Hegemony (pronounced /hɨˈdʒɛməni/ (Amer. ), /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit. )) (Greek: ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group—referred to as a hegemon—acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A dominance hierarchy (in humans Social hierarchy) is the organization of individuals in a group that occurs when competition of resources lead to aggression  It is used broadly to mean any kind of dominance, and narrowly to refer to specifically cultural and non-military dominance, as opposed to the related notions of empire and suzerainty. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a
In International Relations, a hegemon may be defined or power that can dictate the policies of all other powers in its vicinity, or that is able to defeat any other power or combination of powers that it might be at war with. Examples of (potentially) hegemonic states in history are the Roman Empire, the British Empire and the united Germany that had existed from 1871 to 1945 and from 1991 onwards. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The unification of Germany took place on January 18, 1871, when Prussian Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck managed to unify a number of independent Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. 
The processes by which a dominant culture maintains its dominant position: for example, the use of institutions to formalize power; the employment of a bureaucracy to make power seem abstract (and, therefore, not attached to any one individual); the inculcation of the populace in the ideals of the hegomonic group through education, advertising, publication, etc. ; the mobilization of a police force as well as military personnel to subdue opposition.
Researchers use hegemony to explain how dominant groups or individuals can maintain their power -- the capacity of dominant classes to persuade subordinate ones to accept, adopt and internalize their values and norms. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Antonio Gramsci devised one of the best-known accounts of hegemony. Antonio Gramsci ('ɡramʃi ( January 23, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1937) was an Italian Philosopher, Writer, His theory defined the State by a mixture of coercion and hegemony, between which he drew distinctions. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats According to Gramsci, hegemony consists of socio-political power that flows from enabling the "spontaneous consent" of the populace through intellectual and moral leadership or authority as employed by the subalterns of the State. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading The power of the hegemony is thus primarily through coercion and consent rather than armed force. Such conceptions are sometimes referred to as "cultural hegemony. Cultural hegemony is a Concept coined by Marxist Philosopher Antonio Gramsci. "
Recently, Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe have re-defined the term "hegemony" as a discursive strategy of combining principles from different systems of thought into one coherent ideology. Ernesto Laclau (b1935 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine political theorist often described as post-Marxist. Chantal Mouffe (born 1943 in Charleroi, Belgium) is a Belgian Political theorist.
The word "hegemony" originated in ancient Greece and derives from the word hegeisthai (meaning "to lead"). Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία An early example of hegemony during ancient Greek history occurred when Sparta became the hegemon of the Peloponnesian League in the 6th century BC. The History of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically and the territory now composing the modern state of The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. Later, in 337 BC, Philip II of Macedon became the personal Hegemon of the League of Corinth, a position he passed on to his son Alexander the Great. Events By place Greece At a Pan-Hellenic Conference in Corinth, Philip II of Macedon announces the formation of the League Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse The League of Corinth, also sometimes referred to as Hellenic League (original name Hellenes - 'The Greeks' was a federation of Greek states created by Philip Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'
The concept of "Hegemony" was also present in ancient China, during the Spring and Autumn Period (ca. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Spring and Autumn Period ( was a period in Chinese history which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC 770 BC - 480 BC), when the weakening of the Zhou Dynasty led to increased autonomy amongst the feudal lords of the period. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The hegemons, known as "Ba" (Chinese: 霸), were often appointed by conferences of feudal lords, and they were nominally obliged to uphold the supremacy of the Zhou kings and keep order amongst subordinate states. During the Spring and Autumn Period there were several states which rose to hegemony over other states the term Five Hegemons (五霸 refers to any of several lists of these
The term hegemon is also used to describe Japan's three unifiers in the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu each had different titles (and held many different posts during their lifetimes), but each had in common that they exercised hegemony over all or much of Japan. ( June 23, 1534 &ndash June 21, 1582) was a major Daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history  was the founder and first Shogun  of the Tokugawa shogunate For ease of reference they are collectively referred to as the three hegemons or the three unifiers.
To the extent that hegemony appears as a cultural phenomenon, cultural institutions maintain it. The Medici maintained their hegemony in Tuscany through control of Florence's major guild, the Arte della Lana. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Modern hegemonies also maintain themselves through cultural institutions[which?], often with allegedly "voluntary" membership.
The dominance of the Dutch Republic during the 17th Century (1609-1672) can be considered one of the first instances of a "global" hegemon, with a focus on mercantilism. This was due to its development of wind power and shipping which enabled it to develop as a hegemon because of production efficiency. It then gained a commercial advantage through the generation of the 'Four Great Fleets' and later gained financial dominance, with the emergence of the stock market in Amsterdam.
During much of the rather absolutist reign of Louis XIV (1638-1715), France dominated most of Europe economically, culturally, and militarily. Monarchs imitated his court and style, even paying tribute as vassal status in many cases, while the Papacy could not effect even bishopric appointments, let alone secular politics.
In more recent times, analysts have used the term hegemony in a more abstract sense to describe the "proletarian dictatorships"[which?] of the 20th century, resulting in regional domination by local powers, or domination of the world by a global power. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. Power in international relations is defined in several different ways China's position of dominance in East Asia for most of its history offers an example of the regional hegemony.
The Cold War (1945 - 1990), with its main avenues of coercion, cooperation, and attraction - the Warsaw Pact, led by the USSR and NATO, led by the United States &mdash, is often referred to as a struggle of hegemons and hegemonies. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The North Atlantic Treaty The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The details of the parties' respective ideologies have no relevance to whether they were hegemonies: both sides featured superpowers, supported by a coalition and/or alliance of their allies, friends, satellites, clients, and vassals, struggling to achieve dominance over the other, in multiple dimensions and multiple forums, including through military superiority, the arena of hearts and minds, cultural superiority, ideological superiority, and technological superiority, and become the dominant hegemony worldwide. A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale Client state is one of several terms used to describe the subordination of one state to a more powerful state in international affairs The term arms race, in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy Of course, the details of the ideologies of both parties--and the deeds that that each party did in the service of their respective ideologies--for example, the Soviet intervention into the Hungarian revolution, or the United States intervention into the Vietnamese revolution--did come into play to the extent that they determined the persuasiveness and efficacy of each hegemony.
After the end of the Cold War, some analysts used the term "hegemony" to describe the United States' role as the sole superpower (or, in the words of Hubert Védrine, as a "hyperpower") in the modern world. Hubert Védrine (born July 31, 1947) is a French Socialist politician A hyperpower or omnipower is a state that is militarily economically and technologically dominant on the world stage However, many scholars of international relations (such as John Mearsheimer or Joseph Nye) argue that the United States does not have true hegemony, since it lacks the resources to impose dominance over the entire globe. John J Mearsheimer (born December 1947 is an American professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago. Joseph S Nye Jr (born 1937 is the co-founder along with Robert Keohane, of the International relations theory neoliberalism developed in their 1977 While the United States has dominance on political-military issues, it is equal to Europe on the economic scale, and has very little influence on transnational relations by non-state actors.  Also, China, India, and the European Union are considered by some to be emerging superpowers capable of or already competing with the United States. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
In the fictionary universe Matrix, created by the Wachowski brothers, robots have taken over the entire world. The Matrix is the Simulated reality that is the main setting of ''The Matrix'' series of Science fiction Films Comic books and Biography Andy and Larry Wachowski were born to a Polish-American family in Chicago. Humans are a subordinate race, in which 99% of humans unconsciously accept their rule, and 1% rebel against the robots and live in Zion. When the rebels grow too strong, "The One" is added to the Matrix to reboot it.
