al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; Arabic: الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier") is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Defined mostly by the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Haql is a town in the northwest of Saudi Arabia near the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. The Gulf of Aqaba ( Arabic: خليج العقبة transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah in Israel known as the Gulf of Eilat ( Hebrew Jizan (also called Jazan, Gizan or Gazan) (جيزان is the new name of the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as As a region, The Hijaz, as it is often referred to, because of being the site of Islam's holy places, has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In Arabic, Hejaz means literally "the barrier" as it separates the land of Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah in the west. Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.
Evidence suggests the Hejaz (or parts of it) was part of the Roman province of Arabia . The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa For the Achaemenid satrapy of Arabia see Arabia (satrapy Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier Under the control of regional powers such as Egypt or the Ottoman Empire through most of its history, the Hejaz had a brief period of political independence in the early 20th century. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Kingdom of Hejaz (1916 to 1925 was a state in the Hejaz region ruled by the Hashemite family The twentieth century of the Common Era began on It was one of several regions of the Ottoman Empire provoked into rebellion by T. E. Lawrence ("of Arabia") of the British during World War I. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In 1916 its independence was proclaimed by Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sherif of Makkah. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, GCB (1854 &mdash June 4, 1931) ( حسین بن علی; Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī) was the Sharif The Sharif of Mecca ( Arabic:شريف مكة or Sharif of Hejaz ( Arabic:شريف الحجاز was the title of the former In 1924, however, ibn Ali's authority was usurped by Ibn Saud of the neighboring region of Nejd and became known as the Kingdom of Hijaz and Nejd and later the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.
Even today, Hejazis adhere to a more moderate interpretation of Islam than does the Wahhabi sect that arose in Nejd. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to 
The Biblical story of the Garden of Eden is in Genesis 2:11: "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Not to be confused with Eden Gardens.The Garden of Eden ( Hebrew "pleasure" גַּן עֵדֶן Arabic: جنات عدن, The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. The Pishon is one of four Rivers (along with the Tigris, Euphrates, and Gihon) mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (211 Havilah is a land mentioned in the Bible first described in Genesis 211 in relation to the Garden of Eden: "The name of the first is the Pishon Onyx is a Cryptocrystalline form of Quartz. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color (save some shades such as purple or blue "
Havilah is usually associated with either the Arabian Peninsula or north-west Yemen, but in the work associated with the Garden of Eden by Juris Zarins, the Hejaz mountains appear to satisfactorily meet the description. Havilah is a land mentioned in the Bible first described in Genesis 211 in relation to the Garden of Eden: "The name of the first is the Pishon Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Juris Zarins (b Germany 1945) is an American archaeologist and professor at Missouri State University, who specializes in the Middle East. The Hejaz includes both the Cradle of Gold at Mahd adh Dhahab ( ) and a potential source of the now dried out Pishon River that used to flow 600 miles north east to to the Persian Gulf via the Wadi Al-Batin system. The Mahd adh Dhahab, also known as the Cradle of Gold, is the leading gold mining area in the Arabian Peninsula. The Mahd adh Dhahab, also known as the Cradle of Gold, is the leading gold mining area in the Arabian Peninsula. The Pishon is one of four Rivers (along with the Tigris, Euphrates, and Gihon) mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (211 Hafar Al-Batin is a Saudi Arabian city in the Eastern Province and located in the Northeastern region Archaeological research lead by Farouk El-Baz of Boston University indicates that the river system, now prospectively known as the Kuwait River, was active 2,500-3000BC. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. Bdellium plants are also abundant in the Hijaz.
Geographically, the region is located along the Great Rift Valley. The Great Rift Valley is a name given in the late 19th century by English explorer John Walter Gregory to the continuous geographic trough approximately in length that runs The region is also known for it darker more volcanic sand. Depending on the previous definition, Hejaz includes the high mountains of Sarawat which topographically separate Najd from Tehamah. The Sarawat Mountains or the Sarat ( جبال السروات) is a Mountain range running parallel to the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula