narrative source for this episode, as the corresponding books of Livy’s histories are only preserved in the Periochae, short summarising lists of contents, in which hostages given by the Romans, but no yoke, are mentioned. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome  In 105 BC, the allies annihilated another Roman army near Arausio, and went on to harry Spain, Gaul, Noricum, and northern Italy. Orange ( Provençal Occitan: Aurenja in classical norm or Aurenjo in Mistralian norm norm is a town and commune in the Noricum, in ancient Geography, was a Celtic kingdom (perhaps better described as a federation of by tradition twelve tribes stretching over the area of They split up in two groups in 103 BC, with the Teutones and Ambrones marching on a western route through the Provincia and the Cimbri and Tigurini crossing the eastern Alps (probably by the Brenner pass). Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Brenner Pass ( Italian: Passo del Brennero; German: Brennerpass; Latin: Brennus Mons) is a Mountain pass through While the Teutones and Ambrones were slaughtered in 102 BC by Gaius Marius, the Cimbri and the Tigurini wintered in the Padan plain. This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul Po RiverThe Po Valley (Pianura Padana or Val Padana is a major geographical feature of Italy. The following year, Marius virtually destroyed the Cimbri in the battle of Vercellae. The Battle of Vercellae, or Battle of the Raudine Plain, in 101 BC was the Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the Germanic The Tigurini, who had planned on following the Cimbri, turned back over the Alps with their booty and joined those of the Helvetians who had not participated in the raids.
Almost all our information on the clash between the Helvetii and Caesar comes from the latter’s Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Book 1, Chapters 2-29) and therefore has to be closely scrutinised. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. One must expect considerable bias on Caesar’s part.
In the first book of the Commentaries, the nobleman Orgetorix is presented as the instigator of a new Helvetian migration, in which the entire tribe was to leave their territory (which is now described as corresponding more or less to the Swiss plateau) and to establish a supremacy over all of Gaul. Orgetorix was the leader of the Helvetii people who in 61 BC devised the plan to migrate from Helvetian territory (modern-day Switzerland) to south-western Gaul The Swiss Plateau ( plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in This exodus was meticulously planned over three years, in the course of which, Orgetorix approached two noblemen from neighbouring tribes, Casticus of the Sequani and Dumnorix of the Aedui. Casticus was a nobleman of the Sequani of eastern Gaul. His father Catamantaloedes, had previously been the ruler of the tribe and had been recognised Sequani, in ancient geography were a Gallic people who occupied the upper basin of the Arar ( Saone) their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté Dumnorix (given on coins as Dubnoreix) was a chieftain of the Aedui, a Celtic tribe in Gaul in the 1st century B Aedui, Haedui or Hedui (Gr Aidouoi) are Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar ( Saone) and Liger This eventually led to his demise, as he was accused of conspiring with Casticus and Dumnorix to seize the kingship, a crime punishable by death among certain tribes.  Though Orgetorix managed to avoid a verdict by assembling a total of ten thousand followers and bondsmen at the court, he was later on persecuted by the Helvetian magistrates and died under unexplained circumstances.
Nevertheless, the Helvetii left their homes in 58 BC, burning twelve oppida, four-hundred villages and their farmsteads (an early instance of scorched earth tactics). Year 58 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of Ancient Rome. A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method (possibly more often referred to as a tactic but this is not entirely correct as there is a difference between They were joined by a number of tribal groups from neighbouring regions: the Rauraci (at the Rhine knee), the Latobrigi (perhaps around Lake Constance), the Tulingi (of unknown origin, maybe even a Germanic tribe), and a group of Boii, who had besieged Noreia. Augusta Raurica is a large Roman Archaeological site and an Open-air museum in Switzerland. The Rhine knee (or Rhine's knee, in German Rheinknie) is the name of a few geographical Curves in the Rhine river. Under the designation Lake Constance or Lake of Constance ( German Bodensee) one summarizes the three independent bodies of water Obersee The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Boii ( Latin plural singular Boius; Greek) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various Noreia was an ancient city in the eastern Alps, the capital of the kingdom of Noricum. According to Caesar, these peoples abandoned their homes completely, not leaving anyone behind, with the intention of settling among the Santoni (the modern Saintonge, roughly between Poitiers and Bordeaux). The Santones (Latin santones, modern French Santons) were a tribe of ancient Gaul located in the modern region of Saintonge and around the Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate
When they reached the boundaries of the Allobroges, the northernmost tribe of the Provincia Narbonensis, they found that Caesar had already dismantled the bridge of Geneva to stop their advance. The Allobroges were a warlike Celtic tribe in Gaul located between the Rhône River and the Lake of Geneva in what later became Savoy Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking The Helvetians sent “the most illustrious men of their state” to negotiate, promising a peaceful passage through the Provincia. Caesar stalled them by asking for some time for consideration, which he used to assemble reinforcements and to fortify the southern banks of the Rhône. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. When the embassy returned on the agreed-upon date, he was strong enough to bluntly reject their offer. The Helvetii now chose the more difficult northern route through the Sequani territory, which traversed the Jura Mountains, but bypassed the Provincia. Sequani, in ancient geography were a Gallic people who occupied the upper basin of the Arar ( Saone) their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté The Jura Mountains are a small Mountain range located north of the Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of After ravaging the lands of the Aedui tribe, who called upon Caesar to help them, they began the crossing of the Saône, which took them several days. Aedui, Haedui or Hedui (Gr Aidouoi) are Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar ( Saone) and Liger The Saône (son ( Sona in Arpitan) is a River of eastern France. As only a quarter of their forces were left on the eastern banks, Caesar attacked and routed them. According to Caesar, those killed had been the Tigurini, on whom he had now taken revenge in the name of the Republic and his family.  After the battle, the Romans quickly bridged the river, thereby prompting the Helvetii to once again send an embassy, this time led by Divico, another figure whom Caesar links to the ignominious defeat of 107 BC by calling him bello Cassio dux Helvetiorum (i. e. “leader of the Helvetii in the Cassian campaign”). What Divico had to offer was almost a surrender, namely to have the Helvetii settle wherever Caesar wished them to, although it was combined with the threat of an open battle if Caesar should refuse. Caesar demanded hostages to be given to him and reparations to the Aedui and Allobroges. Divico responded by saying that “they were accustomed to receive, not to give hostages; a fact the Roman people could testify to“, this once again being an allusion to the giving of hostages by the defeated Romans at Agen. Agen (aʒɛ̃ is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in the Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
In the cavalry battle that followed, the Helvetii prevailed over Caesar’s Aedui allies under Dumnorix’ command, and continued their journey, while Caesar’s army was being detained by delays in his grain supplies, caused by the Aedui on the instigations of Dumnorix, who had married Orgetorix’ daughter. Dumnorix (given on coins as Dubnoreix) was a chieftain of the Aedui, a Celtic tribe in Gaul in the 1st century B Dumnorix (given on coins as Dubnoreix) was a chieftain of the Aedui, a Celtic tribe in Gaul in the 1st century B Orgetorix was the leader of the Helvetii people who in 61 BC devised the plan to migrate from Helvetian territory (modern-day Switzerland) to south-western Gaul A few days later, however, near the Aeduan oppidum Bibracte, Caesar caught up with the Helvetii and faced them in a major battle, which ended in the Helvetii’s retreat and the capture of most of their baggage by the Romans. Bibracte, a Gaulish Oppidum or fortified city was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar.
Leaving the largest part of their supplies behind, the Helvetii covered around 60 km in four days, eventually reaching the lands of the Lingones (the modern Langres plateau). Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers Langres is a town and commune of eastern France. It is a subprefecture of the Haute-Marne departement, in the Champagne-Ardenne Caesar did not pursue them until three days after the battle, while still sending messengers to the Lingones warning them not to assist the Helvetii in any way. The Helvetii then offered their immediate surrender and agreed both to providing hostages and to giving up their weapons the next day. In the course of the night, 6000 of the Verbigeni fled from the camp out of fear of being massacred once they were defenceless. Caesar sent riders after them and ordered those who were brought back to be “counted as enemies”, which probably meant being sold into slavery.