The novel Valis by the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick treats the concept of hegemony as one aspect of what he calls the Black Iron Prison, a totalised system of social control. VALIS is a 1981 Science fiction novel by Philip K Dick. The title is an acronym for Vast Active Living Intelligence System, Philip Kindred Dick (December 16 – March 2) was an American Science fiction Novelist and Short story Writer. VALIS is a 1981 Science fiction novel by Philip K Dick. The title is an acronym for Vast Active Living Intelligence System,
In Bulgakov's novel, The Master and Margarita, the imprisoned Christ is told to address the Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate, as "Hegemon". Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков, Kiev &ndash March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian The Master and Margarita (Мастер и Маргарита is a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov, woven about the premise of a visit by the Devil to the Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " After a false start, and threats of further corporal punishment, Christ complies with the order. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior
Ursula K. LeGuin uses the concept of Hegemony to create a rich universe to set her stories and novels. Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (ˈɝsələ ˈkroʊbɚ ləˈgwɪn (born October 21, 1929) is an American author The worlds are bound together by the hegemon which uses diplomacy, education, and patience to win new member worlds.
Orson Scott Card used the title 'Hegemon' to describe the office of world leader taken by the fictional character Peter Wiggin, the brother of Andrew (Ender) Wiggin. Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951) is a bestselling American Author, Critic, political writer and speaker. In the Science fiction story Ender's Game and its sequels Peter Wiggin is Ender 's (or Andrew's older brother Andrew "Ender" Wiggin is a Fictional character from Orson Scott Card 's Science fiction story Ender's Game and its sequels The story of Peter's rise to dominance is (partly) told in the science fiction novel Ender's Game, and more fully in the 'Shadow' series. Ender's Game (1985 is one of the best-known novels by Orson Scott Card. Peter uses his great intelligence and political savvy to manipulate public opinion by publishing under the pseudonym of "Locke". Peter persuaded his sister, Valentine Wiggin, to publish opposing viewpoints that were widely supported by the common people under the guise of "Demosthenes". Valentine Wiggin is a Fictional character in Orson Scott Card 's Ender's Game series of novels The educated and political communities, fearing the power Demosthenes held with the common people, consequently supported Locke, a more moderate writer in their opinion. Ironically, once Peter attains the office, he finds that it has little actual power, contrary to what the title would lead one to believe, though he then gains power by acting as a traditional hegemon.
Dan Simmons' Hyperion Cantos also features an interstellar society called 'The Hegemony of Man'. Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American Author most widely known for his Hugo Award The Hyperion Cantos form a Tetralogy of Science fiction Novels by Dan Simmons. The Hegemony includes all of the several hundred planets colonized by the human race, as well as space stations and outlying colonies. The Hegemony funds and maintains an interplanetary military/police entity called FORCE, and two hundred or so Hegemony planets are linked together by the farcaster network to comprise the WorldWeb. In the Hyperion universe a farcaster is an instantaneous transportation device. The TechnoCore and the Ousters are not included in the Hegemony. The TechnoCore is the 'race' of post- singularity Artificial Intelligences in Dan Simmons ' Hyperion universe In Dan Simmons' Hyperion universe the branch of humanity that left the Worldweb and the Hegemony and chose instead to travel among the stars adapting away from planetary life and the
Robert A. Heinlein referred several times to the "Chinese Hegemony" in his novel, "Starship Troopers". Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Starship Troopers is a Science fiction Novel by Robert A Heinlein, first published (in abridged form as a serial in The Magazine
In the Joan D. Vinge novel The Snow Queen, the government of civilized planets is called the Hegemony, or the Hedge; they are the remnants of a defunct greater empire. Joan D Vinge (ˈvɪndʒi (born 2 April 1948 in Baltimore, Maryland as Joan Carol Dennison is an The Snow Queen is a Science fiction / Fantasy Novel by Joan D
In Battletech, there is an interstellar government called the Terran Hegemony, lasting from the early 24th century to the late 28th century. BattleTech is a Wargaming and Science fiction franchise launched by FASA Corporation and currently owned by WizKids. The government is more akin to a constitutional monarchy than anything else.
