|Mainstream popularity||Worldwide, peaking in the United States during the 1980s. Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining Bluesy improvisations over the 12-bar blues and extended Boogie jams with Rock Hard rock (also referred to as heavy rock) is a variation of Rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage and Psychedelic rock Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with Speech. A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the|
|Avant-garde metal - Black metal - Death metal - Doom metal - Glam metal - Gothic metal - Groove metal - Power metal - Speed metal - Stoner metal - Symphonic metal - Thrash metal - Traditional heavy metal - Viking metal|
|Alternative metal - Christian metal - Crust punk - Folk metal - Funk metal - Grindcore - Grunge - Industrial metal - Metalcore - Neo-classical metal - Nu metal - Post-metal - Progressive metal - Rap metal - Sludge metal|
|Australia - Bay Area - Brazil − Britain − Germany - Gothenburg - United States|
|Fashion - History - Bands - Umlaut - Blast beat - Subgenres|
Heavy metal (often referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s Avant-garde metal or experimental metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music characterised by the use of innovative Avant-garde elements large-scale Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Doom metal is a form of Heavy metal music that typically employs very slow Tempos low-tuned guitars and a much 'thicker' or 'heavier' sound than other metal Glam metal (also known as pop metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States. Groove metal, often associated with neo-thrash / post-thrash and power groove, is a term sometimes used to describe a derivative of Thrash Power metal is a style of Heavy metal music combining characteristics of traditional metal with Thrash metal or Speed metal, often within Speed metal is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music originating in the late 1970s and early 1980s that was the direct musical progenitor of Thrash metal. Stoner rock and stoner metal are interchangeable terms describing sub-genres of rock and metal music Symphonic metal or opera metal is a term used to describe Heavy metal music that has symphonic elements that is elements that sound similar to a Thrash metal (sometimes referred to simply as thrash) is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression Traditional heavy metal, also known as classic metal, trad metal, or often simply heavy metal, is the seminal subgenre of Heavy metal music before Viking metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music characterised by its galloping pace keyboard-rich anthemic sound bleakness and dramatic emphasis on Norse mythology Alternative metal is an eclectic form of Heavy metal music that gained popularity in the early 1990s alongside grunge. Christian metal is a form of Heavy metal music which as well as its many subgenres, contains Christian lyrics and themes Crust punk (sometimes simply crust) is one of the evolutions of Anarcho-punk and Hardcore punk, mixed with distorted Extreme metal guitar Folk metal is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music that developed in Europe during the 1990s Funk rock (also typed as funk-rock) is a music genre that fuses Funk and rock elements For the fictional character with this name see Grindcore (Transformers. Industrial metal is a Musical genre that draws from Industrial music and heavy metal. Metalcore is an umbrella term used to describe fusion genres that incorporate elements of the Hardcore punk and heavy metal genres For the historical original neoclassical music see Neoclassicism (music Neo-classical metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music Nu metal (sometimes named new metal or nü metal) is a musical genre that emerged in the mid 1990s which fuses influences from grunge and Alternative Post-metal is a Music genre, a mixture between the genres of Post-rock and heavy metal, with roots in Progressive rock, Progressive Progressive metal (often referred to simply as prog metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music which blends the powerful guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex Rap rock is a fusion genre of rock and hip-hop. It blends vocal and instrumental parts of hip-hop and various forms of rock including punk and rock Sludge metal (or sludgecore) is a form of Heavy metal music that fuses Doom metal and Hardcore punk. Australian heavy metal music has its roots in both the Australian Hard rock and Pub rock tradition of the 1970s and the American and British Bay Area thrash metal, or " Bay Area thrash," refers to a steady following of heavy metal bands in the 1980s who formed and gained international status in Brazilian thrash metal is a form of Thrash metal music that originated during the 1980s in Brazil. The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (frequently abbreviated as NWOBHM) is a heavy metal music movement that started in the late 1970s in Britain, and achieved Teutonic thrash metal is a form of Thrash metal music that originated during the 1980s in Germany Melodic death metal (also referred to as melodeath) is a Subgenre of Death metal which combines the melody of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal The New Wave of American Heavy Metal (abbreviated as NWOAHM or NWoAHM) is a movement in Heavy metal music that originated in the United States Heavy metal fashion is the style of dress Body modification, make-up hairstyle and so on taken on by fans of heavy metal, or as they are often called Metalheads This is a list of bands that pertain to the heavy metal genre of music The heavy metal umlaut is the gratuitous or decorative use of an umlaut over letters in the name of a heavy metal band such as A blast beat is a drum beat often associated with Grindcore, although its usage predates the genre and has spread to many other forms of Extreme metal. A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums.  With roots in blues-rock and psychedelic rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion and extended guitar solos. Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining Bluesy improvisations over the 12-bar blues and extended Boogie jams with Rock Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. Allmusic states that "of all rock & roll's myriad forms, heavy metal is the most extreme in terms of volume, machismo, and theatricality. allmusic (previously All Music Guide) is a Metadata database about music owned by All Media Guide. Machismo is a prominently exhibited or excessive Masculinity. "
Heavy metal has long had a worldwide following of fans known as "metalheads" or "headbangers. Metalhead (or headbanger) is a popular term for a devoted fan of Heavy metal music and is often used interchangeably with the term "hesher" Headbanging is a type of dance which involves violently shaking the head in time with music most commonly Rock music and Heavy metal music. " Although early heavy metal bands such as Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, and Deep Purple attracted large audiences, they were often critically reviled at the time, a status common throughout the history of the genre. Black Sabbath are an Led Zeppelin were Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertfordshire in 1968 In the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence; Motörhead introduced a punk rock sensibility and an increasing emphasis on speed. Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in 1970 in Birmingham. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Bands in the New Wave of British Heavy Metal such as Iron Maiden followed in a similar vein. The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (frequently abbreviated as NWOBHM) is a heavy metal music movement that started in the late 1970s in Britain, and achieved For other uses see Iron maiden.
In the mid-1980s, pop-infused glam metal became a major commercial force with groups like Mötley Crüe. Pop rock is a hybrid of Pop music and Rock music that uses catchy pop style with light lyrics over top of guitar-based songs Glam metal (also known as pop metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States. Mötley Crüe ( IPA pronunciation: /'mɒtliː Underground scenes produced an array of more extreme, aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, while other styles like death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Underground music refers to a variety of post-1960s rock pop or dance subgenres that developed a Cult following despite their lack of Mainstream appeal visibility Thrash metal (sometimes referred to simply as thrash) is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression Metallica is an American heavy metal band that formed in 1981 in. Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song. Since the mid-1990s, popular styles such as nu metal, which often incorporates elements of funk and hip hop; and metalcore, which blends extreme metal with hardcore punk, have further expanded the definition of the genre. Nu metal (sometimes named new metal or nü metal) is a musical genre that emerged in the mid 1990s which fuses influences from grunge and Alternative Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Metalcore is an umbrella term used to describe fusion genres that incorporate elements of the Hardcore punk and heavy metal genres Extreme metal is an Umbrella term, somewhat loosely defined for a number of related heavy metal subgenres that have developed since the 1980s Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s
Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, and vigorous vocals. Metal subgenres variously emphasize, alter, or omit one or more of these attributes. New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force. Jon Pareles is an American Journalist who is chief music critic at the arts section of the New York Times. " The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, and a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. A drummer is a Musician who plays a Drum or drums particularly a Drum kit ("drum set" or "trap set" Marching percussion The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the Rhythm guitar is the use of a Guitar to provide Rhythmic chordal Accompaniment for a singer or other instruments in a Musical ensemble Lead guitar refers to the use of a Guitar to perform Melody lines instrumental fill passages, and Guitar solos within a song structure Keyboard instruments are often used to enhance the fullness of the sound. A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a Musical keyboard.  The loud, distorted Hammond organ and occasionally the mellotron were popular with early metal bands; these instruments were displaced in the 1980s by electronic keyboard synthesizers. The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company The Mellotron is an electro-mechanical polyphonic keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is a type of Keyboard instrument. Today, keyboards are used in styles such as progressive metal, power metal, and symphonic metal. Progressive metal (often referred to simply as prog metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music which blends the powerful guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex Power metal is a style of Heavy metal music combining characteristics of traditional metal with Thrash metal or Speed metal, often within Symphonic metal or opera metal is a term used to describe Heavy metal music that has symphonic elements that is elements that sound similar to a Some nu metal bands incorporate hip hop elements, which may include a DJ scratching and creating various sound effects. Nu metal (sometimes named new metal or nü metal) is a musical genre that emerged in the mid 1990s which fuses influences from grunge and Alternative Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience "Scratching" is also a Present participle of " Scratch " and may also refer to a form of street art Scratching
The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy metal. An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder  Guitars are often played with distortion pedals through heavily overdriven tube amplifiers to create a thick, powerful, "heavy" sound. An effects pedal (or a " Stomp Box " is an electronic Effects unit housed in a small metal or plastic chassis used by musicians usually Electric A valve amplifier or tube amplifier is a type of Electronic amplifier that make use of Vacuum tubes instead of solid-state Semiconductor In the early 1970s, some popular metal groups began cofeaturing two guitarists. In rock and other related genres bands often have multiple electric and/or Acoustic guitar players to perform the different musical parts such as instrumental Leading bands such as Judas Priest and Iron Maiden followed this pattern of having two or three guitarists share the roles of both lead and rhythm guitar. Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in 1970 in Birmingham. For other uses see Iron maiden. A central element of much heavy metal is the guitar solo, a form of cadenza. Guitar solos are a melodic passage section or entire piece of music written for an Electric guitar or an Acoustic guitar. In Music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is generically an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists usually As the genre developed, more intricate solos and riffs became an integral part of the style. In Music, a riff is an Ostinato figure a repeated Chord progression, pattern refrain or melodic figure, often played by the Rhythm Guitarists use sweep-picking, tapping, and other advanced techniques for rapid playing, and many styles of metal emphasize virtuosic displays. Sweep picking is a technique used on the Guitar in which a 'sweeping' motion of the pick is combined with a matching fret hand technique in order to produce a specific Tapping is a playing technique generally associated with the Electric guitar, although the technique may be performed on almost any String instrument. A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual
The lead role of the guitar in heavy metal often collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry. " Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity.  Critic Simon Frith claims that the metal singer's "tone of voice" is more important than the lyrics. Simon Frith is a former rock Critic and a Sociologist who specializes in Popular music culture  Metal vocals vary widely in style, from the multioctave, theatrical approach of Judas Priest's Rob Halford and Iron Maiden's Bruce Dickinson, to the gruff style of Motörhead's Lemmy and Metallica's James Hetfield, to the straight-out screaming and growling At the Gates' Tomas Lindberg, to the phlegm-clogged, possessed style of black metal singers such as Mayhem's Dead. Robert John Arthur Halford (born August 25, 1951) is an English singer and songwriter best known as the lead vocalist for the heavy metal band Paul Bruce Dickinson (born 7 August 1958 in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, England) is a British singer Airline pilot, radio show Lemmy (born Ian Fraser Kilmister, December 24 1945) also known as Lemmy Kilmister, Ian Willis or Lemmy von Motörhead Metallica is an American heavy metal band that formed in 1981 in. James Alan Hetfield (born August 3, 1963, in Downey California) is the main Songwriter, co-founder vocalist and Rhythm guitarist At the Gates was a Swedish Melodic death metal band from Gothenburg. Tomas Lindberg (born October 16, 1972) from Gothenburg, Sweden, has been active as a musician and composer since the late 1980s Mayhem is a Black metal band formed during 1984 in Oslo Norway. Per Yngve Ohlin ( January 16 1969 – April 8 1991) better known by his stage name Dead, was a Swedish Black