In order for them to defend the Rhine frontier against the Germans, he then allowed the Helvetii, Tulingi and Latobrigi to return to their territories and to rebuild their homes, instructing the Allobroges to supply them with a sufficient supply of grain. The Allobroges were a warlike Celtic tribe in Gaul located between the Rhône River and the Lake of Geneva in what later became Savoy The Aedui were granted their wish that the Boii who had accompanied the Helvetii would settle on their own territory as allies. Aedui, Haedui or Hedui (Gr Aidouoi) are Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar ( Saone) and Liger Boii ( Latin plural singular Boius; Greek) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various The nature of Caesar’s arrangement with the Helvetii and the other tribes is not further specified by the consul himself, but in his speech Balbo of 56 BC, Cicero mentions the Helvetii as one among several tribes of foederati, i. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Year 56 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Britain This year or possibly the following year the king of Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the e. allied nations who were neither citizens of the Republic nor her subjects, but obliged by treaty to support the Romans with a certain number of fighting men. 
According to the victor, tablets with lists in Greek characters were found at the Helvetian camp, listing in detail all men able to bear arms with their names and giving a total number for the women, children and elderly who accompanied them. The Greek alphabet (Ελληνικό αλφάβητο is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early  The numbers added up to a total of 263,000 Helvetii, 36,000 Tulingi, 14,000 Latobrigi, 23,000 Rauraci, and 32,000 Boii, all in all 368,000 heads, 92,000 of whom were warriors. Augusta Raurica is a large Roman Archaeological site and an Open-air museum in Switzerland. Boii ( Latin plural singular Boius; Greek) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various A census of those who had returned to their homes listed 110,000 survivors, which meant that only about 30 percent of the emigrants had survived the war.
Caesars report has been partly confirmed by excavations near Geneva and Bibracte. Bibracte, a Gaulish Oppidum or fortified city was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important However, much of his account has not yet been corrobated by archaeology, whilst his narrative must in wide parts be considered as biased and, in some points, unlikely. For a start, only one out of the fifteen Celtic oppida in the Helvetii territory so far has yielded evidence for destruction by fire. Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of Ancient Rome. Many other sites, for example the sanctuary at Mormont, do not exhibit any signs of damage for the period in question, and Celtic life continued seemingly undisturbed for the rest of the 1st century BC up to the beginning of the Roman era, with an accent rather on an increase in prosperity than on a “Helvetic twilight”. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC.  With the honourable status as foederati taken into account, it is hard to believe that the Helvetii ever sustained casualties quite as heavy as those given by the Roman military leader.
In general, numbers written down by ancient military authors have to be taken as gross exaggerations.  What Caesar claims to have been 368,000 people is estimated by other sources to be rather around 300,000 (Plutarch), or 200,000 (Appian); in the light of a critical analysis, even these numbers seem far too high. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Furger-Gunti considers an army of more than 60,000 fighting men extremely unlikely in the view of the tactics described, and assumes the actual numbers to have been around 40,000 warriors out of a total of 160,000 emigrants.  Delbrück suggests an even lower number of 100,000 people, out of which only 16,000 were fighters, which would make the Celtic force about half the size of the Roman body of ca. 30,000 men.  The real numbers will never be determined exactly. Caesar’s specifications can at least be doubted by looking at the size of the baggage train that an exodus of 368,000 people would have required: Even for the reduced numbers that Furger-Gunti uses for his calculations, the baggage train would have stretched for at least 40 km, perhaps even as far as 100 km. 