In Star Control 3, the player struggled against the Hegemonic Crux, a hegemony of races dominated by the Ploxis, an intelligent, bird-like race of aliens. Star Control Famous Battles of the Ur-Quan Conflict Volume IV is a Science fiction Computer game that was developed by Toys for Bob and published by
In Star Trek (especially Deep Space Nine), the Breen race is represented by a government called the "Breen Hegemony". The Breen are a fictional extraterrestrial species in the Star Trek Science fiction franchise In one Next Generation episode, the "European Hegemony" is described as a loose alliance of states in the early 22nd century, and is assumed to no longer exist. Star Trek The Next Generation ( STTNG or TNG) is an Emmy and Peabody Award-winning science fiction television program created by Gene Roddenberry Also the Gorn race encountered by Kirk in the original Star Trek series are referred to as having a Hegemony.
In Iain M. Banks's Culture novels, a "Hegemonising Swarm" is a hive-like organism that seeks to make everything in the galaxy a part of it. The Culture is a Fictional anarchist, socialistic, and Utopian ref> The State of the Art - Banks Iain M It is described as one potential Outside Context Problem for the Culture.
The Covenant in Halo (series) is a religious hegemony. Halo is a Science fiction Video game franchise created by Bungie and owned and published by Microsoft Game Studios.
The Hegemony in Lilith Saintcrow's Dante Valentine series is one of two global superpowers. Lilith Saintcrow (also known as Anna Beguine) is a published author who writes mainly paranormal romance and urban fantasy The Hegemony borders dominate North and South America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, some of Central Asia, and parts of China. Its counterpart is the Putchkin Alliance, centered around what was known as Russia. Many of the citizens of either superpower feel as though there is one world government with the Hegemony and Putchkin Alliance as two major political divisions.
In Star Wars the Tion Hegemony is a small power set up by the Galactic Empire out of an older state and was left mostly to its own devices until a strong Rebel movement took hold in the Hegemony. Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded
Hegemony does not leave geography untouched. Henri Lefebvre's theory of space, as articulated in "The Production of Space", insists that space is not a passive locus of social relations and that space is trialectical. Henri Lefebvre ( 16 June 1901  &ndash 29 June 1991) was a French sociologist, intellectual and Philosopher That is space is comprised of mental space, social space and physical space. This said, hegemony can be read as a spatial process. (See Edward Soja, David Harvey, Chantal Mouffe)
Geopolitics influences hegemonies. Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales Ancient hegemonies developed in fertile river valleys (an example of hydraulic despotism): Egypt, China and the succession of states in Mesopotamia. A hydraulic empire, also known as a hydraulic despotism or water monopoly empire, is a social or government structure which maintains power and control through exclusive This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding In China during the Warring States Era the state of Qin created artificial waterways (such as the Chengkuo Canal) in order to give itself an advantage over its neighboring rival states. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods The Zhengguo Canal, Zhengguoqu or Chengkuo Canal (郑国渠 is a large canal in China completed in 246 BC by the ancient kingdom of Qin Hegemonic successor states in Eurasia tended to cluster around the Middle East for a period, using either the sea (Greece) or the fringe lands (Persia, Arabia). Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The focus of European hegemony moved west to Rome, then northwards to the Franks and the Holy Roman Empire. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Atlantic seaboard had its heyday (Spain, France, Britain) before the fringes of the European cultural area took over in the twentieth century (United States, Soviet Union). Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Some regions show continually fluctuating areas of regional hegemony: India, for example, or the Balkans. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Other regions show relative stability: northern China offers a case in point.
Long-lived hegemonies (China, Pax Sinica; Rome, Pax Romana) offer a contrast to shorter dominations: the Mongol Empire or Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Pax Sinica ( Latin for " Chinese Peace " is the time of Peace in East Asia, maintained by Chinese Hegemony Pax Romana ( Latin for " Roman Peace " was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere ( Kyūjitai: 大東亞共榮圈 Shinjitai: ja 大東亜共栄圏 Dai-tō-a Kyōeiken) was a concept
Conrad Phillip Kottak, in Window on Humanity (2004), explains hegemony in terms of ideologies that offer explanations about why the existing order is in everyone's interest. Many things are promised, but are said to take time and patience in order for them to happen.