The prominent role of the bass is also key to the metal sound, and the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element.  The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy. " Metal basslines vary widely in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead and/or rhythm guitars. In tonal music, a pedal point (also pedal tone pedal note organ point or pedal is a Sustained tone typically in the bass, during which at least one In Popular music genres such as rock music a lick is "a stock pattern or phrase" consisting of a short phrase, or series of notes Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton in the early 1980s. Clifford Lee Burton (February 10 1962 &ndash September 27 1986 was a bass guitarist best known for his work with the American heavy metal band Metallica  Metal bassists frequently use picks instead of fingerstyle plucking, to get a stronger, clearer articulation. Often called a pick or plec, a plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. A few use shred guitar–style techniques such as tapping and sweep picking. Shred guitar or shred refers to lead Electric guitar playing that relies heavily on fast passages the act of playing fast passages on an electric guitar is termed In some styles, such as thrash and death metal, the bass may be distorted with a bass overdrive pedal for a heavier, thicker sound. Bass effects are electronic devices used to modify the tone pitch or sound of electric bass guitars or more rarely amplified Double basses Bass effects can be housed Nu metal as well as death metal bassists often use a five- or six-string bass (or a detuned instrument) with an extended lower range. The Extended-Range Bass ("ERB" as a term refers to an electric Bass guitar with more range (usually meaning more strings but sometimes additional frets are added
The essence of metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed, power, and precision. " Metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", and drummers have to develop "considerable speed, coordination, and dexterity. . . to play the intricate patterns" used in metal.  A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and then immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand (or, in some cases, the same striking hand), producing a burst of sound. A cymbal choke is a percussion technique which consists of striking a cymbal with a drumstick held in one hand and then immediately grabbing the cymbal with another hand or more rarely The metal drum setup is generally much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music; in some cases, a "huge drum kit envelope[s] the whole of the backline" of the stage.  Aside from the standard toms, bass drum, snare, and hi-hat, ride, and crash cymbals used in many rock drumkits, there is often a double bass drum, additional toms, a number of additional cymbals (e. g. , splash and extra crash cymbals), and other instruments such as a cowbell. The cowbell is an Idiophone Hand percussion instrument used in various styles of music including salsa and infrequently in Popular
In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound," in Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital. Loudness is the quality of a Sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical strength (amplitude  In his book Metalheads, Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy metal concerts as "the sensory equivalent of war. " Following the lead set by Jimi Hendrix, Cream and The Who, early heavy metal acts such as Blue Cheer set new benchmarks for volume. James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter Cream were a 1960s British rock band The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend Blue Cheer is a San Francisco -based rock group that initially performed and recorded in the late 1960s and early 1970s and again from the mid-1980s to the present As Blue Cheer's Dick Peterson puts it, "All we knew was we wanted more power. Dickie Peterson (born 1948 Grand Forks ND is the bassist and lead singer for Blue Cheer. " Reviewing a Motörhead concert in 1977, Paul Sutcliffe noted how "excessive volume in particular figured into the band’s impact. " Weinstein makes the case that in the same way that melody is the main element of pop and rhythm is the main focus of house music, powerful sound, timbre, and volume are the key elements of metal. In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino She argues that the loudness is designed to "sweep the listener into the sound" and to provide a "shot of youthful vitality. " Heavy metal's fixation on loudness was mocked in the rockumentary spoof This Is Spinal Tap, in which a metal guitarist claims to have modified his amplifiers to "go to eleven. The term rockumentary is a Neologism denoting a program on Television or movie documentary about Rock music or its This Is Spın̈al Tap (officially spelled with a non-functional umlaut over the letter 'n' and dotless 'i' is a 1984 mock Rockumentary " Up to eleven " or " these go to eleven " is an Idiom from Popular culture which has come to refer to anything being exploited to "
The beat in metal songs is emphatic, with deliberate stresses. Weinstein observes that the wide array of sonic effects available to metal drummers enables the "rhythmic pattern to take on a complexity within its elemental drive and insistency. " In many heavy metal songs, the main groove is characterized by short, two-note or three-note rhythmic figures—generally made up of 8th or 16th notes. In Music, a sixteenth note (American or "German" terminology or semiquaver (also occasionally demiquaver, British or "classical" These rhythmic figures are usually performed with a staccato attack created by using a palm-muted technique on the rhythm guitar. In Musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes The palm mute is a playing technique for the Guitar or bass. This technique is known as Pizzicato by Classical guitar players (see Classical 
Brief, abrupt, and detached rhythmic cells are joined into rhythmic phrases with a distinctive, often jerky texture. These phrases are used to create rhythmic accompaniment and melodic figures called riffs, which help to establish thematic hooks. In Music, a riff is an Ostinato figure a repeated Chord progression, pattern refrain or melodic figure, often played by the Rhythm A hook is a Musical idea, often a short Riff, passage or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a Song appealing and to "catch the Heavy metal songs also use longer rhythmic figures such as whole note- or dotted quarter note-length chords in slow-tempo power ballads. In Music, a whole note (American or "German" terminology or semibreve (British or "classical" terminology is a Note represented The term " power ballad " is a Colloquialism used to describe a type of Song performed (but not necessarily written by a Hard rock or
The tempos in early heavy metal music tended to be "slow, even ponderous. " By the late 1970s, however, metal bands were employing a wide variety of tempos. In the 2000s, metal tempos range from slow ballad tempos (quarter note = 60 beats per minute) to extremely fast blast beat tempos (quarter note = 350 beats per minute). Beats per minute ( BPM) is a unit typically used as either a measure of Tempo in music or a measure of one's Heart rate. A blast beat is a drum beat often associated with Grindcore, although its usage predates the genre and has spread to many other forms of Extreme metal. 
One of the signatures of the genre is the guitar power chord. In Music, a power chord (also fifth chord) is a note plus the note a fifth above usually played on Electric guitar.  In technical terms, the power chord is relatively simple: it involves just one main interval, generally the perfect fifth, though an octave may be added as a doubling of the root. In Music theory, the term interval describes the relationship between the pitches of two Notes Intervals may be described as vertical The perfect fifth ( is the Musical interval between a note and the note seven Semitones above it on the musical scale In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN. Although the perfect fifth interval is the most common basis for the power chord, power chords are also based on different intervals such as the minor third, major third, perfect fourth, diminished fifth, or minor sixth. A minor third ( is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals compounded of two steps of the Diatonic scale. A major third ( is one of two commonly occurring Musical intervals that span three Diatonic scale degrees the other being the Minor third. The perfect fourth () is a Musical interval which spans four scale degrees The tritone ( Tri - or three and tone) is a Musical interval that spans three whole tones. A minor sixth ( is the smaller of two commonly occurring Musical intervals that span six Diatonic scale degrees  Based on a single interval, the power chord makes possible a high level of distortion without unintended inharmonicity. In music inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of Overtones (known as partials partial tones or Harmonics depart from whole Most power chords are also played with a consistent finger arrangement that can be slid easily up and down the fretboard. The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is 
Heavy metal is usually riff-based. Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder front man guitarist and songwriter Dave Mustaine. In Music, a power chord (also fifth chord) is a note plus the note a fifth above usually played on Electric guitar. In Music, a riff is an Ostinato figure a repeated Chord progression, pattern refrain or melodic figure, often played by the Rhythm Riffs are frequently created with three main harmonic traits: modal scales progressions, tritone and chromatic progressions, and the use of pedal point.
Traditional heavy metal tends to employ modal scales, in particular the Aeolian and Phrygian modes. The Aeolian mode is a Musical mode or Diatonic scale. An Aeolian mode formed part of the Music theory of Ancient Greece, based around Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in 1970 in Birmingham. " Breaking the Law " is a song by British heavy metal band Judas Priest, originally released on their 1980 album British Steel The Aeolian mode is a Musical mode or Diatonic scale. An Aeolian mode formed part of the Music theory of Ancient Greece, based around The Phrygian mode can refer to two different Musical modes or Diatonic scales the ancient Greek Phrygian mode and the Mediaeval Phrygian mode  Harmonically speaking, this means the genre typically incorporates modal chord progressions such as the Aeolian progressions I-VI-VII, I-VII-(VI), or I-VI-IV-VII and Phrygian progressions implying the relation between I and ♭II (I-♭II-I, I-♭II-III, or I-♭II-VII for example).
Aeolian harmony is used in songs such as Judas Priest's "Breaking the Law", Iron Maiden's "Hallowed Be Thy Name", and Accept's "Princess of the Dawn", each employing a I-VI-VII progression as its main riff. " Breaking the Law " is a song by British heavy metal band Judas Priest, originally released on their 1980 album British Steel " Hallowed Be Thy Name " is a song written by Steve Harris for the 1982 Iron Maiden album The Number of The Beast ACCEPT is the primary nongovernmental organization advocating for the rights of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender ( LGBT Phrygian harmony is used in songs such as Mercyful Fate's "Gypsy" (main riff I-♭II-I-VI-V), Megadeth's "Symphony of Destruction" (main riff built on the ♭II-I relation), and Sodom's "Remember the Fallen" (Introduction + main riff—the riff closing implies a Phrygian cadence: I-♭II-III). Mercyful Fate is an influential Danish heavy metal band often cited among the influences in the Black metal, Thrash metal, Power metal Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder front man guitarist and songwriter Dave Mustaine. Sodom are a German Thrash metal band from Gelsenkirchen, formed in 1982 In Western Musical theory, a harmonic cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling" is a formula of two chords that conclude
Tritone and chromatism
Tense-sounding chromatic or tritone relationships are used in a number of metal chord progressions. "Black Sabbath" is a song by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath. The tritone ( Tri - or three and tone) is a Musical interval that spans three whole tones.  The tritone, an interval spanning three whole tones—such as C and F#—was a forbidden dissonance in medieval ecclesiastical singing, which led monks to call it diabolus in musica—"the devil in music. " Because of that original symbolic association, it came to be heard in Western cultural convention as “evil. ” Heavy metal has made extensive use of the tritone in guitar solos and riffs, such as in the beginning of "Black Sabbath. "Black Sabbath" is a song by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath. "
Heavy metal songs often make extensive use of pedal point as a harmonic basis. In tonal music, a pedal point (also pedal tone pedal note organ point or pedal is a Sustained tone typically in the bass, during which at least one A pedal point is a sustained tone, typically in the bass range, during which at least one foreign (i. e. , dissonant) harmony is sounded in the other parts.  Heavy metal riffs are frequently constructed over a persistent repeating note played on the low strings of the bass or rhythmic guitar, most usually on the E, A, and D strings.  In other words, a single bass note—most frequently low E or A—is persistently repeated while some different chords are successively played, including chords that do not normally incorporate that bass note, which creates a sense of tension. An example is the opening riff of Judas Priest's "You've Got Another Thing Comin'. " You've Got Another Thing Comin' " is a song by British heavy metal band Judas Priest. " In this case, one guitar plays the pedal point in F#, while the second guitar plays the chords.
Robert Walser argues that, alongside blues and R&B, the "assemblage of disparate musical styles known. . . as 'classical music'" has been a major influence on heavy metal since the genre's earliest days. He claims that metal's "most influential musicians have been guitar players who have also studied classical music. Their appropriation and adaptation of classical models sparked the development of a new kind of guitar virtuosity [and] changes in the harmonic and melodic language of heavy metal. "
The appropriation of "classical" music by heavy metal musicians typically involves musical elements associated with the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras of art music. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910 Deep Purple/Rainbow guitarist Ritchie Blackmore and Scorpions guitarist Uli Jon Roth began experimenting with musical figurations borrowed from classical music in the early 1970s. Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertfordshire in 1968 Rainbow was a Hard rock and heavy metal band formed by former Deep Purple guitarist Ritchie Blackmore in 1975. For the rugby league footballer of the same name see Richie Blackmore (rugby league Richard Hugh "Ritchie" Blackmore (born Scorpions are a heavy metal / Hard rock band from Hanover, Germany, probably best known for their 1980s rock anthem " Rock You Like a Ulrich Roth (born December 18, 1954) also known as Uli Jon Roth, is a German electric Guitarist and along with Ritchie Blackmore In the 1980s, guitarists Randy Rhoads and Yngwie Malmsteen used eighteenth-century Baroque and later classical compositions as models, inspiring neoclassical metal players including Michael Romeo, Michael Angelo Batio, and Tony MacAlpine. Randall William "Randy" Rhoads ( December 6, 1956 – March 19, 1982) was an American Heavy metal Guitarist Yngwie Johann Malmsteen (ˈɪŋveɪ ˈmɑːlmstiːn in English (born Lars Johan Yngve Lannerbäck on June 30 1963 in Stockholm Sweden) is a Swedish Michael James Romeo (born March 6, 1968) is an American Guitarist and a founding member of the Michael Angelo Batio (ˈbeɪtioʊ also known as Mike Batio or MAB) (born in 1956 is an American Guitarist and Columnist from Tony Jeff MacAlpine (born August 29, 1960, in Springfield Massachusetts) is an American Guitarist and Keyboardist.