In spite of the now much more balanced numerical weight we have to assume for the two opposing armies, the battle seems far less glorious a victory than Caesar presented it to be. The main body of the Helvetii withdrew from the battle at nightfall, abandoning, as it seemed, most of their wagons, which they had drawn up into a wagenburg; they retreated northwards in a forced night march and reached the territory of the Lingones four days after the battle. Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers What Caesar implies to have been a desperate flight without stopping could actually have been an ordered retreat of moderate speed, covering less than 40 km a day.  Caesar himself does not appear as a triumphant victor in turn, being unable to pursue the Helvetii for three days, “both on account of the wounds of the soldiers and the burial of the slain“. However, it is clear that Caesar’s warning to the Lingones not to supply his enemies was quite enough to make the Helvetii leaders once again offer peace. On what terms this peace was made is debatable, but as said before, the conclusion of a foedus casts some doubt on the totality of the defeat.
As Caesar’s account is heavily influenced by his political agenda, it is difficult to determine the actual motive of the Helvetii movement of 58 BC. Year 58 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus One might see the movement in the light of a Celtic retreat from areas which were later to become Germanic; it can be debated whether they ever had plans to settle in the Saintonge, as Caesar claims (Bell. Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente Gall. 1,10. ). It was certainly in the latter’s personal interest to emphasise any kind of parallel between the traumatic experience of the Cimbrian and Teutonic incursions and the alleged threat that the Helvetii were to the Roman world. The Cimbri were a Celtic or Germanic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors The Tigurini’s part in the destruction of L. Cassius Longinus and his army was a welcome pretext to engage in an offensive war in Gaul whose proceeds permitted Caesar not only to fulfil his obligations to the numerous creditors he owed money to, but also to further strengthen his position within the late Republic. Lucius Cassius Longinus was a Republican Consul in 107 BC alongside Gaius Marius.  In this sense, even the character of Divico, who makes his appearance in the Commentarii half a century after his victory over L. Cassius Longinus, seems more like another hackneyed argument stressing Caesar’s justification to attack, than like an actual historical figure. That the victor of Agen was still alive in 58 BC or, if yes, that he was physically still capable of undertaking such a journey at all, seems more than doubtful. Agen (aʒɛ̃ is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in the Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Year 58 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus Nevertheless, Divico became somewhat of a hero within the Swiss national feeling of the 19th century and in the course of the “Geistige Landesverteidigung” of the 20th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
The Helvetii and Rauraci most likely lost their status as foederati only six years after the battle of Bibracte, when they supported Vercingetorix in 52 BC with 8,000 and 2,000 men, respectively. Augusta Raurica is a large Roman Archaeological site and an Open-air museum in Switzerland. Vercingetorix (werkiŋˈɡetoriks in Latin) born around 82 BC died 46 BC was chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Year 52 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Sometime between 50 and 45 BC, the Romans founded the Colonia Iulia Equestris at the site of the Helvetian settlement Noviodunum (modern Nyon), and around 44 BC on Rauracan territory, the Colonia Raurica. Year 50 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Year 45 BC was the year the Julian calendar went into effect According to this calendar it was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Augusta Raurica is a large Roman Archaeological site and an Open-air museum in Switzerland. These colonies were probably established as a means of controlling the two most important military access routes between the Helvetian territory and the rest of Gaul, blocking the passage through the Rhône valley and Sundgau. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Sundgau (suŋˈɡo in French;[http//mediala-basorg/mp3/020923/22-Alsace-Sundgau
In the course of Augustus’ reign, Roman dominance became more concrete. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Some of the traditional Celtic oppida were now used as legionary garrisons, such as Vindonissa or Basilea (modern Basel); others were relocated, such as the hill-fort on the Bois de Châtel, whose inhabitants founded the new “capital” of the civitas at nearby Aventicum. Vindonissa was a Roman legion camp at modern Windisch, Switzerland. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. In the history of the Roman empire, civitas (pl civitates mainly referred to the condition of Roman Citizenship It was also used to describe a type of settlement Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland ( Helvetia or Civitas Helvetiorum First incorporated into the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, later into the Germania Superior and finally into the Diocletian province of Maxima Sequanorum, the former territories of the Helvetii and their inhabitants were as thoroughly romanised as the rest of Gaul. Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern Germania Superior ("Upper Germania " so called for the reason that it lay upstream of Germania Inferior, was a province of the Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Sequani, in ancient geography were a Gallic people who occupied the upper basin of the Arar ( Saone) their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté
What seems to have been the last action of the Helvetii as a tribal entity happened shortly after the death of emperor Nero in 68 AD. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Year 68 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Like the other Gallic tribes, the Helvetii were organised as a civitas; they even retained their traditional grouping into four pagi and enjoyed a certain inner autonomy, including the defence of certain strongholds by their own troops. In the history of the Roman empire, civitas (pl civitates mainly referred to the condition of Roman Citizenship It was also used to describe a type of settlement In the later Western Roman Empire, following the reorganization of Diocletian, a pagus (compare French pays, Spanish pago In the civil war which followed Nero’s death, the civitas Helvetiorum supported Galba; unaware of his death, they refused to accept the authority of his rival, Vitellius. Servius Sulpicius Galba ( December 24, 3 BC &ndash January 15, 69) also called Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Aulus Vitellius Germanicus, born Aulus Vitellius and commonly known as Vitellius ( 24 September, 15 &ndash 22 December, 69 The Legio XXI Rapax, stationed in Vindonissa and favouring Vitellius, stole the pay of a Helvetian garrison, which prompted the Helvetians to intercept Vitellian messengers and detain a Roman detachment. Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions Vindonissa was a Roman legion camp at modern Windisch, Switzerland. Aulus Caecina Alienus, a former supporter of Galba who was now at the head of a Vitellian invasion of Italy, launched a massive punitive campaign, crushing the Helvetii under their commander Claudius Severus and routing the remnants of their forces at Mount Vocetius, killing and enslaving thousands. Aulus Caecina Alienus, Roman general was Quaestor of Hispania Baetica (southern Iberia) in AD 68. The capital Aventicum surrendered, and Julius Alpinus, head of what was now seen as a Helvetian uprising, was executed. In spite of the extensive damage and devastations the civitas had already sustained, according to Tacitus the Helvetii were only saved from total annihilation owing to the pleas of one Claudius Cossus, a Helvetian envoy to Vitellius, and, as Tacitus puts it, “of well-known eloquence”. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. 
The distribution of La Tène burials in Switzerland indicates that the Swiss plateau between Lausanne and Winterthur was relatively densely populated. The Lepontii were an ancient people occupying portions of Rhaetia (in modern Switzerland and Italy) in the Alps during the time of the Roman The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site The Swiss Plateau ( plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Lausanne ( pronounced, Losanna is a city in Romandy, the French -speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva Winterthur (pronounced Ger /vɪntərtur/ Eng /tʊər/ is a city in the canton of Zurich in northern Switzerland. Settlement centres existed in the Aare valley between Thun and Bern, and between Lake Zurich and the river Reuss. The Aar ( German Aare) a tributary of the Rhine, is the longest River that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. Thun (Thoune is a municipality in the district of Thun in the canton of Berne in Switzerland with about 42136 inhabitants ( The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Lake Zurich ( Swiss German / Alemannic: Zürisee; German: Zürichsee) is a Lake in Switzerland, extending The Reuss is a River in Switzerland. With a length of and a Drainage basin of, it is the fourth largest river in Switzerland (after The Valais and the regions around Bellinzona and Lugano also seem to have been well-populated; however, those lay outside the Helvetian borders. The Valais ( German:) is one of the 26 Cantons of Switzerland in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its Bellinzona ( in French Bellinzone, in archaic German Bellenz and Bilitio in Latin) is the capital city of the canton Lugano ( Latin language: Luganum) is a town (52993 inhabitants a total of 130000 people in the agglomeration in the south of Switzerland, in the
Almost all the Celtic oppida were built in the vicinity of the larger rivers of the Swiss midlands. Not all of them existed at the same time. For most of them, we do not have any idea as to what their Celtic names might have been, with one or two possible exceptions. Where a pre-Roman name is preserved, it is added in brackets.