Although a number of metal musicians cite classical composers as inspiration, heavy metal cannot be regarded as the modern descendant of classical music.  Classical and metal are rooted in different cultural traditions and practices—classical in the art music tradition, metal in the popular music tradition. Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more As musicologists Nicolas Cook and Nicola Dibben note, "Analyses of popular music also sometimes reveal the influence of 'art traditions. ' An example is Walser’s linkage of heavy metal music with the ideologies and even some of the performance practices of nineteenth-century Romanticism. However, it would be clearly wrong to claim that traditions such as blues, rock, heavy metal, rap or dance music derive primarily from 'art music. '" Heavy metal borrows only some aspects of classical music, such as motifs, melodies, and scales, rather than more complex features, such as counterpoint, polyphony, and classical structural forms. In Music, a motif or motive is a perceivable or salient recurring fragment or succession of notes that may be used to construct the entirety or parts In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony Structure is a fundamental and sometimes Intangible notion covering the Recognition, Observation, nature, and Stability of Heavy metal bands, including progressive and neoclassical metal bands, generally do not seek to observe the compositional and aesthetical exigencies of classical music. Progressive metal (often referred to simply as prog metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music which blends the powerful guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex For the historical original neoclassical music see Neoclassicism (music Neo-classical metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music
Common themes in heavy metal lyrics are sex, violence, and the occult. The sexual nature of many heavy metal songs, ranging from Led Zeppelin's suggestive lyrics to the more explicit references of latter-day nu metal bands, derives from the genre's roots in blues music and its frequently sexual content.  Since the 1980s, with the rise of thrash metal, a substantial number of metal songs have included sociopolitical commentary. Romantic tragedy is a standard theme of gothic and doom metal, as well as of nu metal, where teenage angst is another central topic. Genres such as melodic death metal, progressive metal, and black metal often explore philosophical themes, while more extreme forms of death metal and grindcore have purely aggressive, gory, and often unintelligible content.
Heavy metal songs often feature outlandish, fantasy-inspired lyrics, lending them an escapist quality. Iron Maiden's songs, for instance, were frequently inspired by mythology, fiction, and poetry, such as "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," based on the Samuel Taylor Coleridge poem. Powerslave is the fifth studio album by the British Heavy metal band Iron Maiden, released on September 3, 1984. Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (original The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major Poem by the English Poet Other examples include Black Sabbath's "The Wizard," Megadeth's "The Conjuring" and "Five Magics," and Judas Priest's "Dreamer Deceiver. Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder front man guitarist and songwriter Dave Mustaine. " Other artists base their lyrics on war, nuclear annihilation, environmental issues, and politics or religion. Examples include Black Sabbath's "War Pigs," Ozzy Osbourne's "Killer of Giants," Metallica's ...And Justice for All, Iron Maiden's "2 Minutes to Midnight," Accept's "Balls to the Wall," and Megadeth's "Peace Sells. " War Pigs " is an Anti-war song by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath from their 1970 Album, Paranoid John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (born December 3 1948) is a British singer " 2 Minutes to Midnight " is the tenth single released by Iron Maiden and the second track from their 1984 album Powerslave Balls to the Wall is the fifth Album by the German metal band Accept, released in 1983 in Germany and 1984 in the " Peace Sells " ( is the name of a song by Megadeth from the album Peace Sells " Death is a predominant theme in heavy metal, routinely featuring in the lyrics of such different bands as Black Sabbath, Slayer, and W.A.S.P.
The thematic content of heavy metal has long been a target of criticism. Slayer is an American Thrash metal band founded by Guitarists Jeff Hanneman and Kerry King in WASP is an American heavy metal band formed in 1982 and emerged with the L According to Jon Pareles, "Heavy metal's main subject matter is simple and virtually universal. With grunts, moans and subliterary lyrics, it celebrates. . . a party without limits. . . . [T]he bulk of the music is stylized and formulaic. " Music critics have often deemed metal lyrics juvenile and banal, and others have objected to what they see as advocacy of misogyny and the occult. Misogyny (mɪˈsɒdʒɪni is hatred (or contemptof women Misogyny is parallel to Misandry — the hatred of men During the 1980s, the Parents Music Resource Center petitioned the U. The Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC was an American committee formed in 1985 by four women Tipper Gore, wife of Senator and later Vice President S. Congress to regulate the popular music industry due to what the group asserted were objectionable lyrics, particularly those in heavy metal songs. In 1990, Judas Priest was sued by the parents of two young men who had shot themselves five years earlier, allegedly after hearing the subliminal statement "do it" in a Priest song. The case, which attracted a great deal of media attention, was ultimately dismissed. 
As with much popular music, visual imagery plays a large role in heavy metal. In addition to its sound and lyrics, a heavy metal band's "image" is expressed in album sleeve art, stage sets, the clothes of the band, band logos, and music videos. A music video is a Short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music most commonly a Song with lyrics  Some early heavy metal acts, such as Alice Cooper and Kiss and some newer bands such as Slipknot and Marilyn Manson, have become known as much for their outrageous performance personas and stage shows as for their music. Alice Cooper (born Vincent Damon Furnier; February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer songwriter and musician whose career spans five Kiss (also typeset as KISS) is an American rock band formed in New York City in December 1972 Slipknot is an American band from Des Moines Iowa. Slipknot consists of nine members the current band members are Sid Marilyn Manson is an American Alternative metal band based in Los Angeles California. 
Down-the-back long hair, according to Weinstein, "is the most crucial distinguishing feature of metal fashion. " Originally adopted from the hippie subculture, by the 1980s and 1990s heavy metal hair "symbolised the hate, angst and disenchantment of a generation that seemingly never felt at home," according to journalist Nader Rahman. Long hair gave members of the metal community "the power they needed to rebel against nothing in general. "
The classic uniform of heavy metal fans consists of "blue jeans, black T-shirts, boots and black leather or jeans jackets. . . . T-shirts are generally emblazoned with the logos or other visual representations of favorite metal bands. " In the mid-1970s, Judas Priest and Mötorhead helped establish elements of biker culture and leather fashion in the heavy metal scene. A motorcycle club (MC is an organized club of dedicated Motorcyclists who join together for Camaraderie, strength of numbers companionship education rider training A leather jacket is a type of Clothing, a Jacket made of Leather.  Metal fans also "appropriated elements from the S&M community (chains, metal studs, skulls, leather and crosses). " In the 1980s, a range of sources, from punk and goth music to horror films, influenced metal fashion. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s  Many metal performers of the 1970s and 1980s used radically shaped and brightly colored instruments to enhance their stage appearance. Fashion and personal style was especially important for glam metal bands of the era. Performers typically wore long, dyed, hairspray-teased hair (hence the nickname, "hair metal"); makeup such as lipstick and eyeliner; gaudy clothing, including leopard-skin-printed shirts or vests and tight denim, leather, or spandex pants; and accessories such as headbands and jewelry.  Pioneered by the heavy metal act X Japan in the late 1980s, bands in the Japanese movement known as visual kei—which includes many nonmetal groups—emphasize elaborate costumes, hair, and makeup. is a Japanese band founded in 1982 by Toshimitsu "Toshi" Deyama and Yoshiki Hayashi. refers to a movement among Japanese musicians, that is characterized by the use of eccentric sometimes flamboyant looks 
Many metal musicians when performing live engage in headbanging, which involves rhythmically beating time with the head, often emphasized by long hair. Headbanging is a type of dance which involves violently shaking the head in time with music most commonly Rock music and Heavy metal music. The corna, or devil horns, hand gesture, also widespread, was popularized by vocalist Ronnie James Dio while with Black Sabbath and Dio. Ronnie James Dio (born Ronald James Padavona on July 10, 1942 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA is an American heavy Dio is an American heavy metal band led by Vocalist Ronnie James Dio, who formed it in 1982 after leaving Black Sabbath.  Gene Simmons of Kiss claims to have been the first to make the gesture in concert. Gene Simmons (born Chaim Witz (pronounced Haium on August 25, 1949) is an Israeli -born American Hard rock Bass Kiss (also typeset as KISS) is an American rock band formed in New York City in December 1972 
Attendees of metal concerts do not dance in the usual sense; Deena Weinstein has argued that this is due to the music's largely masculine audience and "extreme heterosexualist ideology. " She identifies two primary body movements that substitute for dancing: headbanging and an arm thrust that is both a sign of appreciation and a rhythmic gesture.  The performance of air guitar is popular among metal fans both at concerts and listening to records at home. Playing air guitar is a form of dance and movement in which the performer pretends to play rock or heavy metal -style Electric guitar solos  Other concert audience activities include stage diving, crowd surfing, pushing and shoving in a chaotic mélée called moshing, and displaying the corna hand symbol. Stage diving is the act of leaping from a Concert stage onto the crowd below a stage antic whose origin is variously credited to Iggy Pop or Peter Gabriel Crowd surfing describes the process in which a person is passed overhead from person to person during a concert transferring the person from one part of the venue to another Moshing or slamming refers to the activity in which audience members at live music performances aggressively push or slam into each other
The origin of the term heavy metal in a musical context is uncertain. The phrase has been used for centuries in chemistry and metallurgy. An early use of the term in modern popular culture was by countercultural writer William S. Burroughs. Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or William Seward Burroughs II ( – ˈbʌroʊz was an American Novelist, Essayist, Social critic, painter and Spoken word His 1962 novel The Soft Machine includes a character known as "Uranian Willy, the Heavy Metal Kid. The Soft Machine is the title of a Novel by William S Burroughs, first published in 1961 and was Burroughs' first novel after the groundbreaking " Burroughs's next novel, Nova Express (1964), develops the theme, using heavy metal as a metaphor for addictive drugs: "With their diseases and orgasm drugs and their sexless parasite life forms—Heavy Metal People of Uranus wrapped in cool blue mist of vaporized bank notes—And The Insect People of Minraud with metal music. Nova Express is a 1964 novel by William Burroughs, whose plot cannot easily be described "
Metal historian Ian Christe describes what the components of the term mean in "hippiespeak": "heavy" is roughly synonymous with "potent" or "profound," and "metal" designates a certain type of mood, grinding and weighted as with metal. Ian Christe (born 1970 in Biel/Bienne, Switzerland) is an Author and Disc jockey.  The word "heavy" in this sense was a basic element of beatnik and later countercultural slang, and references to "heavy music"—typically slower, more amplified variations of standard pop fare—were already common by the mid-1960s. Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. Iron Butterfly's debut album, released in early 1968, was titled Heavy. Iron Butterfly is an American Psychedelic rock and early Heavy metal band well known for their 1968 hit " In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida Heavy was Iron Butterfly 's debut album released in early 1968 The first recorded use of heavy metal is a reference to a motorcycle in the Steppenwolf song "Born to Be Wild," also released that year: "I like smoke and lightning/Heavy metal thunder/Racin' with the wind/And the feelin' that I'm under. Steppenwolf is a rock band that helped establish Heavy metal music in the late 1960s along with bands like Blue Cheer and Iron Butterfly " Born to Be Wild " is a rock song written by Mars Bonfire and made famous by the American rock band Steppenwolf. " A late, and disputed, claim about the source of the term was made by "Chas" Chandler, former manager of the Jimi Hendrix Experience. Bryan James "Chas" Chandler ( 18 December 1938 — 17 July 1996) was an English Musician, Record producer "The Experience" redirects here For other uses of this term see Experience (disambiguation. In a 1995 interview on the PBS program Rock and Roll, he asserted that heavy metal "was a term originated in a New York Times article reviewing a Jimi Hendrix performance," in which the author likened the event to "listening to heavy metal falling from the sky. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter " A source for Chandler's claim has never been found.
The first documented uses of the phrase to describe a type of rock music are from reviews by critic Mike Saunders. For the Canadian football player of the same name see Mike Saunders (football player. In the November 12, 1970, issue of Rolling Stone, he commented on an album put out the previous year by the British band Humble Pie: "Safe As Yesterday Is, their first American release, proved that Humble Pie could be boring in lots of different ways. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Rolling Stone is a United States -based Magazine devoted to Music, Politics, and Popular culture that is published Humble Pie were a rock, Rhythm and blues band from England and were one of the first supergroups of the 1970s. As Safe As Yesterday Is is the Debut album for rock band Humble Pie, released in the UK in August 1969 Here they were a noisy, unmelodic, heavy metal-leaden shit-rock band with the loud and noisy parts beyond doubt. There were a couple of nice songs. . . and one monumental pile of refuse. " He described the band's latest, self-titled release as "more of the same 27th-rate heavy metal crap. Humble Pie was the third Studio album released by English rock group Humble Pie in 1970 and their first with A&M Records. " In a review of Sir Lord Baltimore's Kingdom Come in the May 1971 Creem, Saunders wrote, "Sir Lord Baltimore seems to have down pat most all the best heavy metal tricks in the book. Sir Lord Baltimore are a pioneering American heavy metal band from Brooklyn, New York, formed in 1968 by lead vocalist / drummer Kingdom Come is the first studio Album by American Heavy metal band Sir Lord Baltimore, released on Mercury Records Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Creem (whose trademark is capitalized CREEM) "America's Only Rock 'n' Roll Magazine" was a monthly Rock 'n' roll Publication started " Creem critic Lester Bangs is credited with popularizing the term via his early 1970s essays on bands such as Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. Leslie Conway Bangs ( December 13, 1948 &ndash April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician  Through the decade, heavy metal was used by certain critics as a virtually automatic putdown. In 1979, lead New York Times popular music critic John Rockwell described what he called "heavy-metal rock" as "brutally aggressive music played mostly for minds clouded by drugs," and, in a different article, as "a crude exaggeration of rock basics that appeals to white teenagers. John Rockwell (born 1940 in Washington DC) is a Music critic, editor, and Dance critic. "
The terms "heavy metal" and "hard rock" have often been used interchangeably, particularly in discussing bands of the 1970s, a period when the terms were largely synonymous.  For example, the 1983 Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll includes this passage: "known for its aggressive blues-based hard-rock style, Aerosmith was the top American heavy-metal band of the mid-Seventies. Aerosmith is an American Hard rock band sometimes referred to as "The Bad Boys from Boston " and "America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band" " Few would now characterize Aerosmith's classic sound, with its clear links to traditional rock and roll, as "heavy metal. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African " Even some acts closely identified with the emergence of the genre, such as Led Zeppelin and Deep Purple, are not considered heavy metal bands by some in the present-day metal community.
American blues music was a major influence on the early British rockers. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Bands like The Rolling Stones and The Yardbirds developed blues-rock by recording covers of many classic blues songs, often speeding up the tempos. The Yardbirds are an English rock band noted for starting the careers of three of rock's most famous Guitarists Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining Bluesy improvisations over the 12-bar blues and extended Boogie jams with Rock 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO As they experimented with the music, the UK blues-based bands—and the U. S. acts they influenced in turn—developed what would become the hallmarks of heavy metal: At the core was a loud, distorted guitar style, built around power chords.  The Kinks played a major role in popularizing this sound with their 1964 hit "You Really Got Me. The Kinks were an English pop and rock group formed in 1963 and categorised in the US as a British Invasion band " You Really Got Me " is a rock Song written by Ray Davies and performed by his band The Kinks. " A significant contributor to the emerging guitar sound was the feedback facilitated by the new generation of amplifiers. Feedback is a circular causal Process whereby some proportion of a system's output is returned (fed back to the Input. In addition to The Kinks' Dave Davies, other guitarists such as The Who's Pete Townshend and the Tridents' Jeff Beck were experimenting with feedback. This is about the English musician for others see Dave Davies (disambiguation. The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born 19 May 1945 in Chiswick, London) is an English rock Guitarist, Singer, Geoffrey Arnold "Jeff" Beck (born June 24, 1944 to Arnold and Ethel Beck in Wallington, England) is an English  Where the blues-rock drumming style started out largely as simple shuffle beats on small kits, drummers began using a more muscular, complex, and amplified approach to match and be heard against the increasingly loud guitar.  Vocalists similarly modified their technique and increased their reliance on amplification, often becoming more stylized and dramatic. In terms of sheer volume, especially in live performance, The Who's "bigger-louder-wall-of-Marshalls" approach was seminal. Marshall Amplification is a British company which designs and manufactures music amplifiers.  Simultaneous advances in amplification and recording technology made it possible to successfully capture the power of this heavier approach on record.
The combination of blues-rock with psychedelic rock formed much of the original basis for heavy metal.  One of the most influential bands in forging the merger of genres was the power trio Cream, who derived a massive, heavy sound from unison riffing between guitarist Eric Clapton and bassist Jack Bruce, as well as Ginger Baker's double bass drumming. Cream were a 1960s British rock band In Music, a unison () is an interval, the ratio of 11 or 0 half steps and zero cents. Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE (born 30 March 1945 is an English Blues-rock Guitarist, singer Songwriter and Composer John Symon Asher "Jack" Bruce (born 14 May 1943 is a Scottish -born musician composer and Singer. Peter Edward "Ginger" Baker (born 19 August 1939 Lewisham, South London) is an English Drummer.  Their first two LPs, Fresh Cream (1966) and Disraeli Gears (1967), are regarded as essential prototypes for the future style. Fresh Cream is Cream 's December 1966 debut Album. It was the first LP release of producer Robert Stigwood 's new "Independent" Disraeli Gears is the second album by British Blues-rock group Cream. The Jimi Hendrix Experience's debut album, Are You Experienced (1967), was also highly influential. Are You Experienced is the debut album by The Jimi Hendrix Experience. Hendrix's virtuosic technique would be emulated by many metal guitarists and the album's most successful single, "Purple Haze," is identified by some as the first heavy metal hit. Purple Haze is a song recorded in 1966 by The Jimi Hendrix Experience, released as a single in both the United Kingdom and the United States. 
In 1968, the sound that would become known as heavy metal began to coalesce. That January, the San Francisco band Blue Cheer released a cover of Eddie Cochran's classic "Summertime Blues," from their debut album Vincebus Eruptum, that many consider the first true heavy metal recording. Blue Cheer is a San Francisco -based rock group that initially performed and recorded in the late 1960s and early 1970s and again from the mid-1980s to the present Raymond Edward "Eddie" Cochran ( October 3, 1938 He took music lessons in school but quit the band to play drums " Summertime Blues " ( 1958) is a 12-bar Blues standard song by Eddie Cochran and Jerry Capehart about the trials and tribulations Vincebus Eruptum is the debut album of proto- metal / psychedelic band Blue Cheer, released in January 1968.  The same month, Steppenwolf released its self-titled debut album, including "Born to Be Wild," with its "heavy metal" lyric. Steppenwolf is a rock band that helped establish Heavy metal music in the late 1960s along with bands like Blue Cheer and Iron Butterfly Steppenwolf is the first album created by Steppenwolf, released in January 1968 (see 1968 in music) on ABC Dunhill Records. " Born to Be Wild " is a rock song written by Mars Bonfire and made famous by the American rock band Steppenwolf. In July, another two epochal records came out: The Yardbirds' "Think About It"—B-side of the band's last single—with a performance by guitarist Jimmy Page anticipating the metal sound he would soon make famous; and Iron Butterfly's In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida, with its 17-minute-long title track, a prime candidate for first-ever heavy metal album. James Patrick Page, OBE (born 9 January 1944 is an English Guitarist, Composer and record producer Iron Butterfly is an American Psychedelic rock and early Heavy metal band well known for their 1968 hit " In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida is a rock album by the band Iron Butterfly, released in 1968 (see 1968 in music) In August, The Beatles' single version of "Revolution," with its redlined guitar and drum sound, set new standards for distortion in a top-selling context. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 " Revolution " is a song by The Beatles, written by John Lennon and attributed to Lennon/McCartney. The Jeff Beck Group, whose leader had preceded Page as The Yardbirds' guitarist, released its debut record that same month: Truth featured some of the "most molten, barbed, downright funny noises of all time," breaking ground for generations of metal ax-slingers. The Jeff Beck Group were an English Rock band formed in London in February 1967 by ex- Yardbirds guitarist Jeff Beck. Truth (1968 was the first full-length album by Jeff Beck and his backing group.  In October, Page's new band, Led Zeppelin, made its live debut. Led Zeppelin were In November, Love Sculpture, with guitarist Dave Edmunds, put out Blues Helping, featuring a pounding, aggressive version of Khachaturian's "Sabre Dance. (For the LOVE sculpture see LOVE (Sculpture or Robert Indiana) Dave Edmunds (born 15 April, 1944 in Cardiff, Wales) is a Welsh Singer, Guitarist and Record producer Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan The "Sabre Dance" is a movement in the final act of the Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian 's Ballet Gayane " The Beatles' so-called White Album, which also came out that month, included "Helter Skelter," then one of the heaviest-sounding songs ever released by a major band. " Helter Skelter " is a song written by Paul McCartney, credited to Lennon/McCartney, and recorded by The Beatles on The White Album 
In January 1969, Led Zeppelin's self-titled debut album was released and reached number 10 on the Billboard album chart. Led Zeppelin is the debut album by English rock band Led Zeppelin. See Billboard (Turkish magazine Billboard is a weekly American Magazine devoted to the Music industry In July, Zeppelin and a power trio with a Cream-inspired, but cruder sound, Grand Funk Railroad, played the Atlanta Pop Festival. Grand Funk Railroad (also known as Grand Funk) is an American rock band The first Atlanta International Pop Festival was a Music festival held at the Atlanta International Raceway on the July Fourth and weekend 1969 That same month, another Cream-rooted trio led by Leslie West released Mountain, an album filled with heavy blues-rock guitar and roaring vocals. Leslie West (born October 22, 1945) is an American rock Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter. In August, the group—now itself dubbed Mountain—played an hour-long set at the Woodstock Festival. Mountain is an American rock band. The band broke up in 1972 reformed two years later broke up soon after that and have since reconvened and resumed  Grand Funk's debut album, On Time, also came out that month. On Time is Grand Funk Railroad 's first studio album and was released in August 1969 by Capitol Records. In the fall, Led Zeppelin II went to number 1 and the album's single "Whole Lotta Love" hit number 4 on the Billboard pop chart. Led Zeppelin II is the second album released by English rock band Led Zeppelin in 1969 " Whole Lotta Love " is a song by English rock band Led Zeppelin. The metal revolution was under way.
Led Zeppelin defined central aspects of the emerging genre, with Page's highly distorted guitar style and singer Robert Plant's dramatic, wailing vocals. Robert Anthony Plant (born 20 August 1948 West Bromwich, England) is an English rock singer and songwriter famous for his membership in the  Other bands, with a more consistently heavy, "purely" metal sound, would prove equally important in codifying the genre. The 1970 releases by Black Sabbath (Black Sabbath and Paranoid) and Deep Purple (Deep Purple in Rock) were crucial in this regard. Black Sabbath are an Black Sabbath is the self-titled debut album by the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath. Paranoid is the second album by the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath. Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertfordshire in 1968 Deep Purple in Rock (also known as In Rock) is an album by English rock band Deep Purple, released in June 1970  Black Sabbath had developed a particularly heavy sound in part due to an industrial accident guitarist Tony Iommi suffered before cofounding the band. Frank Anthony "Iommi (born February 19 1948, in Aston, Birmingham England) is an English Guitarist and Songwriter Unable to play normally, Iommi had to tune his guitar down for easier fretting and rely on power chords with their relatively simple fingering.  Deep Purple had fluctuated between styles in its early years, but by 1969 vocalist Ian Gillan and guitarist Ritchie Blackmore had led the band toward the developing heavy metal style. Ian Gillan (born 19 August, 1945 in Hounslow, London) is an English Rock music Vocalist and Songwriter For the rugby league footballer of the same name see Richie Blackmore (rugby league Richard Hugh "Ritchie" Blackmore (born  In 1970, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple scored major UK chart hits with "Paranoid" and "Black Night," respectively. " Paranoid " is a song by Black Sabbath that appears on the band's second album Paranoid. " Black Night " is a song by British Hard rock band Deep Purple, first released as a single in June 1970 and later included That same year, three other British bands released debut albums in a heavy metal mode: Uriah Heep with Very 'eavy... Very 'umble, UFO with UFO 1, and Black Widow with Sacrifice. Uriah Heep are an English rock band formed in December 1969 when record producer Gerry Bron invited keyboardist Ken Hensley (previously Very 'eavy Very 'umble is the debut album of British Hard rock band Uriah Heep. UFO are an English Hard rock band formed in 1969 UFO became a transitional band between early Hard rock and heavy metal and the New UFO 1 is the debut album by British rock band UFO. Track listing All titles by UFO (Mick Bolton / Pete Way / Phil Mogg / Black Widow were a Progressive rock / Hard rock band that formed in Leicester, England in September 1969 Wishbone Ash, though not commonly identified as metal, introduced a dual-lead/rhythm-guitar style that many metal bands of the following generation would adopt. Wishbone Ash are a British rock band who achieved particular success in the early and mid-1970s with their most critically acclaimed records including The occult lyrics and imagery employed by Black Sabbath, Uriah Heep, and Black Widow would prove particularly influential; Led Zeppelin also began foregrounding such elements with its fourth album, released in 1971. Also Welsh band Budgie released their self titled debut album Budgie in 1971. Budgie is Budgie 's first album It was released in June 1971 through MCA Records.
On the other side of the Atlantic, the trend-setting group was Grand Funk Railroad, "the most commercially successful American heavy-metal band from 1970 until they disbanded in 1976, [they] established the Seventies success formula: continuous touring. " Other bands identified with metal emerged in the U. S. , such as Dust (first LP in 1971), Blue Öyster Cult (1972), and Kiss (1974). Dust was an American Hard rock band active in the early 1970s Blue Öyster Cult is an American rock band formed in New York in 1967 and still active in 2008 Blue Öyster Cult is the self-titled debut by Hard rock band the Blue Öyster Cult, released in 1972 (see 1972 in music) Kiss (also typeset as KISS) is an American rock band formed in New York City in December 1972 Kiss is the self-titled debut album from the American Hard rock band Kiss. In Germany, the Scorpions debuted with Lonesome Crow in 1972. Scorpions are a heavy metal / Hard rock band from Hanover, Germany, probably best known for their 1980s rock anthem " Rock You Like a Lonesome Crow is the debut album of the German heavy metal band Scorpions produced by Conny Plank and released in 1972 Blackmore, who had emerged as a virtuoso soloist with Deep Purple's Machine Head (1972), quit the group in 1975 to form Rainbow. Machine Head is the sixth Deep Purple studio album It was recorded at the Grand Hotel Montreux Switzerland in December 1971 with the Rolling Stones Rainbow was a Hard rock and heavy metal band formed by former Deep Purple guitarist Ritchie Blackmore in 1975. These bands also built audiences via constant touring and increasingly elaborate stage shows.  As described above, there are arguments about whether these and other early bands truly qualify as "heavy metal" or simply as "hard rock. " Those closer to the music's blues roots or placing greater emphasis on melody are now commonly ascribed the latter label. AC/DC, which debuted with High Voltage in 1975, is a prime example. AC/DC are an Australian Hard rock band formed in Sydney, Australia in 1973 by brothers Angus and Malcolm Young. High Voltage is the debut studio Album by Australian Hard rock band AC/DC, released in February 1975 The 1983 Rolling Stone encyclopedia entry begins, "Australian heavy-metal band AC/DC. . . " Rock historian Clinton Walker writes, "Calling AC/DC a heavy metal band in the seventies was as inaccurate as it is today. . . . [They] were a rock'n'roll band that just happened to be heavy enough for metal. " The issue is not only one of shifting definitions, but also a persistent distinction between musical style and audience identification: Ian Christe describes how the band "became the stepping-stone that led huge numbers of hard rock fans into heavy metal perdition. "
In certain cases, there is little debate. After Black Sabbath, the next major example is Britain's Judas Priest, which debuted with Rocka Rolla in 1974. Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in 1970 in Birmingham. Rocka Rolla is the debut Album by the British heavy metal group Judas Priest, released in 1974 In Christe's description, Black Sabbath's
audience was. . . left to scavenge for sounds with similar impact. By the mid-1970s, heavy metal aesthetic could be spotted, like a mythical beast, in the moody bass and complex dual guitars of Thin Lizzy, in the stagecraft of Alice Cooper, in the sizzling guitar and showy vocals of Queen, and in the thundering medieval questions of Rainbow. Thin Lizzy are an Irish Hard rock band who formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969 Alice Cooper (born Vincent Damon Furnier; February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer songwriter and musician whose career spans five Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist . . . Judas Priest arrived to unify and amplify these diverse highlights from hard rock's sonic palette. For the first time, heavy metal became a true genre unto itself. 
Though Judas Priest did not have a top 40 album in the U. S. until 1980, for many it was the definitive post-Sabbath heavy metal band; its twin-guitar attack, featuring rapid tempos and a nonbluesy, more cleanly metallic sound, was a major influence on later acts.  While heavy metal was growing in popularity, most critics were not enamored of the music. Objections were raised to metal's adoption of visual spectacle and other trappings of commercial artifice, but the main offense was its perceived musical and lyrical vacuity: reviewing a Black Sabbath album in the early 1970s, leading critic Robert Christgau described it as "dull and decadent. Robert Christgau (born April 18 1942) is an American Essayist, Music journalist, and the self-declared "Dean of American . . dim-witted, amoral exploitation. "
Punk rock emerged in the mid-1970s as a reaction against contemporary social conditions as well as what was perceived as the overindulgent, overproduced rock music of the time, including heavy metal. Sales of heavy metal records declined sharply in the late 1970s in the face of punk, disco, and more mainstream rock. Disco is a Genre of dance-oriented music whose origins are hard to define  With the major labels fixated on punk, many newer British heavy metal bands were inspired by the movement's aggressive, high-energy sound and "lo-fi", do it yourself ethos. "Lo-fi" redirects here For the music genre see Lo-fi music Lo-fidelity redirects here Underground metal bands began putting out cheaply recorded releases independently to small, devoted audiences.  Motörhead, founded in 1975, was the first important band to straddle the punk/metal divide. With the explosion of punk in 1977, others followed. British music papers such as the NME and Sounds began to take notice, with Sounds writer Geoff Barton christening the movement the "New Wave of British Heavy Metal. The New Musical Express (better known as the NME) is a Popular music Magazine in the United Kingdom which has been Sounds was a British Music paper, published weekly from October 10, 1970 &ndash April 6, 1991 The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (frequently abbreviated as NWOBHM) is a heavy metal music movement that started in the late 1970s in Britain, and achieved " NWOBHM bands including Iron Maiden, Saxon, and Def Leppard reenergized the heavy metal genre. For other uses see Iron maiden. Saxon are an English heavy metal band formed in 1977 in Barnsley, Yorkshire. Following the lead set by Judas Priest and Motörhead, they toughened up the sound, reduced its blues elements, and emphasized increasingly fast tempos.  In 1980, NWOBHM broke into the mainstream, as albums by Iron Maiden and Saxon, as well as Motörhead, reached the British top 10. Though less commercially successful, other NWOBHM bands such as Venom and Diamond Head would have a significant influence on metal's development. Venom are an English Diamond Head are a British heavy metal band formed in 1976 in Stourbridge, England.  In 1981, Motörhead became the first of this new breed of metal bands to top the UK charts with No Sleep 'til Hammersmith. No Sleep ’til Hammersmith is the first Live album by the English Heavy metal band Motörhead.
The first generation of metal bands was ceding the limelight. Deep Purple had broken up soon after Blackmore's departure in 1975, and Led Zeppelin folded in 1980. Black Sabbath was routinely upstaged in concert by its opening act, the Los Angeles band Van Halen. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Van Halen is a Hard rock band formed in in 1972 They enjoyed success from the release of their self titled debut album in 1978  Eddie Van Halen established himself as one of the leading metal guitar virtuosos of the era—his solo on "Eruption," from the band's self-titled 1978 album, is considered a milestone. Edward Lodewijk "Eddie" Van Halen (born January 26 1955 is a Dutch Guitarist, Keyboardist, Songwriter and producer " Eruption " is an instrumental by Van Halen from their first album Van Halen. Van Halen is the self-titled debut Album by American Hard rock band Van Halen, released in 1978.  Randy Rhoads and Yngwie J. Malmsteen also became famed virtuosos, associated with what would be known as the neoclassical metal style. Randall William "Randy" Rhoads ( December 6, 1956 – March 19, 1982) was an American Heavy metal Guitarist Yngwie Johann Malmsteen (ˈɪŋveɪ ˈmɑːlmstiːn in English (born Lars Johan Yngve Lannerbäck on June 30 1963 in Stockholm Sweden) is a Swedish For the historical original neoclassical music see Neoclassicism (music Neo-classical metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music The adoption of classical elements had been spearheaded by Blackmore and the Scorpions' Uli Jon Roth; this next generation progressed to occasionally using classical nylon-stringed guitars, as Rhoads does on "Dee" from former Sabbath lead singer Ozzy Osbourne's first solo album, Blizzard of Ozz (1980). Ulrich Roth (born December 18, 1954) also known as Uli Jon Roth, is a German electric Guitarist and along with Ritchie Blackmore John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (born December 3 1948) is a British singer Blizzard of Ozz is a heavy metal album by Ozzy Osbourne, recorded in Surrey U
Inspired by Van Halen's success, a metal scene began to develop in Southern California, particularly Los Angeles, during the late 1970s. Based around the clubs of L. A. 's Sunset Strip, bands such as Quiet Riot, Ratt, Mötley Crüe, and W.A.S.P. were influenced by traditional heavy metal of the earlier 1970s and incorporated the theatrics (and sometimes makeup) of glam rock acts such as Alice Cooper and Kiss. The Sunset Strip is the name given to the mile and a half stretch of Sunset Boulevard that passes through West Hollywood California. Quiet Riot was an American heavy metal band whose 1983 & 1984 success contributed to launching the 1980s Glam Ratt is an American Glam metal band that formed in San Diego and enjoyed significant commercial success in the 1980s Mötley Crüe ( IPA pronunciation: /'mɒtliː WASP is an American heavy metal band formed in 1982 and emerged with the L Glam rock (also known as glitter rock) is a sub-genre of Rock music that developed in the UK in the post- Hippie early 1970s which was "performed by Alice Cooper (born Vincent Damon Furnier; February 4, 1948) is an American rock singer songwriter and musician whose career spans five  The lyrics of these glam metal bands characteristically emphasized hedonism and wild behavior. Glam metal (also known as pop metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music that arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States. Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit Musically, the style was distinguished by rapid-fire shred guitar solos, anthemic choruses, and a relatively pop-oriented melodic approach. Shred guitar or shred refers to lead Electric guitar playing that relies heavily on fast passages the act of playing fast passages on an electric guitar is termed The glam metal movement—along with similarly styled acts such as New York's Twisted Sister—became a major force in metal and the wider spectrum of rock music. Twisted Sister is an American heavy metal band from New York City.
In the wake of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal and Judas Priest's breakthrough British Steel (1980), heavy metal became increasingly popular in the early 1980s. British Steel is the sixth album by Judas Priest, released on April 14 1980 (see 1980 in music) Many metal artists benefited from the exposure they received on MTV, which began airing in 1981—sales often soared if a band's videos screened on the channel. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City.  Def Leppard's videos for Pyromania (1983) made them superstars in America and Quiet Riot became the first domestic heavy metal band to top the Billboard chart with Metal Health (1983). Pyromania is the third Studio album by British Hard rock band Def Leppard, released in 1983 Metal Health was the breakthrough album for the American Heavy metal band Quiet Riot and their first record without deceased legendary guitarist One of the seminal events in metal's growing popularity was the 1983 US Festival in California, where the "heavy metal day" featuring Ozzy Osbourne, Van Halen, Scorpions, Mötley Crüe, Judas Priest, and others drew the largest audiences of the three-day event. The US Festivals ( US pronounced like the pronoun not as initials were two early 1980s music and culture festivals sponsored by Steve Wozniak of at the time  Between 1983 and 1984, heavy metal went from an 8 percent to a 20 percent share of all recordings sold in the U. S.  Several major professional magazines devoted to the genre were launched, including Kerrang! (in 1981) and Metal Hammer (in 1984), as well as a host of fan journals. Kerrang! is a weekly rock Magazine published by Bauer Consumer Media in the United Kingdom. Metal Hammer (sometimes MetalHammer) is a monthly heavy metal magazine in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in Germany In 1985, Billboard declared, "Metal has broadened its audience base. Metal music is no longer the exclusive domain of male teenagers. The metal audience has become older (college-aged), younger (pre-teen), and more female. "
By the mid-1980s, glam metal was a dominant presence on the U. S. charts, music television, and the arena concert circuit. Music television is a type of Television programming which focuses predominantly on playing Music videos from bands usually on dedicated Television channels New bands such as L. A. 's Warrant and acts from the East Coast like Poison and Cinderella became major draws, while Mötley Crüe and Ratt remained very popular. Poison is an American Hard rock band that achieved great success and popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s Cinderella is an American rock band from Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Bridging the stylistic gap between hard rock and glam metal, New Jersey's Bon Jovi became enormously successful with its third album, Slippery When Wet (1986). New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Bon Jovi is an American Hard rock band from Sayreville New Jersey. Slippery When Wet, recorded in Vancouver, Canada, is the third Studio album by Bon Jovi, released on August 18, In 1987, MTV launched a show, Headbanger's Ball, devoted exclusively to heavy metal videos. Headbangers Ball was a Television show about heavy metal and hardcore music airing on MTV2, MTV Australia, MTV However, the metal audience had begun to factionalize, with those in many underground metal scenes favoring more extreme sounds and disparaging the popular style as "lite metal" or "hair metal. "
One band that reached diverse audiences was Guns N' Roses. Guns N' Roses is an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985 In contrast to their glam metal contemporaries in L. A. , they were seen as much rawer and more dangerous. With the release of their chart-topping Appetite for Destruction (1987), they "recharged and almost single-handedly sustained the Sunset Strip sleaze system for several years. Appetite for Destruction is the 1987 debut album by Los Angeles -based Hard rock band Guns N' Roses. " The following year, Jane's Addiction emerged from the same L. Jane's Addiction is an American Alternative rock band formed in Los Angeles California in 1985 A. hard-rock club scene with its major label debut, Nothing's Shocking. Nothing's Shocking is Jane's Addiction 's first studio album (the self-titled debut is a live recording Reviewing the album, Rolling Stone declared, "as much as any band in existence, Jane's Addiction is the true heir to Led Zeppelin. " The group was one of the first to be identified with the "alternative metal" trend that would come to the fore in the next decade. Alternative metal is an eclectic form of Heavy metal music that gained popularity in the early 1990s alongside grunge. Meanwhile, new bands such as New York's Winger and New Jersey's Skid Row sustained the popularity of the glam metal style. Winger is an American rock band formed in New York City that gained popularity during the late 1980s and early 1990s 
Many subgenres of heavy metal developed outside of the commercial mainstream during the 1980s. A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s  Several attempts have been made to map the complex world of underground metal, most notably by the editors of Allmusic, as well as critic Garry Sharpe-Young. allmusic (previously All Music Guide) is a Metadata database about music owned by All Media Guide. Rockdetector is a Rock music Website conceived by Garry Sharpe-Young in 2001 Sharpe-Young's multivolume metal encyclopedia separates the underground into five major categories: thrash metal, death metal, black metal, power metal, and the related subgenres of doom and gothic metal. Thrash metal (sometimes referred to simply as thrash) is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, Power metal is a style of Heavy metal music combining characteristics of traditional metal with Thrash metal or Speed metal, often within Doom metal is a form of Heavy metal music that typically employs very slow Tempos low-tuned guitars and a much 'thicker' or 'heavier' sound than other metal
Thrash metal emerged in the early 1980s under the influence of hardcore punk and the New Wave of British Heavy Metal, particularly songs in the revved-up style known as speed metal. Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s Speed metal is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music originating in the late 1970s and early 1980s that was the direct musical progenitor of Thrash metal. The movement began in the United States, with the leading scene in the San Francisco Bay Area. Bay Area thrash metal, or " Bay Area thrash," refers to a steady following of heavy metal bands in the 1980s who formed and gained international status in The sound developed by thrash groups was faster and more aggressive than that of the original metal bands and their glam metal successors.  Low-register guitar riffs are typically overlaid with shredding leads. Shred guitar or shred refers to lead Electric guitar playing that relies heavily on fast passages the act of playing fast passages on an electric guitar is termed Lyrics often express nihilistic views or deal with social issues using visceral, gory language. Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing is a philosophical position that argues that Existence is without objective meaning Purpose Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a Society and are considered to be problems controversies related to Moral values Thrash has been described as a form of "urban blight music" and "a palefaced cousin of rap. "
The subgenre was popularized by the "Big Four of Thrash": Anthrax, Megadeth, Metallica, and Slayer. Anthrax is a New York City -based heavy metal band that released its first full-length album in 1984 Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder front man guitarist and songwriter Dave Mustaine. Metallica is an American heavy metal band that formed in 1981 in. Slayer is an American Thrash metal band founded by Guitarists Jeff Hanneman and Kerry King in  Three German bands, Kreator, Sodom, and Destruction, played a central role in bringing the style to Europe. Kreator are a German Thrash metal band from Essen Germany. They started their career in 1982 under the name Tormentor Sodom are a German Thrash metal band from Gelsenkirchen, formed in 1982 Destruction are a German Thrash metal band from Lörrach, in southern Germany. Others, including San Francisco's Testament and Exodus, New Jersey's Overkill, and Brazil's Sepultura, also had a significant impact. Testament is an American Thrash metal band from California. Testament has two Top 40 albums and one Top 50 album to its credit in the UK Exodus is an American Thrash metal band formed in 1980 in San Francisco, California by guitarist Gary Holt, current Metallica Overkill is an American Thrash metalband formed in 1980 in New Jersey. Sepultura ( Portuguese: Grave) are a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, formed in 1984 While thrash began as an underground scene, and remained largely that for almost a decade, the leading bands in the movement began to reach a wider audience. Metallica brought the sound into the top 40 of the Billboard album chart in 1986 with Master of Puppets; two years later, the band's ...And Justice for All hit number 6, while Megadeth and Anthrax had top 40 records. Master of Puppets is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica. 
Though less commercially successful than the rest of the Big Four, Slayer released one of the genre's definitive records: Reign in Blood (1986) was described by Kerrang! as the "heaviest album of all time. Reign in Blood is the third Studio album and major label debut by the American Thrash metal band Slayer. " Two decades later, Metal Hammer named it the best album of the preceding twenty years. Metal Hammer (sometimes MetalHammer) is a monthly heavy metal magazine in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in Germany  Slayer attracted a following among far-right skinheads, and accusations of promoting violence and Nazi themes have dogged the band.  In the early 1990s, thrash achieved breakout success, challenging and redefining the metal mainstream.  Metallica's self-titled 1991 album topped the Billboard chart, Megadeth's Countdown to Extinction (1992) hit number 2, Anthrax and Slayer cracked the top 10, and albums by regional bands such as Testament and Sepultura entered the top 100. Metallica (also known as The Black Album) is the self-titled 5th studio Album by the American heavy metal band Countdown to Extinction is the fifth Studio album by American heavy metal band Megadeth, released in 1992
Thrash soon began to evolve and split into more extreme metal genres. Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Death was an influential American Death metal band founded in 1983 by guitarist and vocalist Chuck Schuldiner, considered a "pioneering death Charles Michael "Chuck" Schuldiner ( May 13 1967, Long Island, New York &ndash December 13 2001) was an "Slayer's music was directly responsible for the rise of death metal," according to MTV News.  The NWOBHM band Venom was also an important progenitor. The death metal movement in both North America and Europe adopted and emphasized the elements of blasphemy and diabolism employed by such acts. Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. For other uses of the word see Satanism (disambiguation. Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and context Florida's Death and the Bay Area's Possessed are recognized as seminal bands in the style. Death was an influential American Death metal band founded in 1983 by guitarist and vocalist Chuck Schuldiner, considered a "pioneering death Possessed is an influential American Death metal band and was formed in 1983 in San Francisco, California. Both groups have been credited with inspiring the subgenre's name, the latter via its 1984 demo Death Metal and the song "Death Metal," from its 1985 debut album Seven Churches (1985). Seven Churches is Possessed 's debut album released in 1985 The album had a massive impact on heavy metal in general but also in establishing death metal
Death metal utilizes the speed and aggression of both thrash and hardcore, fused with lyrics preoccupied with Z-grade slasher movie violence and Satanism. The term Z movie (or grade-Z movie) arose in the mid-1960s as an informal description of certain unequivocally non-A films The slasher film (sometimes referred to as bodycount films and dead teenager movies) is a Sub-genre For other uses of the word see Satanism (disambiguation. Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and context  Death metal vocals are typically bleak, involving guttural "death growls," high-pitched screaming, the "death rasp," and other uncommon techniques. cf Death rattle, a sound sometimes made by the dying A death growl, also known as death metal vocals, gutteral vocals Screaming is a form of vocalization, most commonly heard in sub-genres of Heavy metal and Hardcore punk, though screamed vocals also feature in music  Complementing the deep, aggressive vocal style are downtuned, highly distorted guitars and extremely fast percussion, often with rapid double bass drumming and "wall of sound"–style blast beats. A bass drum is a large Drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. The Wall of Sound is a music production technique for pop and rock music recordings developed by Record producer Phil Spector at Gold Star Studios A blast beat is a drum beat often associated with Grindcore, although its usage predates the genre and has spread to many other forms of Extreme metal. Frequent tempo and time signature changes and syncopation are also typical. The time signature (also known as " meter signature" is a notational convention used in Western Musical notation to specify how many beats In Music, syncopation includes a variety of Rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced
Death metal, like thrash metal, generally rejects the theatrics of earlier metal styles, opting instead for an everyday look of ripped jeans and plain leather jackets.  One major exception to this rule was Deicide's Glen Benton, who branded an inverted cross on his forehead and wore armor on stage. Deicide is an American Death metal band formed in 1987 The band has sold close to 500000 releases in the USA since the SoundScan era making them Glen Benton (born June 21st 1967 is an American Heavy metal musician best known as the vocalist and bassist for the Death metal band Deicide, although Morbid Angel adopted neo-fascist imagery. Morbid Angel is an American Death metal band based in Tampa Florida. This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II  These two bands, along with Death and Obituary, were leaders of the major death metal scene that emerged in Florida in the mid-1980s. Obituary is one of the pioneering bands of the Death metal genre In the UK, the related style of grindcore, led by bands such as Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, emerged out of the anarcho-punk movement. For the fictional character with this name see Grindcore (Transformers. Napalm Death are Extreme Noise Terror (often abbreviated to ENT) are a Crust punk and Grindcore band originally from Ipswich, England. Anarcho-punk is a faction of the Punk subculture that consists of bands groups and individuals promoting anarchist politics  A large Scandinavian death metal scene, with bands such as Sweden's Entombed and Dismember, began to develop as well. Scandinavian death metal concerns the Death metal bands of Scandinavian origin Entombed is a Swedish death metal band which formed in 1987 under the name of Nihilist. Dismember is a Swedish Death metal band that formed from members of Carnage in 1988 Out of this evolved a melodic death metal sound, typified by Swedish bands such as In Flames and Dark Tranquillity and Finland's Children of Bodom and Kalmah. Melodic death metal (also referred to as melodeath) is a Subgenre of Death metal which combines the melody of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal In Flames is a Death metal band formed in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1990 and is considered to be a pioneer and major influence to the melodic death metal genre Dark Tranquillity is a Melodic death metal band from Gothenburg, Sweden. Children of Bodom is a Finnish Melodic death metal band from Espoo, Finland formed in 1993 Kalmah is a Melodic death metal band from Oulu, Finland that formed in 1998 By the 1990s, American technical death metal bands such as Atheist and Cynic were showcasing astonishing levels of guitar speed and technicality. Technical death metal (also called tech death for short or also can be known as Progressive death metal) is a term used to describe bands in the subgenre Death Atheist are a Technical death metal band from Florida, founded in 1984 whose music combined brutal riffs with subtle Latin music arrangements and Cynic is a Progressive metal band with incorporated Jazz fusion founded in Miami, Florida, United States.
The first wave of black metal emerged in Europe in the early and mid-1980s, led by Britain's Venom, Denmark's Mercyful Fate, Switzerland's Hellhammer and Celtic Frost, and Sweden's Bathory. Mercyful Fate is an influential Danish heavy metal band often cited among the influences in the Black metal, Thrash metal, Power metal Hellhammer was an influential early 1980s Extreme metal band from Switzerland. Celtic Frost were an influential heavy metal band from Zürich, Switzerland. Bathory was a Swedish heavy metal band formed by Quorthon in 1983 By the late 1980s, Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, and Emperor were heading a second wave. Mayhem is a Black metal band formed during 1984 in Oslo Norway. Burzum is the musical project of Varg Vikernes (under the pseudonym "Count Grishnackh" Emperor is a Norwegian Symphonic black metal band formed in 1991  Black metal varies considerably in style and production quality, although most bands emphasize shrieked and growled vocals, highly distorted guitars frequently played with rapid tremolo picking, a "dark" atmosphere and intentionally lo-fi production, with ambient noise and background hiss. Tremolo picking or double picking describes the musical technique of picking on a Guitar or other String instrument in which a single note is "Lo-fi" redirects here For the music genre see Lo-fi music Lo-fidelity redirects here  Satanic themes are common in black metal, though many bands take inspiration from ancient paganism, promoting a return to pre-Christian values. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world  Numerous black metal bands also "experiment with sounds from all possible forms of metal, folk, classical music, electronica and avant-garde. " Darkthrone drummer Fenriz explains, "It had something to do with production, lyrics, the way they dressed and a commitment to making ugly, raw, grim stuff. DarkThrone is a Massive Online Text Based Game developed by Lazarus Software Fenriz (born Leif Nagell on November 28, 1971 and later known as Gylve Fenris Nagell) is best known as the drummer and lyricist of the two-piece There wasn't a generic sound. "
By 1990, Mayhem was regularly wearing corpsepaint; many other black metal acts also adopted the look. Corpse paint (sometimes spelled corpsepaint) is a style of black-and-white or just white Makeup used extensively by Black metal bands during live Bathory inspired the Viking metal and folk metal movements and Immortal brought blast beats to the fore. Viking metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music characterised by its galloping pace keyboard-rich anthemic sound bleakness and dramatic emphasis on Norse mythology Folk metal is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music that developed in Europe during the 1990s Immortal is a pioneering Black metal band from Bergen, Norway. Some bands in the Scandinavian black metal scene became associated with considerable violence in the early 1990s, with Mayhem and Burzum linked to church burnings. Growing commercial hype around death metal generated a backlash; beginning in Norway, much of the Scandinavian metal underground shifted to support a black metal scene that resisted co-option.  According to Gorgoroth vocalist Gaahl, "Black Metal was never meant to reach an audience. Gorgoroth is a Black metal band from Bergen, Norway that was founded by Infernus in 1992 Kristian Eivind Espedal (born August 7, 1975) better known by his stage name Gaahl, is a Norwegian Black metal vocalist known . . . [We] had a common enemy which was, of course, Christianity, socialism and everything that democracy stands for. "
By 1992, black metal scenes had begun to emerge in areas outside Scandinavia, including Germany, France, and Poland.  The 1993 murder of Mayhem's Euronymous by Burzum's Varg Vikernes provoked intensive media coverage. Øystein Aarseth ( March 22, 1968 - August 10, 1993) Born in Egersund was a guitarist for the Norwegian Black metal Varg Vikernes (varg 'vikeɳes born Kristian Vikernes on February 11 1973 near Bergen, Norway) is a Black metal musician convicted murderer  Around 1996, when many in the scene felt the genre was stagnating, several key bands, including Burzum and Finland's Beherit, moved toward an ambient style, while symphonic black metal was explored by Sweden's Tiamat and Switzerland's Samael. Beherit was a Black metal band from Finland. The band was formed in 1989 by Nuclear Holocausto (Marko Laiho Black Jesus (Arjo Wennström and Sodomatic Slaughter Dark ambient is a subgenre of Ambient music that features foreboding ominous or discordant overtones Symphonic black metal is a style of Black metal that uses symphonic and Orchestral elements Tiamat is a Metal band that formed in Stockholm Sweden in 1988 Samael is a Black metal / Industrial metal band formed in 1987 in Sion Switzerland.  In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Norway's Dimmu Borgir brought black metal closer to the mainstream, as did Cradle of Filth, which Metal Hammer calls England's most successful metal band since Iron Maiden. Dimmu Borgir (ˌdɪmuːˈbɔːrɡɪr is a Symphonic black metal band from Norway. Metal Hammer (sometimes MetalHammer) is a monthly heavy metal magazine in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in Germany  Critically lauded contemporary acts include Sweden's traditionalist Watain, France's more experimental Deathspell Omega, and America's one-man Xasthur. Watain is a Swedish Black metal band from Uppsala, formed in 1998 Deathspell Omega are an avant-garde Black metal band from France who are the most well-known band in the "Norma Evangelium Diaboli" movement Xasthur is an American one-man Black metal band formed in 1995 by Scott Conner who goes by the Pseudonym "Malefic" 
During the early 1990s, the power metal scene came together largely in reaction to the harshness of death and black metal.  Though a relatively underground style in North America, it enjoys wide popularity in Europe, Japan, and South America. Power metal focuses on upbeat, epic melodies and themes that "appeal to the listener's sense of valor and loveliness. " The prototype for the sound was established in the mid- to late 1980s by Germany's Helloween, which combined the power riffs, melodic approach, and high-pitched, "clean" singing style of bands like Judas Priest and Iron Maiden with thrash's speed and energy, "crystalliz[ing] the sonic ingredients of what is now known as power metal. Helloween is a German power / Speed metal band founded in the early 1980s by members of Iron Fist and Powerfool " New York's Manowar and Virgin Steele were pioneering American bands. Manowar is an American heavy metal band from Auburn New York. Virgin Steele is a Heavy metal band from New York, founded in 1981, but more recently they have displayed progressive and Symphonic Yngwie J. Malmsteen's Rising Force (1984) was crucial in popularizing the ultrafast electric guitar style known as "shredding" as well as the merger of metal with classical music elements, developments that have strongly influenced power metal. Yngwie Johann Malmsteen (ˈɪŋveɪ ˈmɑːlmstiːn in English (born Lars Johan Yngve Lannerbäck on June 30 1963 in Stockholm Sweden) is a Swedish Rising Force is the debut album by guitarist Yngwie J Malmsteen released in 1984 Shred guitar or shred refers to lead Electric guitar playing that relies heavily on fast passages the act of playing fast passages on an electric guitar is termed For the historical original neoclassical music see Neoclassicism (music Neo-classical metal is a subgenre of Heavy metal music
Traditional power metal bands like Sweden's HammerFall and England's DragonForce have a sound clearly indebted to the classic NWOBHM style. For The C J Cherryh novel see The Gene Wars universe. HammerFall is a Power metal band from Gothenburg, Sweden DragonForce are a British band formed in 1999 History DragonForce was formed in 1998 from the remnants of the band Demoniac under the name  Many power metal bands such as Florida's Kamelot, Italy's Rhapsody of Fire, and Russia's Catharsis feature a keyboard-based "symphonic" sound, sometimes employing orchestras and opera singers. Kamelot is an American Power metal band from Tampa, Florida. They incorporate many elements of symphonic and Progressive Rhapsody of Fire (formerly known as ThunderCross and - more recently - Rhapsody) is an Italian Symphonic Power metal band led by Catharsis is a Russian Power metal band The band was founded in Moscow in 1996 by guitarist Igor Polakov and vocalist Sergey Bendrikov Symphonic metal or opera metal is a term used to describe Heavy metal music that has symphonic elements that is elements that sound similar to a Power metal has built a strong fanbase in Japan and South America, where bands like Brazil's Angra and Argentina's Rata Blanca are popular. Angra is a heavy metal band from São Paulo, Brazil known for its use of symphonic interludes highly technical guitar playing and regional elements Rata Blanca ( White Rat) is a classic heavy metal band from Argentina that formed in the 1980s
Closely related to power metal is progressive metal, which adopts the complex compositional approach of bands like Rush and King Crimson. Progressive metal (often referred to simply as prog metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music which blends the powerful guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex Rush is a Canadian rock band originally formed in August 1968 in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, currently comprised of King Crimson is a Progressive rock band founded by guitarist Robert Fripp and drummer Michael Giles in 1969 This style emerged in the United States in the early and mid-1980s, with innovators such as Queensrÿche, Fates Warning, and Dream Theater. Queensrÿche (ˈkwiːnzraɪk is an American heavy metal / Progressive metal band formed in 1981 in Bellevue Washington. Fates Warning is a Progressive metal band formed in 1983 by John Arch, Jim Matheos, Victor Arduini, Joe DiBiase, and Steve Dream Theater is an American Progressive metal band formed in 1985 under the name " Majesty " by John Myung, John Petrucci The mix of the progressive and power metal sounds is typified by New Jersey's Symphony X, whose guitarist Michael Romeo is among the most recognized of latter-day shredders. Symphony X is an American Heavy metal band from New Jersey founded in 1994 by guitarist Michael Romeo. Michael James Romeo (born March 6, 1968) is an American Guitarist and a founding member of the 
Emerging in the mid-1980s with such bands as California's Saint Vitus, Maryland's The Obsessed, Chicago's Trouble, and Sweden's Candlemass, the doom metal movement rejected other metal styles' emphasis on speed, slowing its music to a crawl. Saint Vitus was a pioneering Doom metal band from California. The Obsessed was a Doom metal band from Maryland led by Scott "Wino" Weinrich, who also fronted Saint Vitus, Spirit Caravan Trouble is an American Doom metal band noted as one of the pioneers of their genre alongside bands such as Candlemass and Saint Vitus. This article is about the band Candlemass for the Christian feast day see Candlemas. Doom metal traces its roots to the lyrical themes and musical approach of early Black Sabbath and Sabbath contemporaries such as Blue Cheer, Pentagram, and Black Widow. Blue Cheer is a San Francisco -based rock group that initially performed and recorded in the late 1960s and early 1970s and again from the mid-1980s to the present Pentagram are a long-running American heavy metal band from Virginia, most famous as one of the pioneers of Doom metal. Black Widow were a Progressive rock / Hard rock band that formed in Leicester, England in September 1969  The Melvins have also been a significant influence on doom metal and a number of its subgenres. The Melvins is an American Sludge metal band that usually perform as a Power trio.  Doom emphasizes melody, melancholy tempos, and a sepulchral mood relative to many other varieties of metal. 
The 1991 release of Forest of Equilibrium, the debut album by UK band Cathedral, helped spark a new wave of doom metal. Forest of Equilibrium is the debut album of the British Doom metal band Cathedral. Cathedral are a Doom metal band from Coventry England. Biography The band was founded in 1989 by Lee Dorrian (a former member of During the same period, the doom-death fusion style of British bands Paradise Lost, My Dying Bride, and Anathema gave rise to European gothic metal, with its signature dual-vocalist arrangements, exemplified by Norway's Theatre of Tragedy and Tristania. Paradise Lost are a Heavy metal band formed in 1988 in Halifax, England. My Dying Bride is a British Doom metal band formed in 1990 Biography My Dying Bride was formed in June 1990 after lead guitarist Andrew Anathema are an English band from the city of Liverpool, which together with Paradise Lost and My Dying Bride, helped to develop the Theatre of Tragedy are a Norwegian band from Stavanger, originally assembled in 1992 and best known for their earlier albums which provided a great deal of influence Tristania is Gothic metal band from Norway, formed in the end of 1996 by Morten Veland, Einar Moen and Kenneth Olsson. New York's Type O Negative introduced an American take on the style. Type O Negative is a Heavy metal band from Brooklyn, New York City.  Led by the Swedish band Therion's incorporation of classical elements, gothic metal in turn spawned a symphonic metal movement including Australia's Virgin Black, Finland's Nightwish, and the Netherlands' Within Temptation and After Forever. Therion is a Swedish Symphonic metal band founded by Christofer Johnsson in 1987 Symphonic metal or opera metal is a term used to describe Heavy metal music that has symphonic elements that is elements that sound similar to a Virgin Black is an Australian band that combines gothic-doom and Symphonic metal influences Nightwish is a symphonic Power metal band formed in 1996 in the town of Kitee, Finland. Within Temptation is a Dutch rock band The band was founded After Forever is a Dutch symphonic metal band relies on the use of both Soprano vocals and Death grunts Their music is also influenced
In the United States, sludge metal, mixing doom and hardcore, emerged in the late 1980s—Eyehategod and Crowbar were leaders a major Louisiana sludge scene. Sludge metal (or sludgecore) is a form of Heavy metal music that fuses Doom metal and Hardcore punk. Eyehategod (also abbreviated and referred to as EHG) is an American Sludge metal band from New Orleans who formed in 1988 Crowbar is an American Sludge metal band from New Orleans, Louisiana, characterized by their extremely slow low-keyed heavy and brooding songs The music of New Orleans assumes various styles of music which have often borrowed from earlier traditions Early in the next decade, California's Kyuss and Sleep, inspired by the earlier doom metal bands, spearheaded the rise of stoner metal, while Seattle's Earth helped develop the drone metal subgenre. Kyuss (ˈkaɪəs KAI-us was an influential Stoner rock / Desert rock band originally from Palm Desert California. Sleep was a stoner doom metal band from San Jose California. Active during the 1990s Sleep earned much critical and record label attention from early in their Stoner rock and stoner metal are interchangeable terms describing sub-genres of rock and metal music Earth is an American drone band based in Seattle, Washington.  The late 1990s saw new bands form such as the Los Angeles–based Goatsnake, with a classic stoner/doom sound, and Sunn O))), which crosses lines between doom, drone, and dark ambient metal—the New York Times has compared their sound to an "Indian raga in the middle of an earthquake". Goatsnake is an American Doom metal band from Los Angeles California. Sunn O (pronounced simply sun) is an American Drone metal band in its broadest sense however it incorporates elements of the Dark ambient, Black Dark ambient is a subgenre of Ambient music that features foreboding ominous or discordant overtones  In 2006, Atlanta's Mastodon, whose equally hard-to-define style mixes progressive and sludge, broke into the Billboard top 40 with Blood Mountain. Mastodon is a Grammy -nominated heavy metal band and are one of the most notable bands in the New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Blood Mountain is the third full-length studio album by metal band Mastodon.
The era of metal's mainstream dominance in North America came to an end in the early 1990s with the emergence of Nirvana and other grunge bands, signaling the popular breakthrough of alternative rock. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of  Grunge acts were influenced by the heavy metal sound, but rejected the excesses of the more popular metal bands, such as their "flashy and virtuosic solos" and "appearance-driven" MTV orientation. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. 
Glam metal fell out of favor due not only to the success of grunge, but also because of the growing popularity of the more aggressive sound typified by Metallica and the post-thrash groove metal of Pantera and White Zombie. Groove metal, often associated with neo-thrash / post-thrash and power groove, is a term sometimes used to describe a derivative of Thrash Pantera was an American heavy metal band from Arlington, Texas, formed by the Abbott brothers Vinnie Paul ( drums) and  A few new, unambiguously metal bands had commercial success during the first half of the decade—Pantera's Far Beyond Driven topped the Billboard chart in 1994—but, "In the dull eyes of the mainstream, metal was dead. Far Beyond Driven is an album by heavy metal band Pantera. The album was released on March 15, 1994 through East West Records " Some bands tried to adapt to the new musical landscape. Metallica revamped its image: the band members cut their hair and, in 1996, headlined the alternative musical festival Lollapalooza founded by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell. Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring Alternative rock, hip hop, and Punk rock bands Dance and Comedy performances Not to be confused with Pharrell Williams Perry Farrell (born Peretz Bernstein on March 29, 1959) is an American While this prompted a backlash among some long-time fans, Metallica remained one of the most successful bands in the world into the new century. 
Like Jane's Addiction, many of the most popular early 1990s groups with roots in heavy metal fall under the umbrella term "alternative metal. " The label was applied to a wide spectrum of acts that fused metal with different styles, not all associated with alternative rock. Acts labeled alternative metal included the Seattle grunge scene's Alice in Chains and groups drawing on multiple styles: Faith No More combined their alternative rock sound with punk, funk, metal, and hip hop; Primus joined elements of funk, punk, thrash metal, and experimental music. Alice in Chains is an American rock band formed in Seattle Washington in Faith No More was an American Alternative metal band that formed in San Francisco, California from 1982 to 1998 Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Primus is an American rock band currently composed of singer and bassist Les Claypool, guitarist Larry "Ler" LaLonde, and Thrash metal (sometimes referred to simply as thrash) is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 Tool mixed metal and progressive rock; Ministry began incorporating metal into its industrial sound; and Marilyn Manson went down a similar route, while also employing shock effects of the sort popularized by Alice Cooper. Tool is an American rock band that was formed in 1990 in Los Angeles, California. Progressive rock (often shortened to " progressive " " prog " or " prog rock " is a form of Rock music that evolved Ministry was an American Industrial metal band founded by Frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981 Industrial music is a loose term for a number of different styles of Experimental music, especially but not necessarily Electronic music. Marilyn Manson is an American Alternative metal band based in Los Angeles California. Alternative metal artists, though they did not represent a cohesive scene, were united by their willingness to experiment with the metal genre and their rejection of glam metal aesthetics (with the stagecraft of Marilyn Manson and White Zombie—also identified with alt-metal—significant, if partial, exceptions).  Alternative metal's mix of styles and sounds represented "the colorful results of metal opening up to face the outside world. "
In the mid- and late 1990s came a new wave of U. S. metal groups inspired by the alternative metal bands and their mix of genres.  Dubbed "nu metal," bands such as P.O.D., Korn, Papa Roach, Limp Bizkit, Slipknot, and Linkin Park incorporated elements ranging from death metal to hip hop, often including DJs and rap-style vocals. POD, initials standing for Payable On Death, is a rock band from San Diego California. Korn, occasionally typeset as KoЯn or KoRn, is an American Nu metal band from Bakersfield California, and is often credited with popularizing Papa Roach is a four-piece rock band from Atlanta Georgia. They broke into the mainstream with their three times platinum major-label debut album Infest Limp Bizkit is an American Nu metal band from Jacksonville, Florida. Slipknot is an American band from Des Moines Iowa. Slipknot consists of nine members the current band members are Sid Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and The mix demonstrated that "pancultural metal could pay off. " Nu metal gained mainstream success through heavy MTV rotation and Ozzy Osbourne's 1996 introduction of Ozzfest, which led the media to talk of a resurgence of heavy metal. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. Ozzfest is an annual festival tour of the United States (and in some years Europe) featuring performances by many heavy metal and Hard rock  That year, Korn released Life Is Peachy, the first nu metal album to reach the top 10; two years later, the band's Follow the Leader hit number 1. Life Is Peachy is Korn 's second album The album was released on October 15, 1996 through Immortal / Epic Records and Follow the Leader is Korn 's third album and a departure from their first two albums in sound and production In 1999, Billboard noted that there were more than 500 specialty metal radio shows in the U. S. , nearly three times as many as ten years before.  While nu metal was widely popular early in the 2000s, traditional metal fans did not fully embrace the style.  By early 2003, the movement had clearly passed its peak, though several nu metal acts, as well as bands with related styles, such as System of a Down, retained substantial followings. System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) is an Armenian American rock band formed in 1994 in 
Metalcore, an originally American hybrid of thrash metal, melodic death metal, and hardcore punk, emerged as a commercial force in 2002–3. Metalcore is an umbrella term used to describe fusion genres that incorporate elements of the Hardcore punk and heavy metal genres Melodic death metal (also referred to as melodeath) is a Subgenre of Death metal which combines the melody of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s It is rooted in the crossover thrash style developed by bands such as Suicidal Tendencies, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, and Stormtroopers of Death in the mid-1980s. Suicidal Tendencies (also known as ST or Suicidal) is an American Hardcore punk and heavy metal band Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (also known as DRI) are a Crossover thrash band that formed in 1982  Through the 1990s, metalcore was mostly an underground phenomenon, but by 2004 it had become popular enough that Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache and Shadows Fall's The War Within debuted at numbers 21 and 20, respectively, on the Billboard album chart. Killswitch Engage (often abbreviated as KSE or Killswitch) is a Metalcore band from Westfield Massachusetts. The End of Heartache is the 2004 album by American Metalcore band Killswitch Engage. Shadows Fall is an American heavy metal band formed in Springfield, Massachusetts in late 1995 This article is about the album For other uses see ' The War Within (disambiguation.  Bullet for My Valentine, from Wales, reached similar heights on the British album chart with The Poison (2005). Bullet for My Valentine is an award-wining four-piece Metalcore band from Bridgend, Wales. The Poison is the debut album by Welsh Metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine. In recent years, metalcore bands have received prominent slots at Ozzfest and Download Festival. The Download Festival is a three day Music festival held annually at Donington Park (which hosted the Monsters of Rock Festivals between 1980 and 1996 Lamb of God, with a related blend of metal styles, broke into the Billboard top 10 in 2006 with Sacrament. Lamb of God is an American heavy metal band formed in 1990 in Richmond Sacrament is the Grammy Award nominated fourth Studio album from the American metal band Lamb of God. The success of these bands and others such as Mastodon has inspired claims of a metal revival in the United States, dubbed by some critics the "New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Mastodon is a Grammy -nominated heavy metal band and are one of the most notable bands in the New Wave of American Heavy Metal. The New Wave of American Heavy Metal (abbreviated as NWOAHM or NWoAHM) is a movement in Heavy metal music that originated in the United States "
In Europe, especially Germany and Scandinavia, metal continues to be broadly popular. Acts such as the thrash shredding group The Haunted, melodic death metal bands In Flames, Kalmah, and Children of Bodom, symphonic extreme metal acts Dimmu Borgir and Cradle of Filth, and power metal group HammerFall have been very successful in recent years. The Haunted is a Swedish Thrash metal band formed in 1996 in Gothenburg, Sweeden. In Flames is a Death metal band formed in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1990 and is considered to be a pioneer and major influence to the melodic death metal genre Kalmah is a Melodic death metal band from Oulu, Finland that formed in 1998 Children of Bodom is a Finnish Melodic death metal band from Espoo, Finland formed in 1993 Dimmu Borgir (ˌdɪmuːˈbɔːrɡɪr is a Symphonic black metal band from Norway. For The C J Cherryh novel see The Gene Wars universe. HammerFall is a Power metal band from Gothenburg, Sweden In English-speaking countries, the term "retro-metal" has been applied to such bands as England's The Darkness and Australia's Wolfmother. The Darkness were a multi- BRIT Award -winning British Hard rock / Glam rock band  The Darkness's Permission to Land (2003), described as an "eerily realistic simulation of '80s metal and '70s glam," topped the UK charts, going quintuple platinum. Permission to Land is the debut album of The Darkness. It was released on July 7, 2003 and became an almost-instant success reaching No Wolfmother's self-titled 2005 debut album had "Deep Purple-ish organs," "Jimmy Page-worthy chordal riffing," and lead singer Andrew Stockdale howling "notes that Robert Plant can't reach anymore. Andrew James Stockdale (born 20 July 1976 is an Australian musician best known as the singer and guitarist of Wolfmother. " "Woman," a track from the album, won for Best Hard Rock Performance at the 2007 Grammy Awards, while Slayer's "Eyes of the Insane" won for Best Metal Performance. The Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance has been awarded since 1990. This page lists the nominees for the Grammy Awards of 2007. The winner of each category is shown in bold text. " Eyes of the Insane " is a 2006 single by American Thrash metal band Slayer, taken from their 2006 album Christ Illusion The Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance has been awarded since 1989. In 2008, Slayer won the Best Metal Performance award again, for "Final Six".